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National High Magnetic Field Laboratory

Name Investigator Tech ID Licensing Manager Name Micensing Manager Email Description Tags 1-Clik License
Transparent Armored Windows and Walls Using Novel Materials Such As Steel, Concrete and Wood Alexey Kovalev 13-166 Michael Tentnowski <p>Presently, transparent bulletproof windows and walls are made of multilayers of glass. These structures can withstand the impact of the small armor like guns and even the impact of the standard military light personal weapon from a certain distance, yet the hardness and antiballistic properties of these structures are limited by the hardness of the glass.</p> <p>The proposed inventions use the known hardness of much stronger materials: steel, concrete, special plastics, etc. to protect against the impact of ballistic and types of weapons. The thickness of the proposed walls is not limited and can be made arbitrarily large, with only moderate attenuation in the optical transparency. The invention is not limited to optical frequencies and can be used in the full electromagnetic spectrum with any materials and lenses. For example, lenses can be transparent only for the microwave radiation or for only a narrow band of the electromagnetic spectrum. The novel feature is a special combination of optical and constructive elements which provide both protection and transparency.</p> <h2>Advantages:</h2> <ul> <li>Can be used whenever both the safety and large field of view is required</li> <li>Provide much better protection while retaining visibility</li> <li>Structural elements can be made from any materials, depending on the purpose (including wood, paper, or any other material)</li> <li>All dimensions are flexible and not fixed in absolute or relative terms to each other</li> <li>Modular design allows for easy deployment in the field and portability</li> <li>Less expensive alternative to retrofitting existing structures to support the weight of ballistic glass</li> <li>Ideal for school hardening </li> </ul>
Materials Genome Software to Accelerate Discovery of New Materials Jose Mendoza-Cortes 18-012 Garrett Edmunds <p>The creation of a material genome can accelerate the discovery of new materials in much the same way the human genome is accelerating advances in gene therapy. It often takes 15-20 years to transfer advanced materials from the laboratory to the marketplace. Our predictive software utilizes unique databases of predicted materials to drastically accelerate the discovery of new materials by allowing users in research and industry to synthesize and characterize only the most promising compounds for the desired application in lieu of experimental trial and error on thousands candidates or even more. Genomes and predictive algorithms for energy storage and light capture materials have been developed. This technology is primed to be commercialized as a software as a service (SaaS).</p>
Tumor Drug Resistance Measured by Sodium Diffusion Dr. Schepkin 12-106 Michael Tentnowski <p>This invention is a non-invasive, comprehensive and individualized evaluation of tumor resistance using sodium and/or diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The method includes conducting a sodium and/or diffusion MRI on a tumor of a subject and on a normal region of the subject- for example, the normal region in brain being contralateral to the tumor. When the images of the MRI procedures have been obtained, the indicias (i.e., sodium and/or diffusion) are measured and analyzed. These indicias are compared between the tumor region and normal region. A low level of the indicia in the tumor region, relative to the level of indicia in the normal region, indicates a higher/increased tumor resistance to a drug.</p> <p>Currently, a biopsy and Positron emission tomography (PET) are the conventional technologies used to deliver information on tumor resistance prior to therapy. The evaluation can be performed prior to therapy and can help select a strategy of treatment but also help in evaluating the efficacy of an agent for the treatment of cancer in a subject. The invention can be used in the brain glioma model but is contemplated for use in different types of tumors in most parts of the human body in addition the agent may be carmustine, though other tumor types and agents are contemplated by the invention. The level of tumor resistance can be determined reproducibly in a relatively short amount of time, for example less than thirty minutes, and the results can be used immediately to create individualized therapy.</p> <p>The invention allows clinicians to avoid ineffective therapies, which may be more harmful than useful or come up with the other more appropriate alternatives. It can facilitate a separation of the effects due to metabolic changes in the tumor at the beginning of therapy from the effects introduced by drug intervention.</p>
A Method for Coating REBCO Superconductor Tape with a Thin Resistive Layer Dr. Jun Lu 18-042 Michael Tentnowski <p>Available for licensing is a simple, scalable oxidation process that improves industrial magnet design and performance.</p> <p>Rare earth barium copper oxide (REBCO) is a high temperature superconductor. REBCO wire holds the promise of making very high field magnets which find commercial applications in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), the food and drug industry, as well as applications in large international research facilities such as particle accelerators.</p> <p>Usually, magnet coils are made by winding insulated conductor wires. Due to the unique properties of REBCO wire, a coil made by insulated REBCO is prone to damage in magnet operation. Therefore, a no-insulation coil technology has been developed recently taking advantage of the fact that the resistive short circuit does not interfere the superconducting current path. Removing insulation results in very high efficiency and allows scientists and engineers to design extremely high field magnets that are exceptionally compact.</p> <p>However, a coil with no insulation has the drawbacks of longer magnet charging times and a higher consumption rate of expensive cryogen, such as liquid helium. This is directly related to its low contact resistance (Rc) between adjacent turns in the coil made by commercial REBCO conductors. In order to mitigate the issues of no-insulation magnets, it is critically important to control turn-to-turn contact resistance.</p> <p>Dr. Jun Lu at the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory has developed a process for oxidizing REBCO wire surface to achieve a controllable turn-to-turn contact resistance. With this technology, magnets can be charged quickly, and have low cryogen consumption. Meanwhile, it retains the advantage of the no-insulation coil technology which leads to very high magnetic field, coil self-protection and a very compact magnet design.</p>
Removing Water Solubility Problems in Petroleum Crude Oils/Organic Matrices Ryan Rodgers 12-205 Michael Tentnowski <p>The technology creates a new stationary phase that separates compounds based upon their interaction with water. Water-active species are "problem" species in organic matrices because they are often responsible for emulsion formation/stabilization in chromatography. This technology provides an easy and quick way to isolate water-active species that currently does not exist.</p> <p>The technology has already been applied to separate interfacially active species from petroleum crude oils/organic matrices.</p> <p>Most stationary phases in chromatography are based upon silica, alumina, or polymers to allow for the retention of compounds. However, no current commercially available stationary phase is based upon the interaction of compounds with water, because water has not been immobilized as a stationary phase.</p> <p>Immobilized water on silica gel creates a consistent product that can be reproduced. Since the stationary phase is created at room temperature (22-25°C), there are no difficulties with creation, storage, and usage of the stationary phase. The stationary phase has a long shelf-life (4+ years) and could be produced in bulk and stored until use, thus making it desirable for commercialization.</p>
A System for Remotely Removing Magnets from Metal Plates Jeff Whalen 17-035 Michael Tentnowski <p>Available for licensing is a system for the remote detachment of magnets from metal plates by applying a modulated magnetic field. No physical contact, heat, or any other applied force is necessary to remove magnets other than the produced magnetic field. The user maintains control of this novel electromagnet system by switching the power supply on and off.</p>
Novel Method for Growth of Metal Oxide Single Crystals Dr. Whalen and Dr. Siegrist 11-129 Michael Tentnowski <p>The present invention outlines a process application for the growth of new, and difficult-to-synthesize, metal oxide single crystals from a molten metal flux. This new method of growth applies a chemical pressure in the form of a molten metal solvent that is capable of dissolving and subsequently crystallizing metal oxides. The chemical pressure accomplishes the creation of highly reducing conditions in the growth media which force equilibration of crystal lattice energies with kinetic energy losses from cooling of the reactions. This allows for the growth of phases below their melting points and can also be used to access incongruently melting phases. More precisely, batches of individual reactions are heat-treated to synthesize single crystals comprised of oxygen with one or more transition, alkaline-earth and/or lanthanide metals. Stoichiometries are calculated, weighed out then loaded into metal crucibles which are welded under -1atm Argon gas then jacketed in quartz ampoules under vacuum. The entire reaction vessel is heated appropriately then the furnace is opened, the ampoule is removed, inverted and briefly centrifuged to mechanically separate the flux and product crystals.</p> <p>Metal fluxes are new to the growth of metal oxide single crystals and our preliminary reactions have yielded both new phases, and phases that normally require costly, extreme conditions to grow. Contrarily to current state of the art technology for the growth of metal oxide single crystal, this method of this invention utilizes temperatures below 1,000°C and no applied pressure. Since currently known metal oxides have such expansive applications, growth of these materials from synthesis routes that are less expensive or faster will have significant value to industry and government. Traditional methods of metal oxide single crystal growth do not possess the exploratory edge of this new method, which is not limited by the oxidative and thermodynamic constraints of current state of the art "open crucible" stoichiometric growth techniques.</p>
Design of an Electric Joint Design to be Used in Electromagnetic Coils Dr. Trociewitz 11-119 Michael Tentnowski <p>The present invention describes an electric joint design to be used in electromagnetic coils made with high-temperature superconducting tape. The conductor runs without interruption all the way from the top of the coil along some part of the current lead and establish a distributed resistive joint outside of the area where the magnetic forces are high and helium gas may be trapped. One embodiment of this invention is to solder the conductor onto the complex contour that is machined into a terminal piece made from high purity copper. This contour allows for a change in the conductor direction by about 90 degrees as it leaves the winding pack just by applying a soft-bend and an internal twist without cutting it or forcing a hard-bend onto it.</p> <p>Conventional resistive joints within the terminal region present a performance limiting factor in high field coil design. The problem solved by this invention is the avoidance of heat generating resistive joints in the terminals of coils made with high temperature superconducting tape cooled by liquid helium. These terminals are located at the coil ends in a region where heat dissipation can both generate and trap helium gas. The original liquid helium cooling of the joint becomes thus insufficient causing the coil to either not perform at its fullest potential or not maintain its superconducting properties and fail.</p>
Mechanical Decoupling in High-Temperature Superconducting Tapes David Hilton 11-075 Michael Tentnowski <p>The present invention describes a structure and method for creating and insulating high-temperature superconductor tapes that electrically insulates the conductors while mechanically decoupling them from the much stronger encapsulant. The concept of the invention is to use a conductor insulation which not only electrically insulates the conductors of the coil windings from each other, but also mechanically insulates them from the much stronger encapsulant. The insulation material mechanically decouples the conductor from the encapsulant at the boundary between them, thereby preventing damage as a result of thermal and electromagnetic shearing forces. The proposed structure allows the encapsulant to continue performing its functions of preventing coarse motion and stabilizing the coil as a whole, while allowing fine relative displacements of individual coil windings caused by radial stress gradients.</p> <p>This invention is counter-intuitive and new because during normal manufacture of a magnet, conductor insulation and encapsulant are expected to completely immobilize incorporated conductors to prevent damage of the conductors during cooling and energization due to thermal and electromagnetic tensile and shear stresses. Such stresses and damage, however, are the consequences of this expectation. Because shrinkage and not adhesion is the functional basis of the identified and incorporated thin-walled heat-shrink tubing, thermal and electromagnetic tensile and shear stresses are minimized at the boundary between the conductors and the encapsulant. This allows the use of a strong encapsulant, such as epoxy, which would otherwise be disallowed.</p>
A Practical Process to Densify High Temperature Superconducting Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+x (2212) Round Wire Before Coil Winding Maxime Matras 15-257 Michael Tentnowski <p>This invention describes the processing of Bi2Sr2CuO<sub>6+x </sub>(2122) oxide superconducting round wires so as to obtain a magnet with a dense and stable winding pack mad of dense, highly-textured oxide superconductor with high critical current density.</p> <p>The present invention overcomes the limitations of the prior art by pre-densifying the 2212 wire before it is wound on the coil form. The invention significantly reduces, and can even eliminate, the decrease in wire diameter that occurs during the final heat treatment when the coil receives its final OP heat treatment, thus avoiding changes to the geometry of the coil.</p> <p>The advantages of round wire, compared to tape, are its ability to be twisted, its electromagnetic isotrpy and its ability to be easily cabled.</p>
Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry Methodology Dr. Marshall 08-181 Michael Tentnowski <p>The present invention discloses a method of enhanced speciation of both positive and negatives species in an analyte. Briefly, the technology is a method to produce efficient gas phase ions of both polar and nonpolar species through deprotonation with the Tetramethylammonium hydroxide and through silver cationization with the reagent silver triflate. The method can include producing a first analyte solution comprising an analyte composition and an effective amount of silver triflate, and analyzing the first analyte solution with an electrospray ionization mass spectrometer. The method can also include producing a second analyte solution comprising a portion of the analyte composition and an effective amount of a compound of formula I, and analyzing the second analyte solution with an electrospray ionization mass spectrometer. The compound of formula I is [NX+][OH−], where X is a linear, branched, or cyclic C1-C10 alkane; an aryl; a heterocyclic aromatic; or a heterocyclic moiety.</p> <h2>Advantages:</h2> <ul> <li>Easy to implement</li> <li>The reagent allows for more uniform deprotonation of acidic moieties</li> <li> Enables the detailed characterization of nonpolar species that are not efficiently ionized in the conventional electrospray ionization process </li> </ul> <h2>Applications:</h2> <ul> <li>Detailed speciation of acidic species in petroleum and quantitation of those species identified</li> </ul> <p> </p> <p> </p>
A Convenient Design of Double Resonance MRI Coil Dr. Peter Gorkov 10-066 Michael Tentnowski <p>The present invention describes a four-ring birdcage coil having at least one moveable tuning ring for double resonance MRI. This apparatus includes a low-pass configuration in both channels so that the HF mode only requires a small capacitance for resonance. Therefore it enable easy modification of a single resonance coil into a double resonance coil by incorporation of non-contact coupling rings whose capacitive coupling with the rungs generates enough capacitance to introduce the high-frequency resonance mode. The coil also includes at least one moving ring for broad range tuning in the HF channel. The LF channel is adjusted by a variable capacitor that is not directly connected to the coil, thus the frequency adjustment on each channel is independent. The HF channel is connected to the input cable by coupling capacitor. The LF channel is connected to the input cable by coupling inductor. This alternating driving scheme provides sufficient channel isolation and obviates the need for an external isolation network.</p> <p>This invention enables the production of double resonance coil with simpler procedure but comparable performance. It can be used in multi-frequency Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Additionally, the technique of multi-frequency MRI can correlate the anatomical information obtained from proton density image with the chemical information obtained from heteronuclear image, thus provide deeper insight into the metabolic and pathogenic pathways.</p>
Analytical Method for Protein Mapping using Hydrogen Deuterium Exchange Dr. Emmett 06-103 Michael Tentnowski <p>The present invention describes analytical methods for protein and peptide mapping based on hydrogen/deuterium exchange (HDX) with reduced or eliminated back-exchange of deuterium for hydrogen. The methods include the steps of (a) providing a peptide or protein comprising a solvent accessible hydrogen; (b) exchanging the solvent accessible hydrogen for a deuterium; (c) separating the peptide or protein with supercritical fluid chromatography; and (d) analyzing by mass spectrometry the mass of the separated peptide or protein. Supercritical fluid chromatography enables the observation of fast exchanging hydrogen atoms missed using conventional liquid chromatography methods. Using supercritical fluid chromatography instead of high performance liquid chromatography allows the faster exchanging hydrogen atoms previously missed in HDX experiments to now be observable.</p> <p>The information obtained from analyzing the mass of the peptide or protein can be extremely useful in understanding protein confirmation, protein/protein interactions, and protein/ligand interactions as well as characterizing the folding pathway of proteins. This understanding can be used to build models on protein-ligand binding sites to be used in the pharmaceutical industry for intelligent drug design.</p>
Method and Apparatus for Making High Strength Metals with a Face Centered Cubic Structure Dr. Ke Han and Dr. Robert Walsh 10-205 Michael Tentnowski <p>The invention comprises a method and apparatus for strengthening metals while limiting the dynamic recovery phenomenon and maintaining ductility. More precisely, this invention provides a process for increasing the strength of pure copper and other face-centered cubic (fcc) matrix alloys while maintaining good ductility. A material sample is first subjected to equal channel angular pressing to produce an ultra fine grain ("UFG") structure. The UFG structure is then subjected to cryogenic drawing to reduce the cross-section and increase the strain density. Finally, the sample is subjected to cryogenic rolling to reduce its thickness.</p> <p>This method attains high strength through the stable accumulation of very high dislocation densities. The work hardening rate is changed by deforming the material under cryogenic conditions. The methodology can potentially be applied to many different materials which suffer dynamic recovery and consequent low strain hardening when deformed at room temperatures. The inventive method can also produce highly-aligned dislocations. If, as an example, the dislocations are aligned with the central axis of a copper wire, the dislocations will have a greatly-reduced effect on the wire's conductivity.</p>
Ceramic Electrical Insulation Coating on Bi2Sr2CaCu208-x Round Wire Hom Kandel 13-207 Michael Tentnowski <p>The present invention relates to an electrical insulation on Bi2Sr2CaCu208-x (Bi-2212) superconductor wire used in high field superconducting magnets. More specifically, it relates to a method for preparing suitable ceramic powder solvent suspension (slurry) and thereby applying thin ceramic coating on Bi-2212 superconducting wire by the dip coating process.</p> <h2>Advantages:</h2> <ul> <li>Excellent adherence before and after the heat treatment - HT</li> <li>Thickness ~11µm (before HT), ~7 µm (after HT); Break down voltage ~300V (after HT)</li> <li>No large cracks but presence of porosity provides pathways for oxygen getting into the wire</li> <li>No degradation in Ic values or superconducting properties</li> <li>Long length capability</li> <li>Al2O3 ceramic is another candidate for Bi-2212 insulation</li> </ul>
Determination of the Distribution of Corrosive and Non-Corrosive Sulfur in Petroleum and Its Fractions Ryan Rodgers 13-118 Michael Tentnowski <p>The distribution of corrosive and non-corrosive sulfur in petroleum and its fractions is accomplished by the separation of the relevant classes of sulfur compounds by ligand exchange chromatography combined with determination of sulfur content in the initial oil and its separated fractions by appropriate analytical measurements.</p> <p>Sulfur compounds in petroleum present in enormous variety of chemical structures. For the purposes of this invention, we define "'corrosive sulfur" as the organic sulfur that generates H2S under thermal stress. Research indicates that such compounds (mercaptans, alkyl sulfides, and disulfides) are corrosive in refinery stress at temperatures between 250-400"C (450-700'F). Thermally stable organosulfur compounds (thiophenes, thiophenols, and aryl sulfides where sulfur electrons are conjugated with the aromatic ring) are termed '"non-corrosive".</p> <p>In the invention, a cation exchange sorbent (either a silica or polymer-based phase) is converted to its Ag form and a sample is eluted into two fractions. The first solvent mixture elutes non-corrosive thiophenics and aryl sulfides while the second solvent mixture elutes sulfides and disulfides. Mercaptans (thiols) remain on the column but can be recovered through additional treatment. By analyzing the initial sample and the two fractions by appropriate S techniques, it is possible to calculate the distribution of total S into non-corrosive (thiophenic) and two corrosive types. The latter consists of corrosive sulfide/disulfides that elute in the second fraction the mercaptans (difference between the initial S and sum of the fractions). Thus, the invention provides a convenient methodology for quantifying the distribution of S-types in petroleum and its distillate fractions.</p> <p>The fractions generated by this cartridge separation are also suited for subsequent characterization of the isolated fractions by the sophisticated methods described above. It is equally obvious that this sequence of solvents can be incorporated in a HPLC separation without any need for back-flushing.</p> <p>Alternate solvent combinations and sorbents are being considered to broaden the scope. Several options are being pursued to determine the most appropriate method for sulfur analysis. The separation has been validated with model hydrocarbon and sulfur compounds as well as with GC/MS analysis of isolated fractions for a number of crude oils and distillate fractions. Once the appropriate S-technique(s) have been identified, additional samples will be analyzed to generate a wider database.</p>
Optoelectric Switch and PV-effect from Dual Schottky Diodes in Ambipolar MoSe2 Field-Effect Transistors Luis Balicas 15-146 Michael Tentnowski <p>The present technology describes a light-induced diode-like response in multi-layered MoSe2 field-effect transistors. The sense of current rectification can be controlled by the back-gate voltage which is able to modulate the relative amplitude between both Schottky barriers at the electrical contacts. This effect corresponds to a new form of optoelectronic switch or gate that also yields a photovoltaic response. In addition, one can harvest photovoltaic currents from such devices based on transition metal dichalcogenides without requiring PN-junctions. In fact, research suggests that the photovoltaic efficiency can be increased by just increasing the relative asymmetry between both Schottky barriers in these field-effect transistors.  This new electro-optical effect, namely light induced diode behavior whose sense of current rectification is controllable by a gate voltage, produces a new type of optoelectronic switch having a potential for technological applications.</p>
Novel Coatings for Superconducting Magnet Superconducting Wires and Tapes Thomas Painter 15-225 Michael Tentnowski <p>The present technology employs electrically insulating coatings on the superconducting wire. The novel technology employs semiconducting or resistive coatings in lieu of insulating coatings which allows smaller, more compact, and less expensive electromagnets and also allows the opportunity to eliminate expensive and complicated quench protection systems. Resistive coatings mitigate delays in reaching full field during ramping and minimize eddy current losses in the superconducting magnet during field changes in comparison to no-insulation coatings.</p> <h2>Advantages:</h2> <ul> <li>Enable faster ramping times compared to no-insulation coils</li> <li>Resistive coatings mitigate delays in reaching full field during ramping and minimize eddy current losses during field changes</li> <li>Enable a more compact superconducting magnet which allows higher magnetic fields by reducing the amount of superconducting material required to achieve a given magnetic field and by reducing the ancillary system requirements for cryostats and refrigeration</li> <li>Enable the superconducting coil to be self-protected</li> </ul>
A Reinforced Composite Bi2212 Superconductor using an Embedded Internal Oxygen Source Dr. Thomas Painter 09-165 Michael Tentnowski <p>The present invention comprises a method for making a composite superconductor and a superconductor.</p> <p>Superconducting filaments (using a material such as Bi2212) are embedded in a silver-containing matrix material (which may be substantially pure silver). Oxygen-containing filaments are also embedded in the matrix material with the oxygen containing filaments preferably being dispersed evenly among the Bi2212 wire. A surrounding reinforcement material contains the other elements and preferably seals the superconductor from the surrounding atmosphere. The composite superconductor is created using any suitable process, such as passing the constituents through one or more drawing dies. Once the materials are bonded together, the composite superconductor is subjected to one or more heat treatment processes. The oxygen within the oxygen-containing filaments reacts with the Bi2212 to form desired superconducting materials.</p>
Improved Thermoelectric Materials and Devices Dr. Theo Siegrist 18-057 Michael Tentnowski <p>Thermoelectric refrigeration requires no moving parts nor circulating liquid. Thus, it is the most stable form of refrigeration as it is invulnerable to leaks and can be designed to fit applications of various shapes and sizes. Compared with current refrigeration methods, thermoelectric refrigeration is much more economically efficient and environmentally friendly. Ultra-low temperature cooling, in particular, requires critical conditions and is costly due to the price of liquid Helium. Therefore, companies, universities, research institutes would benefit from thermoelectric refrigeration.</p> <p>Florida State University has synthesized heavy-fermion compounds with power values that are orders of magnitude larger than that of most competitive and well known thermoelectric materials. Thus, a new generation of thermoelectric devices are now possible for use in satellites and spacecraft or cryogenic cooling at temperatures below liquid nitrogen.</p>
Magnetometer Jan Jaroszynski 21-052 Michael Tentnowski <p>An apparatus and methods to characterize magnetic or superconducting materials having strong magnetic moments and strong magnetic anisotropy in wide range of magnetic field and temperatures. Used for fast and effective electromechanical characterization of second-generation high temperature superconductors (2G HTS) tapes. These coated tapes can carry high density electrical currents and have the potential to transform technologies related to energy systems, transportation, medicine, and for solving environmental problems.</p>
Rotor Cap Removal Tool and Microwave Guide Thierry Dubroca 20-011 Michael Tentnowski <p>A tool to remove the rotor cap from an apparatus (i.e. NMR caps) with minimal damage, and a microwave waveguide was developed.  The waveguide allows the guiding of microwaves inside a dynamic nuclear polarization probe with minimal losses in microwave transmission. This makes it easier to manufacture than current technologies, and at a lower cost.</p>
Electromagnetic Field Visualization Systems Jeffrey Whalen 19-035 Michael Tentnowski <p>Systems, kits, and methods for electromagnetic field visualization that include at least one sensor, a sensor support to which the at least one sensor is mounted, a microprocessor configured to process data from the at least one sensor, and a software platform configured to perform computational enhancement of the data and subsequent augmented reality (AR) visualizations of a magnetic field of an electromagnetic source, such as one or more permanent magnets.</p>
Series Connected Hybrid Magnet Protection System Scott Hannahs 19-028 Michael Tentnowski <p>A reliable and robust system for detecting quenches in the superconducting portion of a magnet or changes in resistance in the resistive part of the magnet.  Once detected, the system safely discharges the stored energy to prevent damage to the magnet and for the safety of personnel. The software has thorough internal checks for disruption or failure, and the software is designed to run on a combination of real-time Linux Operating System (OS) and Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) platforms.</p>
Hardening Low-Carbon Steel Using One-Step Casting Ke Han 19-015 Michael Tentnowski <p>A single-step Direct-Cast Hardening (DiCH) method for making property-gradient low-carbon steel at a lower cost by saving energy and manpower.  An ultra-hard layer is introduced at the surface with free oxygen content before solidification and a specific cooling rate during solidification. Samples subjected to hardness tests after processing showed ultra-high levels (4.2GPa Vickers hardness and 6.3GPa nanoindentation hardness). Ultra-high hardness is achieved by a proper mix of acicular ferrite and ultra-fine lath-structured grains (LSG) and a specific cooling rate, which produces refined microstructure and high surface hardness.</p>
Fact Inductive Heaters for Active Protection of Superconducting Coils William Markiewicz 19-002 Michael Tentnowski <p>A heater placed on, or within, the windings of a superconducting coil. The heater is activated when a quench condition is detected in the coil or a set of connected coils.  This causes a quench region to occur at the location of the heater for quench protection. The heater is electromagnetically inductively coupled to the coil windings, as opposed to relying on thermal diffusion as in conventional heaters. The action of the inductive heater is much faster, so it can be used with REBC0-HTS coils that are fabricated with the No Insulation technique.</p>
Management of High Stresses in Bi-2212 Wire Wound Compact Superconducting Magnets Ernesto Bosque 18-063 Michael Tentnowski <p>Bi-2212 high temperature superconductor (HTS) has very high current carrying capabilities, high field homogeneity, and long-term field stability.  Low temperature superconductors (LTS) cannot operate in fields beyond 25 T, however, HTS conductors retain the superconducting state at fields above 100 T.  Bi-2212 conductors are relatively weak in regard to mechanical properties, but with one or more layers of high strength, heat resistant pure alumina fiber and/or a ceramic film increases that mechanical strength. The fabric layers are strategically placed between layers of superconducting wire determined by computer models of the stress situation eliminates coil damage.  The invention can be used in other epoxy impregnated magnets and is not limited to Bi-2212 conductor wound magnets.</p>
Integrated Coil Form Thomas Painter 17-029 Michael Tentnowski <p>A high temperature superconductor (HTS) cable comprising at least one coil form containing a helical channel formed on an exterior surface of the coil form.  The helical channel extends at least partially along an axial length of the coil and a plurality of HTS tape layers positioned within the helical channel of the coil form. And a method for operating a winding machine to produce a HTS cable comprising a plurality of coil forms containing a helical channel formed on an exterior surface of the coil form.</p>
Superconducting Electrical Joint Design for HTS Wires Ulf Trociewitz 15-131 Michael Tentnowski <p>A superconducting electrical joint that links sections of Bi-2212 conductors. To establish high transport current carrying capabilities, Bi-2212 is heat treated at ~890°C and at elevated pressures. The heat treatment of the wire and the formation of the superconducting joints are carried out in the same heat treatment. To compensate for the pressure differential between the furnace and the inside of the wire (for Bi-2212 densification), the wires ends are sealed.  High pressure is applied to complete a full reaction process and ensure densification of the Bi-2212. </p>
Shrink Tube Insulation Apparatus Andrew Whittington 14-056 Michael Tentnowski <p>A machine that applies shrink tubing onto long or short lengths of wires, tapes, and cables, that prevents dust and liquid from entering into the bundle.  Using shrink tubing as electrical insulation is where the material would be entirely sheathed with shrink tubing. Materials that require shrink tube as insulation are fragile and require special care when handling, so this device can sheath shrink tube onto the full length of a material without damaging the shrink tube or material.</p>
Composite Coating on Stainless Steel Tape for Insulation in HTS Magnets Jun Lu 13-117 Michael Tentnowski <p>Stainless steel tapes are dip coated with a tape withdrawal speed of ~16 mm/s, dried at ~300 °C for 10-20 seconds, followed by a calcination process at 600 °C.  This system consists of a pay-off and a take-up spool with a driving mechanism, a vertical two zone furnace, and a dip tank. The sol-gel solution to powder loading ratio was fixed at a composition that contained enough sol-gel solution to bind the powder to produce thick and adherent coating.</p>
NMR RF Probe Coil Exhibiting Double Resonance William Brey 12-223 Michael Tentnowski <p>A design for placing two NMR sample coils on a single substrate to allow better sensitivity for the second channel.  The coils can be used in NMR rf probes of a type sold commercially.  These probes are used for chemical identification and structural analysis of molecules. </p>
An Article Comprising a Semiconducting Material Jeffrey Whalen 13-090 Michael Tentnowski <p>Single crystals of the semiconducting oxychalcogenide phase were synthesized using a novel crystal growth method. The crystals had low defects and homogeneous composition as characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Heat capacity and resistivity measurements agreed with the calculated band structure calculations indicating semiconductivity, with a band gap of about 3 eV.</p>
Aluminum Oxide Particle Strengthened Niobium-Tin Superconducting Wire Jingping Chen 07-051 Michael Tentnowski <p>Nano-particle dispersion strengthened copper is co-drawn with Niobium rod to produce DSC-1 Nb wire. Wires of DSC-1 Nb are stacked in a hollow DSC tube and drawn to form a DSC-n.Nb hexagonal wire. A Tin rod is co-deformed with Copper tube to form a Cu-lSn wire. m DSC-n Nb wires and 1 Cu-lSn wires are wrapped by Niobium foil and placed into a Copper tube. This entire assembly is then drawn to a finished size. The drawn composite is subjected to heat treatment with a final stage at 650-700° C. The new wire has higher electric critical current and higher mechanical strength than conventional wires.</p>
FORTRAN Subroutine Code for Magnetic Analyses of Superconducting Coils Anton Hopen 11-169 Michael Tentnowski <p>A number of computer programs (subroutines, scripts and program blocks) used for computer simulation of physical processes in a hybrid magnet containing a number of resistive Bitter or Florida-Bitter coils nested within a number of superconducting coils wound with a cable-in-conduit conductor (CICC). The coils forced-flow-cooled type and are cooled with liquid helium being pumped through the conductor. The analysis of the thermohydraulic and mechanical behavior of such coils is critical for research and the development of hybrid magnets.</p>
Process for Improved Cobalt-Platinum Permanent Magnetic Alloys Wiley Horton 05-090 Michael Tentnowski <p>A method for processing CoPt alloys with improved magnetic properties, which includes sealing a sample of a CoPt alloy in an evacuated quartz tube and heating the alloy to a high temperature to homogenize the alloy. The sample is then cooled at a controlled cooling rate, and then held at 600 degrees C. for hours to promote isothermal ordering, and finally the sample is quenched in mineral oil.</p>
Age-Hardening Superalloy with Anomalous Aging Time Ke Han 10-029 Michael Tentnowski <p>A process for age hardening nickel-based alloys to create desirable properties with reduced energy expenditure. The process introduces isolated atom nucleation sites to accelerate the nucleation rate by approximately 36 times, thereby permitting age hardening to occur in significantly less time and with significantly less energy expenditure.</p>
Feedback Control of No-Insulation High Temp. Superconductor Magnet Seungyong Hahn 16-101 Michael Tentnowski <p>An active feedback control system to operate a no-insulation (NI) high temperature superconductor (HTS) magnet. The NI HTS winding technique is effective in building an extremely compact, stable, and mechanically robust HTS magnet. However, the presence of the "partially shorted radial" current path, in addition to the designed spiral path, produced by the turn-to-turn contacts causes a substantial charging delay, and the charging delay produces a non-linear "magnet constant." An active control of the field by active control of the power supply current provides operational solutions for these challenges and is critical for application of the NI HTS technique to actual high field user magnets.</p>
Double SQUID for Measuring Magnetic Fields of Nanoparticles Gavin Morley 05-147 Michael Tentnowski <p>Multiple SQUID magnetometers that include at least two SQUID loops, each composed of at least two Josephson Junctions connected in parallel with superconducting wires. The SQUID loops are fabricated such that they share a common Josephson Junction. Devices and application that employ the multiple SQUID magnetometers are also available.</p>
Frequency Loss Induced Quench Patrick Noyes 18-019 Michael Tentnowski <p>A protection system capable of safely quenching a high temperature superconductor (HTS) magnet coil. The protection circuit provides for a frequency loss induced quench design that advances the protection technology for HTS magnet coils and provides a protection system that is capable of quickly distributing the heat energy uniformly in all the coil sections when a localized hotspot is created.</p>
EnviroOrg Software Yuri Corilo 16-074 Michael Tentnowski <p>A fully automated, state-of-the-art software package for data processing, visualization and chemometric analysis of complex environmental samples acquired by mass spectrometry.</p>
Mass Spectral Analysis Software Gregory Blakney 08-031 Michael Tentnowski <p>Method and computer algorithms used to calibrate mass spectral results from high resolution mass spectrometers and assign elemental compositions to the spectral peaks. Post processing and sorting allows for visualization of the data in various graphical formats.</p>
Iron-Pnictide Bulk Superconducting Magnet Trapping Over 1 T Eric Hellstrom 15-161 Michael Tentnowski <p>Polycrystalline superconducting permanent magnets which are synthesized of doped superconducting (AE) Fev-\s2 compounds, where AE denotes an alkaline earth metal, such as Ba, Sr, Mg or Ca. The superconducting permanent magnets can be magnetized in their superconducting state by induced currents, resulting in trapped magnetization that scales with the size of the bulk material. The magnitude of the trapped field has been demonstrated to be over 1 T.  Over 10 T is possible, which is much higher than the capabilities of permanent magnets and other superconducting polycrystalline bulks currently known.</p>
High Pressure Furnace for Reacting Bi-2212 Superconductor Lamar English 22-012 Michael Tentnowski <p>The stainless-steel furnace is a vertical pressure vessel that is cold wall designed and electrically powered.  The shell has a working pressure of 735 psi, with a 60” tall heater assembly that has six heating zones that are individually controlled.  It has enough power to maintain a temperature of 890C and controlled to within +/-1.5C.  The furnace operates in an environment of Argon and oxygen which is fed at a flow rate controlled through the bottom flange into the annulus space between the heaters and the outside of the Inconel tube. This causes a natural convective flow to occur. Also controlled are the temperature profile, ramp rate, gas mixture, flow rate, max. temperature needed for the exact duration, and cool down profile.  The furnace was designed to produce a homogeneous working zone of one meter or more. All electrical feedthroughs, control thermocouples, pressure transducer and gas inlet are in the base flange while the sample thermocouples and gas outlet are in the top flange which is lifted and lowered by a hydraulic ram.</p> <p><strong>Advantages:</strong></p> <ul> <li>No leakage</li> <li>No gaps in insulation</li> <li>Much larger work zone</li> <li>No penetrations in the body tube</li> <li>No “make or break” electrical connections</li> </ul>
Symmetric Active Quench initiation for Quench Force Reduction William Markiewicz 22-047 Michael Tentnowski <p style="margin: 4.4pt 5.2pt .0001pt 0in;" class="TableParagraph"><span style="font-size: 14.0pt; font-family: 'Times New Roman',serif;">A method of reducing the inter-coil forces that can result from a quench of a nickel coil in<span style="letter-spacing: -.05pt;"> a </span>toroidal<span style="letter-spacing: -.05pt;"> </span>field<span style="letter-spacing: -.05pt;"> </span>coil<span style="letter-spacing: -.05pt;"> </span>set.<span style="letter-spacing: -.05pt;"> </span>The<span style="letter-spacing: -.05pt;"> </span>superposition<span style="letter-spacing: -.05pt;"> </span>of<span style="letter-spacing: -.05pt;"> </span>a<span style="letter-spacing: -.05pt;"> </span>symmetric<span style="letter-spacing: -.05pt;"> </span>induced<span style="letter-spacing: -.05pt;"> </span>quench<span style="letter-spacing: -.05pt;"> </span>and<span style="letter-spacing: -.05pt;"> </span>the initial asymmetric spontaneous quench results in an overall degree of symmetry that results in a significant reduction in quench related force. A<span style="letter-spacing: -.1pt;"> </span>nuclear<span style="letter-spacing: -.1pt;"> </span>fusion<span style="letter-spacing: -.1pt;"> </span>reactor<span style="letter-spacing: -.1pt;"> </span>of<span style="letter-spacing: -.1pt;"> </span>tokamak<span style="letter-spacing: -.1pt;"> </span>variety<span style="letter-spacing: -.1pt;"> </span>contains<span style="letter-spacing: -.1pt;"> </span>sets<span style="letter-spacing: -.1pt;"> </span>of<span style="letter-spacing: -.1pt;"> </span>coils,<span style="letter-spacing: -.1pt;"> </span>including<span style="letter-spacing: -.1pt;"> </span>toroidal<span style="letter-spacing: -.1pt;"> </span>field<span style="letter-spacing: -.1pt;"> </span>coils.<span style="letter-spacing: -.1pt;"> T</span>oroidal field coils are in an array that depends on uniform current in all coils or else an imbalance forces results. This is a way to maintain symmetry in the currents and fields of the toroidal field coil set, by rapidly quenching all the coils in the set in the event there is a spontaneous quench in one of the coils.<o:p></o:p></span></p>
No-Gap Integrated Coil Form for Superconducting Solenoids Tom Painter 22-037 Michael Tentnowski <p>A magnet coil winding that produces compact, high current, and high current density coils with features beneficial to high magnetic field coils. The technology produces more compact coils, leading to less expensive high-field magnets that require less structural material due to reduced magnetic forces. And it protects from damage during quench due to lower stored energy.  In addition to reducing the cost of expensive conductor material, a more compact higher-current density, high-field magnets lower costs by moving the current-carrying turns closer to the coil axis where they are more effective in producing field on-axis inversely proportional to their radius from the axis.  This also reduces the radius that proportionally increases the internal magnetic force which in turn requires extra structural material at the expense of space for current-carrying turns. </p>
Method for Controlling Turn-to-Turn Resistance in REBCO Pancake Coils Jun LI 22-031 Michael Tentnowski <p>REBCO pancake magnets with resistive insulation has advantages of self-quench-protection and high current density over its conventionally insulated counterpart. Controlling turn-to-turn contact resistance leads to magnets with long charging/ discharging delays, high energy losses during a field ramp, and high transient electrical currents during a magnet quench. This results in high electromagnetic stresses that could damage the magnet. Very high contact resistance compromises the coil’s self-quench-protection ability risking magnet burn-out during a quench. This is a method of resistance to charge transfer (Rct) control by coating REBCO tape in combination of oxidizing stainless-steel to achieve the targeted Rc, which produces resistively insulated REBCO coils with Rct in a desirable range. It also mitigates the issue of dramatic change in Rct against pressure cycling.</p>
Magnetic Levitation Simulator with Large Functional Volume Wei Guo 22-023 Michael Tentnowski <p>Reduced gravity is known to have important effects on various biological and physical systems. Weightless may prohibit cell culture growth and cause cellular stressors and bone loss that can negatively impact astronauts’ health.  In fluid systems, reduced gravity can significantly affect the sloshing dynamics of cryogenic propellants in spacecrafts, surface oscillation of liquid drops, bubble cavitation, and boiling heat transfer in fluids.  The positive potential of reduced gravity in the growth of tissue and crystals has been recognized as well.</p>
Symmetric Quench Initiation for Axial Force Reduction William Markiewicz 22-019 Michael Tentnowski <p>Active quench protection of REBCO-HTS, no-insulation superconducting coils by placing emphasis on the creation of a symmetric quench to eliminate the axial force that results from the spontaneous quench of a no-insulation coil in a multiple coil magnet. This quench heater supersedes other fast inductive asymmetry quench heaters.</p> <p> </p>
Force Magnetometer for Reel-to-reel Assessment of Superconducting Tapes Jan Jaroszynski 23-001 Michael Tentnowski <p>An apparatus for critical current assessment in a superconducting tape which is driven by an electric motor.  The current in the motor is proportional to the torque produced by the motor, and the torque needed to move the tape through a magnetic field is proportional to superconducting current induced by a magnetic field.  Superconducting tapes can be used in various applications such as cables, transformers electric motors, and electromagnets.</p>