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Name Investigator Tech ID Licensing Manager Name Micensing Manager Email Description Tags
A Practical Process to Densify High Temperature Superconducting Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+x (2212) Round Wire Before Coil Winding Maxime Matras 15-257 Abby Queale <p>This invention describes the processing of Bi2Sr2CuO<sub>6+x </sub>(2122) oxide superconducting round wires so as to obtain a magnet with a dense and stable winding pack mad of dense, highly-textured oxide superconductor with high critical current density.</p> <p>The present invention overcomes the limitations of the prior art by pre-densifying the 2212 wire before it is wound on the coil form. The invention significantly reduces, and can even eliminate, the decrease in wire diameter that occurs during the final heat treatment when the coil receives its final OP heat treatment, thus avoiding changes to the geometry of the coil.</p> <p>The advantages of round wire, compared to tape, are its ability to be twisted, its electromagnetic isotrpy and its ability to be easily cabled.</p>
Defect Irrelevant Winding Technique for High Temperature Superconductor Magnet Seungyong Hahn 16-100 Abby Queale <p>Conventional high temperature superconductor (HTS) magnets have been constructed with a defect free and continuous piece of HTS wire, a primary cost driver for HTS magnets. To meet the length requirements of the HTS wire, multiple short pieces of HTS wires may be spliced by soldering. This approach creates multiple bumps in the hTS winding where the pieces are soldered together. These bumps prove unfavorable in the mechanical perspective for high field magnets.</p> <p>To reduce the cost and to manufacture mechanically more robust HTS magnets, this invention proposes a technique to build an HTS magnet with HTS wires having multiple defects. It even allows discontinuity of wire within an NI HTS winding, which is effective in elimination of resistive splices beneficial from a mechanical perspective particularly for high field magnets.</p>
Novel Coatings for Superconducting Magnet Superconducting Wires and Tapes Thomas Painter 15-225 Abby Queale <p>The present technology employs electrically insulating coatings on the superconducting wire. The novel technology employs semiconducting or resistive coatings in lieu of insulating coatings which allows smaller, more compact, and less expensive electromagnets and also allows the opportunity to eliminate expensive and complicated quench protection systems. Resistive coatings mitigate delays in reaching full field during ramping and minimize eddy current losses in the superconducting magnet during field changes in comparison to no-insulation coatings.</p> <h2>Advantages:</h2> <ul> <li>Enable faster ramping times compared to no-insulation coils</li> <li>Resistive coatings mitigate delays in reaching full field during ramping and minimize eddy current losses during field changes</li> <li>Enable a more compact superconducting magnet which allows higher magnetic fields by reducing the amount of superconducting material required to achieve a given magnetic field and by reducing the ancillary system requirements for cryostats and refrigeration</li> <li>Enable the superconducting coil to be self-protected</li> </ul>
Silica Gel Isolation of Interfacial Material from Organic Matrices Ryan Rodgers 12-205 Abby Queale <p>The present invention determines the species within a crude oil sample that exist at the crude oil/water interface of an emulsion. It addresses the need of the chemical company and oil producer to identify the species within a crude oil that contribute to emulsion formation during production and refining operations. It allows the isolation of large amounts of material that was previously unobtainable.</p> <h2>Advantages:</h2> <ul> <li>This technology is faster, easier to perform, and less expensive than existing interfacial material isolation technology.</li> </ul>
Optoelectric Switch and PV-effect from Dual Schottky Diodes in Ambipolar MoSe2 Field-Effect Transistors Luis Balicas 15-146 Abby Queale <p>The present technology describes a light-induced diode-like response in multi-layered MoSe2 field-effect transistors. The sense of current rectification can be controlled by the back-gate voltage which is able to modulate the relative amplitude between both Schottky barriers at the electrical contacts. This effect corresponds to a new form of optoelectronic switch or gate that also yields a photovoltaic response. In addition, one can harvest photovoltaic currents from such devices based on transition metal dichalcogenides without requiring PN-junctions. In fact, research suggests that the photovoltaic efficiency can be increased by just increasing the relative asymmetry between both Schottky barriers in these field-effect transistors.  This new electro-optical effect, namely light induced diode behavior whose sense of current rectification is controllable by a gate voltage, produces a new type of optoelectronic switch having a potential for technological applications.</p>
Flow-Through Lipid Nanotube Arrays for Structure-Function Studies of Membrane Proteins by Solid State NMR Timothy Cross 07-043 Abby Queale <p>The proposed invention is a novel solid state NMR based technology that takes advantage of a recent finding that uses Anodic Aluminum Oxide (AAO) nano-porous filters to uniformly align membrane proteins in the NMR spectrometer. The technology is similar to SAR by NMR but is applicable to Membrane Proteins, a class of proteins that accounts for more than 60% of all current drug targets.</p> <p><a href="/media/3818/cross2.pdf" title="Cross2.pdf" data-id="6096">Download PDF Version</a> </p> <h2>Applications:</h2> <ul> <li>This novel NMR approach can be applied to all membrane proteins with well-aligned membrane protein samples in bicelles or AAO filters</li> <li>This approach can be used for drug development for all infectious diseases, including Mycobacterium Tuberculosis</li> </ul> <h2>Advantages:</h2> <ul> <li>This NMR technique can be used for target-based screening for membrane proteins</li> <li>Allow pharmaceutical research to identify which protein targets may respond to drugs and which targets are relevant to disease</li> </ul>
Mechanism of Action of Membrane Proteins Timothy Cross 10-130 Abby Queale <p>The present invention relates to the atomistic functional understanding of the M2 protein from the influenza A virus. This acid-activated selective proton channel has been the subject of numerous conductance, structural, and computational studies. Previously, little was known at the atomic level about the heart of the functional mechanism of this tetrameric protein, a tetrad of HxxxW residues. The structure of the M2 conductance domain in a lipid bilayer is disclosed and displays the defining features of the native protein that have not been attainable from structures solubilized by detergents. A detailed mechanism for acid activation and proton conductance is provided and elucidates many observations on the M2 proton conductance. The present invention provides a method based on the comparative study of solid-state NMR spectra in which detecting a change in resonance will determine that a drug candidate has bound to a histidine tetrad of a viral protein.</p> <p>Influenza A and B viruses cause a highly contagious respiratory disease in humans resulting in approximately 36,000 deaths in the United States annually. The only other drugs for inhibiting the M2 protein from Influenza A virus are no longer effective due to viral mutations. The knowledge of unique geometry associated with the tetramer of this protein may permit the development of drugs to inhibit this proven target. Unlike previous drugs that served to plug the pore formed by this protein across the viral membrane, drugs that targeted the channels unique chemistry could be much more specific for this target. The immediate application is to computationally model drugs that would bind with this chemistry and then conduct drug screening efforts to optimize drug binding affinity. Targeting the novel chemistry associated with function of this protein provides a new opportunity for drug development against the deadly Influenza A virus.</p>
Determination of the Distribution of Corrosive and Non-Corrosive Sulfur in Petroleum and Its Fractions Ryan Rodgers 13-118 Abby Queale <p>The distribution of corrosive and non-corrosive sulfur in petroleum and its fractions is accomplished by the separation of the relevant classes of sulfur compounds by ligand exchange chromatography combined with determination of sulfur content in the initial oil and its separated fractions by appropriate analytical measurements.</p> <p>Sulfur compounds in petroleum present in enormous variety of chemical structures. For the purposes of this invention, we define "'corrosive sulfur" as the organic sulfur that generates H2S under thermal stress. Research indicates that such compounds (mercaptans, alkyl sulfides, and disulfides) are corrosive in refinery stress at temperatures between 250-400"C (450-700'F). Thermally stable organosulfur compounds (thiophenes, thiophenols, and aryl sulfides where sulfur electrons are conjugated with the aromatic ring) are termed '"non-corrosive".</p> <p>In the invention, a cation exchange sorbent (either a silica or polymer-based phase) is converted to its Ag form and a sample is eluted into two fractions. The first solvent mixture elutes non-corrosive thiophenics and aryl sulfides while the second solvent mixture elutes sulfides and disulfides. Mercaptans (thiols) remain on the column but can be recovered through additional treatment. By analyzing the initial sample and the two fractions by appropriate S techniques, it is possible to calculate the distribution of total S into non-corrosive (thiophenic) and two corrosive types. The latter consists of corrosive sulfide/disulfides that elute in the second fraction the mercaptans (difference between the initial S and sum of the fractions). Thus, the invention provides a convenient methodology for quantifying the distribution of S-types in petroleum and its distillate fractions.</p> <p>The fractions generated by this cartridge separation are also suited for subsequent characterization of the isolated fractions by the sophisticated methods described above. It is equally obvious that this sequence of solvents can be incorporated in a HPLC separation without any need for back-flushing.</p> <p>Alternate solvent combinations and sorbents are being considered to broaden the scope. Several options are being pursued to determine the most appropriate method for sulfur analysis. The separation has been validated with model hydrocarbon and sulfur compounds as well as with GC/MS analysis of isolated fractions for a number of crude oils and distillate fractions. Once the appropriate S-technique(s) have been identified, additional samples will be analyzed to generate a wider database.</p>
Conical Magnet Dr. Bird and Dr. Toth 05-152 Abby Queale <p>The present invention describes an electromagnet capable of producing an approximately conical field. The conical bore is created by wrapping a conductor around a conically-offset helix. The cross sectional area of the conductor can be varied in order to maintain a desired current carrying capacity along the helix. A single element can be used as the conductor. The conductor can also be created by stacking a series of specially-shaped plates analogous to prior art Bitter-disks.</p>
Design of an Electric Joint Design to be Used in Electromagnetic Coils Dr. Trociewitz 11-119 Abby Queale <p>The present invention describes an electric joint design to be used in electromagnetic coils made with high-temperature superconducting tape. The conductor runs without interruption all the way from the top of the coil along some part of the current lead and establish a distributed resistive joint outside of the area where the magnetic forces are high and helium gas may be trapped. One embodiment of this invention is to solder the conductor onto the complex contour that is machined into a terminal piece made from high purity copper. This contour allows for a change in the conductor direction by about 90 degrees as it leaves the winding pack just by applying a soft-bend and an internal twist without cutting it or forcing a hard-bend onto it.</p> <p>Conventional resistive joints within the terminal region present a performance limiting factor in high field coil design. The problem solved by this invention is the avoidance of heat generating resistive joints in the terminals of coils made with high temperature superconducting tape cooled by liquid helium. These terminals are located at the coil ends in a region where heat dissipation can both generate and trap helium gas. The original liquid helium cooling of the joint becomes thus insufficient causing the coil to either not perform at its fullest potential or not maintain its superconducting properties and fail.</p>
Chromatography- Removing Water Solubility Problems in Petroleum Crude Oils/Organic Matrices Ryan Rodgers 12-205 Abby Queale <p>The technology creates a new stationary phase that separates compounds based upon their interaction with water. Water-active species are "problem" species in organic matrices because they are often responsible for emulsion formation/stabilization in chromatography. This technology provides an easy and quick way to isolate water-active species that currently does not exist.</p> <p>The technology has already been applied to separate interfacially active species from petroleum crude oils/organic matrices.</p> <p>Most stationary phases in chromatography are based upon silica, alumina, or polymers to allow for the retention of compounds. However, no current commercially available stationary phase is based upon the interaction of compounds with water, because water has not been immobilized as a stationary phase.</p> <p>Immobilized water on silica gel creates a consistent product that can be reproduced. Since the stationary phase is created at room temperature (22-25°C), there are no difficulties with creation, storage, and usage of the stationary phase. The stationary phase has a long shelf-life (4+ years) and could be produced in bulk and stored until use, thus making it desirable for commercialization.</p>
Methods for Identifying in Naphthenates-Causing Deposits in Liquid Hydrocarbons during Refining Dr. Marshall 08-182 Abby Queale <p>The present invention describes a method and apparatus to test whole oil to determine if deposits are expected to occur in oil production. The invention specifically address both calcium and sodium naphthenate deposits but may have applications in scale and asphaltene deposition as well. Because hydrocarbon comprising liquids, e.g., crude oil, include a variety of hydrocarbon and heteroatom containing hydrocarbon components, it is often difficult or impossible to identify specific compounds, such as naphthenic acids, present therein. The method includes contacting a hydrocarbon-comprising liquid with gaseous ammonia in order to produce a reaction product, and then isolating the reaction product. The reaction product is then analyzed for the presence of naphthenates by use of an atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometry technique, including, but not limited to, electrospray ionization and photoionization techniques, e.g. atmospheric pressure photoionization and laser desorption ionization. The hydrocarbon-comprising liquid can be any liquid including hydrocarbons, such as crude oil, bitumen, a crude oil fraction, a crude oil concentrate, a crude oil extract, a diluted crude oil, or any other product of crude oil or other similar raw materials.</p> <p>In another embodiment, the invention is drawn to a method for determining whether a crude oil composition will produce commercial naphthenate deposits during crude oil processing. In this case, the analysis step can include comparing mass spectrometry results of the reaction product to standards for naphthenic acids known to form commercial naphthenate deposits. If no reaction product is formed, it can be concluded that the crude oil composition is not likely to form commercial naphthenate deposits. However if the comparing step indicates that the reaction product comprises a naphthenic acid ion present in commercial naphthenate deposits, the composition of the crude oil mixture can be adjusted to reduce the formation of commercial naphthenate deposits.</p> <h2>Advantages:</h2> <ul> <li>Easy to implement</li> <li>The deposit produced from the test is easily isolated for mass spectral or other analytical testing</li> </ul>
A Reinforced Composite Bi2212 Superconductor using an Embedded Internal Oxygen Source Dr. Thomas Painter 09-165 Abby Queale <p>The present invention comprises a method for making a composite superconductor and a superconductor.</p> <p>Superconducting filaments (using a material such as Bi2212) are embedded in a silver-containing matrix material (which may be substantially pure silver). Oxygen-containing filaments are also embedded in the matrix material with the oxygen containing filaments preferably being dispersed evenly among the Bi2212 wire. A surrounding reinforcement material contains the other elements and preferably seals the superconductor from the surrounding atmosphere. The composite superconductor is created using any suitable process, such as passing the constituents through one or more drawing dies. Once the materials are bonded together, the composite superconductor is subjected to one or more heat treatment processes. The oxygen within the oxygen-containing filaments reacts with the Bi2212 to form desired superconducting materials.</p>
Ceramic Electrical Insulation Coating on Bi2Sr2CaCu208-x Round Wire Hom Kandel 13-207 Abby Queale <p>The present invention relates to an electrical insulation on Bi2Sr2CaCu208-x (Bi-2212) superconductor wire used in high field superconducting magnets. More specifically, it relates to a method for preparing suitable ceramic powder solvent suspension (slurry) and thereby applying thin ceramic coating on Bi-2212 superconducting wire by the dip coating process.</p> <h2>Advantages:</h2> <ul> <li>Excellent adherence before and after the heat treatment - HT</li> <li>Thickness ~11µm (before HT), ~7 µm (after HT); Break down voltage ~300V (after HT)</li> <li>No large cracks but presence of porosity provides pathways for oxygen getting into the wire</li> <li>No degradation in Ic values or superconducting properties</li> <li>Long length capability</li> <li>Al2O3 ceramic is another candidate for Bi-2212 insulation</li> </ul>
Mechanical Decoupling in High-Temperature Superconducting Tapes David Hilton 11-075 Abby Queale <p>The present invention describes a structure and method for creating and insulating high-temperature superconductor tapes that electrically insulates the conductors while mechanically decoupling them from the much stronger encapsulant. The concept of the invention is to use a conductor insulation which not only electrically insulates the conductors of the coil windings from each other, but also mechanically insulates them from the much stronger encapsulant. The insulation material mechanically decouples the conductor from the encapsulant at the boundary between them, thereby preventing damage as a result of thermal and electromagnetic shearing forces. The proposed structure allows the encapsulant to continue performing its functions of preventing coarse motion and stabilizing the coil as a whole, while allowing fine relative displacements of individual coil windings caused by radial stress gradients.</p> <p>This invention is counter-intuitive and new because during normal manufacture of a magnet, conductor insulation and encapsulant are expected to completely immobilize incorporated conductors to prevent damage of the conductors during cooling and energization due to thermal and electromagnetic tensile and shear stresses. Such stresses and damage, however, are the consequences of this expectation. Because shrinkage and not adhesion is the functional basis of the identified and incorporated thin-walled heat-shrink tubing, thermal and electromagnetic tensile and shear stresses are minimized at the boundary between the conductors and the encapsulant. This allows the use of a strong encapsulant, such as epoxy, which would otherwise be disallowed.</p>
Method and Apparatus for Making High Strength Metals with a Face Centered Cubic Structure Dr. Ke Han and Dr. Robert Walsh 10-205 Abby Queale <p>The invention comprises a method and apparatus for strengthening metals while limiting the dynamic recovery phenomenon and maintaining ductility. More precisely, this invention provides a process for increasing the strength of pure copper and other face-centered cubic (fcc) matrix alloys while maintaining good ductility. A material sample is first subjected to equal channel angular pressing to produce an ultra fine grain ("UFG") structure. The UFG structure is then subjected to cryogenic drawing to reduce the cross-section and increase the strain density. Finally, the sample is subjected to cryogenic rolling to reduce its thickness.</p> <p>This method attains high strength through the stable accumulation of very high dislocation densities. The work hardening rate is changed by deforming the material under cryogenic conditions. The methodology can potentially be applied to many different materials which suffer dynamic recovery and consequent low strain hardening when deformed at room temperatures. The inventive method can also produce highly-aligned dislocations. If, as an example, the dislocations are aligned with the central axis of a copper wire, the dislocations will have a greatly-reduced effect on the wire's conductivity.</p>
Novel Method for Growth of Metal Oxide Single Crystals Dr. Whalen and Dr. Siegrist 11-129 Abby Queale <p>The present invention outlines a process application for the growth of new, and difficult-to-synthesize, metal oxide single crystals from a molten metal flux. This new method of growth applies a chemical pressure in the form of a molten metal solvent that is capable of dissolving and subsequently crystallizing metal oxides. The chemical pressure accomplishes the creation of highly reducing conditions in the growth media which force equilibration of crystal lattice energies with kinetic energy losses from cooling of the reactions. This allows for the growth of phases below their melting points and can also be used to access incongruently melting phases. More precisely, batches of individual reactions are heat-treated to synthesize single crystals comprised of oxygen with one or more transition, alkaline-earth and/or lanthanide metals. Stoichiometries are calculated, weighed out then loaded into metal crucibles which are welded under -1atm Argon gas then jacketed in quartz ampoules under vacuum. The entire reaction vessel is heated appropriately then the furnace is opened, the ampoule is removed, inverted and briefly centrifuged to mechanically separate the flux and product crystals.</p> <p>Metal fluxes are new to the growth of metal oxide single crystals and our preliminary reactions have yielded both new phases, and phases that normally require costly, extreme conditions to grow. Contrarily to current state of the art technology for the growth of metal oxide single crystal, this method of this invention utilizes temperatures below 1,000°C and no applied pressure. Since currently known metal oxides have such expansive applications, growth of these materials from synthesis routes that are less expensive or faster will have significant value to industry and government. Traditional methods of metal oxide single crystal growth do not possess the exploratory edge of this new method, which is not limited by the oxidative and thermodynamic constraints of current state of the art "open crucible" stoichiometric growth techniques.</p>
Analytical Method for Protein Mapping using Hydrogen Deuterium Exchange Dr. Emmett 06-103 Abby Queale <p>The present invention describes analytical methods for protein and peptide mapping based on hydrogen/deuterium exchange (HDX) with reduced or eliminated back-exchange of deuterium for hydrogen. The methods include the steps of (a) providing a peptide or protein comprising a solvent accessible hydrogen; (b) exchanging the solvent accessible hydrogen for a deuterium; (c) separating the peptide or protein with supercritical fluid chromatography; and (d) analyzing by mass spectrometry the mass of the separated peptide or protein. Supercritical fluid chromatography enables the observation of fast exchanging hydrogen atoms missed using conventional liquid chromatography methods. Using supercritical fluid chromatography instead of high performance liquid chromatography allows the faster exchanging hydrogen atoms previously missed in HDX experiments to now be observable.</p> <p>The information obtained from analyzing the mass of the peptide or protein can be extremely useful in understanding protein confirmation, protein/protein interactions, and protein/ligand interactions as well as characterizing the folding pathway of proteins. This understanding can be used to build models on protein-ligand binding sites to be used in the pharmaceutical industry for intelligent drug design.</p>
A Convenient Design of Double Resonance MRI Coil Dr. Peter Gorkov 10-066 Abby Queale <p>The present invention describes a four-ring birdcage coil having at least one moveable tuning ring for double resonance MRI. This apparatus includes a low-pass configuration in both channels so that the HF mode only requires a small capacitance for resonance. Therefore it enable easy modification of a single resonance coil into a double resonance coil by incorporation of non-contact coupling rings whose capacitive coupling with the rungs generates enough capacitance to introduce the high-frequency resonance mode. The coil also includes at least one moving ring for broad range tuning in the HF channel. The LF channel is adjusted by a variable capacitor that is not directly connected to the coil, thus the frequency adjustment on each channel is independent. The HF channel is connected to the input cable by coupling capacitor. The LF channel is connected to the input cable by coupling inductor. This alternating driving scheme provides sufficient channel isolation and obviates the need for an external isolation network.</p> <p>This invention enables the production of double resonance coil with simpler procedure but comparable performance. It can be used in multi-frequency Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Additionally, the technique of multi-frequency MRI can correlate the anatomical information obtained from proton density image with the chemical information obtained from heteronuclear image, thus provide deeper insight into the metabolic and pathogenic pathways.</p>