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Florida State / Office of Research / PAL / published research

Research has shown that music has a profound effect on the human body and psyche. The practice of music therapy is based on well-researched clinical and empirical evidence. There is evidence-based proof that music can aid in many different areas, such as pain management, depression, and anxiety. Scientific studies show that music can actually stimulate the activity of the brain and that lullabies are soothing, rhythmic stimuli that help with the organization of the brain. Music has been shown to produce a calming experience for infants in the NICU, allowing them to return to quiet sleep more quickly following stressful medical procedures.

Clinical Studies

-Standley, J.M. (2000). "The effect of contingent music to increase non-nutritive sucking of premature infants." Pediatric Nursing, 26(5), 493-495, 498-499.

-Standley, J.M. (2003). "The effect of music-reinforced non-nutritive sucking on feeding rate of premature infants." Journal of Pediatric Nursing, 18(3), 169-173.

-Standley, J., Cassidy, J., Grant, R., Cevasco, A., Szuch, C., Nguyen, J., Walworth, D., Procelli, D., Jarred, J., Adams, K. (accepted). "The effect of music reinforcement for non-nutritive sucking via the PAL® (Pacifier-Activated Lullabies Apparatus) on achievement of oral feeding by premature infants in the NICU." Pediatric Nursing. June 2010

-Cevasco AM, Grant RE. "Effects of the pacifier activated lullaby on weight gain of premature infants." J Music Therapy, 2005 Summer;42(2):123-39.

-Whipple J. "The effect of music-reinforced nonnutritive sucking on state of preterm, low birthweight infants experiencing heelstick." J Music Therapy, 2008 Fall;45(3):227-72.