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High Performance Materials

Name Investigator Tech ID Licensing Manager Name Micensing Manager Email Description Tags
Fully Printable Halide Perovskite Light-Emitting Diodes Zhibin Yu 16-064 Abby Queale aqueale@fsu.edu <p>Organometal halide perovskites (Pero) have been well known for their astounding opto-electronic properties and in their utilizations in photovoltaic cells and light emitting diodes (LEDs). They are highly efficient, have low processing temperatures, and are cost effective. For Pero solar cells, the highest power conversion efficiency has reached about 20%, which approaches the best efficiencies of thin film solar cells. With continuing efforts to improve device efficiency and operational stability, the next challenge is to develop Pero solar cells and LEDs using a scalable printing technique to fulfill the promise of large scale, low cost devices.</p> <p>The present technology is first to develop printed Pero LEDs on rigid indium tin oxide (ITO)/glass and flexible carbon nanotubes (CNTs)/polymer substrates. The devices have ITO or CNTs as the transparent anode, a printed composite film consisting of methyl ammonium lead tri-bromide (Br-Pero) and polyethylene oxide (PEO) as the emissive layer, and printed silver nanowires as the cathode. The printing process can be carried out in air without any deliberate control of humidity; in fact, printing the PEO/Br-Pero in air actually improves its photoluminescence properties. The light intensity, turn-on voltage, and maximum luminescence compare favorably to existing Pero LEDs that are made of multi-layer structures which are formed by more complex fabrication techniques.</p> <p>For more information, please see publication <a href="http://spie.org/newsroom/6512-halide-perovskite-composites-enable-next-generation-fully-printable-leds" target="_blank">here</a>.</p> <h2>Applications:</h2> <ul> <li>Scalable manufacturing of Pero <span class="small">based</span> opto-electronic devices for various surfaces</li> </ul> <h2><span class="small"> </span></h2> <p> </p>
Preparation of Expanded Polyaromatics Dr. Igor Alabugin 15-220 Dr. Matthieu Dumont mfdumont@fsu.edu <p>Current methods utilized to synthesize crowded polyaromatic architecture often use strategies that demand stringent design to achieve control over the size and substitution of the product. The proposed technique addresses this challenge by using a robust and flexible cyclization method in which a functional handle is installed during the reaction sequence to offer means for further extensions and functionalization.</p> <p>The present invention is an efficient process to prepare synthetically challenging large distorted aromatics. The new approach developed at Florida State University efficiently transforms enynes into polyaromatic structures of precise dimensions and tunable electronic properties, solving the problem of selectivity in cascades aimed at the preparation of polyaromatic structures from conjugated enynes.</p> <p>The overall process incorporates an unprecedented sequence in which chemo-and regioselective interaction of the triple bond with Bu<sub>3</sub>Sn radicals originates from a conceptually novel source and propagates in such a way that renders alkenes synthetic equivalents of alkyns. By coupling the cyclization/rearrangement cascade with an aromatizing C-C bond fragmentation, the net result is a convenient transformation of readily available enyne reactants to a-Sn substituted naphthalenes that can serve as a lauching platform for the preparation of extended distorted polyaromatics.</p> <p>The key challenge that had remained in the design of radical cascades was achieving control over chemoselectivity of initial radical attack and the subsequent cyclization mode. We resolved these problems by using the first radical enyne cascade in which chemo- and regioselective interaction of the triple bond with Bu<sub>3</sub>Sn radicals originates from a novel 1,2 metallotropic shift.</p> <p>The use of alkenes assists in the elimination of a radical leaving group via scission at the end of the cascade, aromatizing the final product without the need for external oxidants. This selective radical transformation opens a new approach for the controlled transformation of enynes into polycyclic distorted aromatics of tunable dimensions.</p> <h2>Advantages:</h2> <ul> <li>The feasibility with which the scission of strong C-C bonds is accomplished under mild conditions.</li> <li>Provides a convenient and efficient method to synthesize large distorted aromatics and polycyclic ribbons of tunable dimensions.</li> <li>Installation of Bu<sub>3</sub>Sn at a specific position and conversion of readily available enynes into highly valuable a-Sn naphthalene derivatives in high yields in a single cascade step</li> </ul>
Controlled Thickness of Hard-soft Shell Nano Magnets for Increased Energy Product Geoffrey F. Strouse 16-005 Matthieu Dumont mfdumont@fsu.edu <p>High performance magnets are critical components in energy technologies. Growing awareness of economic limitations associated with rare-earth containing materials has stimulated innovative research efforts to replace rare earth containing magnets.</p> <p>With this in mind and the need to outperform current technologies by developing larger energy products, nanostructured magnets consisting of hard-soft single domain cores using transition metals is a viable solution.</p> <p>It has been postulated that patterned nanocomposites consisting of hard and soft magnetic domains can achieve a 6-fold improvement in energy product over simple hard magnets due to magnetic exchange behavior at the nanoscale.</p> <p>We have developed synthetic protocols that allow the isolation of soluble, mesoscale assembled hard-soft core shell exchange spring magnets. The materials are produced in a unique way allowing for control of the shell thickness which increases both magnetic remnance and coercivity providing a dramatic increase in the energy product value.  FePt/Co is one such example. A 5nm hard magnetic FePt core and a soft magnetic 0.6-2.3 nm thick Co shell were chemically prepared. The variation in shell thickness allows the achievement of double the coercivity which generates approximately a 3.5-fold increase in the energy product for FePt/Co relative to FePt.</p>
Controlling the Architecture, Coordination and Reactivity of Nanoparticle Coating Starting from an Aminoacid Precursor Hedi Mattoussi 16-065 Matthieu Dumont mfdumon@fsu.edu <p><span>We have developed a versatile strategy to prepare a series of multi-coordinating and multifunctional ligands optimized for the surface-functionalization of luminescent quantum dots (DGs) and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) alike. Our two new sets of multi-dentate ligands can promote the dispersion of both QDs and gold nanoparticles in buffer media with colloidal stability over a broad range of conditions, while conferring compactness and biocompatibility. </span></p> <p><span>The present synthetic scheme starts from L-aspartic acid to develop a versatile platform that allows the controllable coupling of one or more LA groups, one or more polyethylene glycol (PEG) moieties, along with terminal reactive groups, yielding a series of molecular-scale ligands with various architectures and selective reactivity. By attaching various combinations of lipoic acid and PEG chains on the aspartic acid, via peptide coupling chemistry, we have prepared a series of reactive ligands presenting either one PEG chain appended with multiple lipoic acid, or multiple PEG chains attached onto one lipoic acid. </span></p> <h2>Advantages:</h2> <ul> <li><span>Offers a simpler version for preparing bis(LA-appended ligands compared to the Michael addition reaction we have previously employed </span></li> <li><span>Provides high reaction efficiency at each reaction step, the ligand synthesis can be easily scaled up and various functional groups can be attached easily </span></li> <li><span>Ligands are fully compatible with a mild photoligation strategy to promote the in-situ ligand exchange and phase transfer of hydrophobic QDs to buffer media</span></li> </ul>
Cyrogenic Heat Sink for Helium Gas Cooled Superconducting Power Devices Danny Crook and Sastry Pamidi 13-040 Robby Freeborn-Scott cfreebornscott@fsu.edu <p>Power cables have terminations on each end to maintain dielectric integrity. Terminations interconnect the power cable with its high electric field to air-insulated components with lower electric fields and changing ambient conditions. In the case of a superconducting power cable, the terminations act as an interface between the cable and the grid.  In addition, these terminations manage the thermal gradient from the cryogenic temperature components to the ambient temperature components. The terminations additionally need to link the cryogenic environment in the cable with the ambient temperature environment of the non-superconducting elements of the power system, such as copper cables, power transformers, circuit breakers, instrumentation transformers, and disconnect switches.</p> <p>Superconducting power devices, such as cables, fault current limiters, or transfers, need feedthroughs that connect them with other elements of the power system that stay at ambient temperature. The higher temperatures of these components cause substantial heat influx into the terminations and consequently into the superconducting cable if no countermeasure is installed.</p> <p>The new technology developed, which solves these issues, comprises a method of maintaining an operating cryogenic temperature range of a low temperature system (e.g., including a superconductor). A heat intercept is attached to the lower temperature system that is temperature critical. This part may be, for example, the termination or intersection point between a copper conductor and high temperature superconducting cable. The heat intercept is pre-shaped to conform to the shape of the temperature-critical part. The heat sink, or at least the portion attached to the low temperature system, is formed of a heat conductive material. The heat intercept includes a heat sink, an inlet channel, and an outlet channel. The inlet and outlet channels extend from the heat sink, as the heat sink abuts the temperature-critical part of the system. The heat sink, inlet channel, and outlet channel are configured such that the inlet channel is in open communication with the interior of the heat sink and the outlet channel also is in open communication with the interior of the heat sink.  A cryogenic gaseous medium is injected into the inlet channel, such that the gaseous medium enters the heat sink through the inlet channel and exits the heat sink through the outlet channel. Thus, since heat is transferred to and absorbed by the gaseous medium within the heat sink, the gaseous medium has a higher temperature when exiting the heat sink than when entering the heat sink.</p> <h2>Advantages</h2> <ul> <li>Compact design</li> <li>Vacuum tight</li> <li>Low pressure drop</li> <li>Highly efficient due to maximum heat transfer</li> <li>Simple design and manufacturing</li> <li>Optimal for a gas having low viscosity</li> </ul>
Slip Mitigation Control for an Electric Powered Wheelchair Emmanuel Collins 14-060 Robby Freeborn-Scott cfreebornscott@fsu.edu <p>Electric Ground Vehicles (EGVs) such as electric automobiles, golf carts, and electric powered wheelchairs are increasing in use since they are energy efficient, environmentally friendly, and reduce oil dependency. However, when traveling across slippery surfaces, EGVs become susceptible to lateral slip.</p> <p>Our developed novel technology mitigates slip using feedback control. The essential components are the following: a reference model based on mass-damper system, a trajectory tracking controller for each wheel, and a maximum tractive force estimator. The reference model generates the desired acceleration, velocity, and position of the vehicle based on user inputs, for example, the position of the steering wheel and throttle or the commands from a joystick displacement. The user inputs are mapped to force and torque inputs to the reference model. The commanded trajectory is mapped to the desired wheel trajectories using the controller. The maximum tractive force estimator determines the minimum of the maximum tractive forces that can be applied to each wheel by the surface the wheel is traversing. An associated lower bound on the mass of the reference model is used to determine when one or more of the wheels has been required to follow a trajectory that requires more than the estimate of the min-max tractive force, such that it can be inferred that slip has occurred or may soon occur. Subsequently, the value of the mass parameter in the reference model is reduced to help ensure that future slip will not occur.</p>
A Practical Process to Densify High Temperature Superconducting Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+x (2212) Round Wire Before Coil Winding Maxime Matras 15-257 Abby Queale aqueale@fsu.edu <p>This invention describes the processing of Bi2Sr2CuO<sub>6+x </sub>(2122) oxide superconducting round wires so as to obtain a magnet with a dense and stable winding pack mad of dense, highly-textured oxide superconductor with high critical current density.</p> <p>The present invention overcomes the limitations of the prior art by pre-densifying the 2212 wire before it is wound on the coil form. The invention significantly reduces, and can even eliminate, the decrease in wire diameter that occurs during the final heat treatment when the coil receives its final OP heat treatment, thus avoiding changes to the geometry of the coil.</p> <p>The advantages of round wire, compared to tape, are its ability to be twisted, its electromagnetic isotrpy and its ability to be easily cabled.</p>
Defect Irrelevant Winding Technique for High Temperature Superconductor Magnet Seungyong Hahn 16-100 Abby Queale aqueale@fsu.edu <p>Conventional high temperature superconductor (HTS) magnets have been constructed with a defect free and continuous piece of HTS wire, a primary cost driver for HTS magnets. To meet the length requirements of the HTS wire, multiple short pieces of HTS wires may be spliced by soldering. This approach creates multiple bumps in the hTS winding where the pieces are soldered together. These bumps prove unfavorable in the mechanical perspective for high field magnets.</p> <p>To reduce the cost and to manufacture mechanically more robust HTS magnets, this invention proposes a technique to build an HTS magnet with HTS wires having multiple defects. It even allows discontinuity of wire within an NI HTS winding, which is effective in elimination of resistive splices beneficial from a mechanical perspective particularly for high field magnets.</p>
Single Layer Emitting Diodes Using Organometal Halide Perovskite/Ionic- Conducting Polymer Composite Zhibin Yu 15-231 Abby Queale aqueale@fsu.edu <p>Organometal halide perovskite (Pero) materials have been recently intensively explored. They are ideal in forming optoelectronic devices due to their optical and electronic properties. For example, solar cells with a thin layer of methyl ammonium lead iodide have achieved about 20% power conversion efficiency, approaching the state-of-the-art performance of polycrystalline thin film solar cells. Pero materials also exhibit high photoluminescence yield and can be tuned to cover the visible spectrum, thus they are potentially valuable in light-emitting diodes (LEDs) for information displays and lighting luminaires.</p> <p>We have created single-layer LEDs using a composite thin film of Pero and poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO). In contrast to the multi-layer strategy, a simplified device structure is certainly advantageous in terms of processing flexibility and fabrication cost at the manufacturing stage. Our single-layer thin films are synthesized by a one-step spin coating process and have a device structure that resembles “bottom electrode (ITO)/Pero-PEO/top electrode (In/Ga or Au)”. In spite of the simple device structure, the green emission LEDs with methylammonium lead bromide (bromide-Pero) and PEO composite thin films exhibit a low turn-on voltage of ~2.8-3.1V (defined at 1 cd m<sup>-2 </sup>luminance), a maximum luminance of 4064 cd m<sup>-2</sup>  and a moderate maximum current efficiency of ~0.24-0.74 cd A<sup>-1</sup>. Such performance is on par with reported results in literature involving a more complex multi-layer device structure. Blue and red emissions LEDs have also been fabricated.</p>
Lightweight Sensor Material Systems and Their Method of Manufacturing Changchun (Chad) Zeng 15-162 Abby Queale aqueale@fsu.edu <p>Flexible, stretchable, highly sensitive and low-cost pressure sensors are key elements in advancing wearable or implantable measuring devices.</p> <p>The present invention provides a flexible piezoresistive sensor that exhibits improved piezoresistive sensitivity over other conventional flexible sensors currently available. The sensor is based on 3D porous auxetic materials and conductive materials coating layers. The sensing mechanism is the piezoresistivity of the conductive coating. The auxetic materials provide the overall sensing environment, and the unique auxetic properties enable high sensor sensitivity and larger sensing range.</p> <h2>Advantages:</h2> <ul> <li>The auxetic structure improves sensor performance compared to regular substrate.</li> <li>The unique auxetic properties, such as synclastic curvature, enable the fabrication of large area sensors of complicated contours and ensure accurate detection of signals.</li> </ul> <h2>Applications:</h2> <ul> <li>Wearable sensors</li> <li>Sports protection equipment</li> <li>Medical devices</li> <li>Underwater ultrasonic transducer</li> </ul>
A Universal Method for the Scalable Manufacturing of Macroscopic Nanomaterials Superstructures Changchun (Chad) Zeng 15-232 Abby Queale aqueale@fsu.edu <p>The present invention is a novel technology capable of continuously manufacturing on a large scale of superstructure based on a broad range of nanoparticles. The technology has the potential to be a cost-effefctive way to manufacture nanomaterials based macroscopic parts and components, whose properties approach to those of the individual nanoparticles.</p> <h2>Advantages:</h2> <ul> <li>Uses supercritical water as a moderate oxidizer to remove the catalyst and purify the carbon nanotubes. This approach is superior compared to other technology forits efficiency of catalyst removal and low impact to the CNT structure and properties.</li> <li>This process can be scaled-up to a continuous process to manufacture these assemblies in industrial scale.</li> </ul>
Manufacturing of Superluminescent Light-Emitting Diodes with a Ternary Halide Perovskite/Polymer Composites Zhibin Yu 16-111 Abby Queale aqueale@fsu.edu <p>Halide perovskites have emerged as a new generation semiconducting materials for LED applications. A recent finding at the Flroida State University found by adding an ionic insulating polymer into the mixture of perovskite/ionic-conducting polymer the device can perform significantly better. The use of a ternary composite to replace the previously used binary composite can help optimize the morphology and crystallinity of the perovskite materials, which led to efficient charge injection and transportation in the composites.</p> <p>This invention allows LEDs to achieve a reach of 800,000 cd m-2, 40x higher than the previous record. These devices can also be switched on at 1.8V, 40 percent lower than the devices with a binary composite.</p>
Carbon Nanotube Foam with Controllable Architectures: Fabrication Method and Applications Mei Zhang 14-030 Abby Queale aqueale@fsu.edu <p>The present invention provides a method for fabricating carbon nanotube (CNT) foam, and all carbon prous structures, with controllable cell shape and distribution and therefore tunable properties including density, porosity, elasticity, conductivity, and strength.</p> <p>Compared with conventional foams, CNT solid foams ae expected to offer additional advantages such as mechanical flexibility and robustness, electrical conductivity, thermal stability and resistance to harsh environment, and can impact a broad range of applications such as multifunctional structural media, sensors, high strength to weight ratio composites, membranes and electrodes.</p>
Silica Gel Isolation of Interfacial Material from Organic Matrices Ryan Rodgers 12-205 Abby Queale aqueale@fsu.edu <p>The present invention determines the species within a crude oil sample that exist at the crude oil/water interface of an emulsion. It addresses the need of the chemical company and oil producer to identify the species within a crude oil that contribute to emulsion formation during production and refining operations. It allows the isolation of large amounts of material that was previously unobtainable.</p> <h2>Advantages:</h2> <ul> <li>This technology is faster, easier to perform, and less expensive than existing interfacial material isolation technology.</li> </ul>
Lignin-Based Nanoparticles and Smart Polymers Hoyong Chung 15-122 Robby Freeborn-Scott cfreebornscott@fsu.edu <p>Smart polymers are materials that are designed to have advanced functionality, enabling a host of new applications. The next challenge in this field is to develop classes of smart polymers that possess multiple complementary functions. Examples include stimulus-responsive materials that are self-healing and pressure-sensitive adhesives that form the basis for nanolithography.</p> <p>Our invention includes numerous approaches to developing these materials while incorporating natural, renewable resources, such as lignin, and leveraging advances in polymer chemistry, such as ruthenium metathesis catalysts. These novel materials can offer significant improvements over current production methods of smart polymers and the application of lignin-based materials.  Applications are nearly limitless with properties such as self-healing, shape-memory functionality, and responsiveness to external stimuli while taking advantage of biodegradable, readily available resources.</p>
A Peptide Building Block for P-trefoil Protein Architecture Dr. Blaber 10-114 Brent Edington bedington@fsu.edu <p>Protein folding is a poorly understood science, and therefore, protein engineering has yet to realize the functional potential inherent in proteins. Development of a useful "structural toolkit" for de novo protein design is a highly desirable, yet unrealized goal of the field.</p> <p>A novel 42 amino acid polypeptide sequence has been designed that spontaneously assembles into a homo-trimer, forming a thermostable P-trefoil protein architecture. The polypeptide can also be ligated, to form three identical repeating sequences within a single polypeptide, which also spontaneously folds into a thermostable P-trefoil protein architecture. The peptide is thus useful for either de novo design, rational design, or directed evolution of novel proteins based upon the P-trefoil architecture. The Invention represents an initial successful example of the development of a useful peptide building block for a common protein architecture (the P-trefoil).</p> <p>The peptide sequence was designed using a novel approach, and as a consequence there are an extremely limited number of useful related "building blocks" in protein design. The idea of a "structural toolkit" for protein design is largely conceptual; the current Invention is arguably one of the first successful examples.</p>
Space Efficient Photobioreactor System Jose Vargas 10-090 Robby Freeborn-Scott cfreebornscott@fsu.edu <p>The continued use of petroleum-derived fuels is now widely seen as unsustainable. Presently available biofuels can be substituted for petroleum-derived fuels without the need for extensively modifying existing internal combustion engines.</p> <p>The present invention describes a microalgae-based bio-fuels production system in a space efficient photo-bioreactor. The bioreactor grows microalgae in a tall array of transparent flooded tubes. A nutrient media is circulated through the tubes. The array is configured to maximize the amount of sunlight falling upon each tube so that growth of the microalgae is as uniform as possible. Gassing/degassing systems are attached to the array of tubes at appropriate locations. These introduce carbon dioxide and remove oxygen. Cooling systems are preferably also provided so that the circulating media can be maintained at a desired temperature. Microalgae are harvested from the photo-bioreactor. The microalgae are filtered and dried. Lipids are then extracted from the microalgae. These lipids are made into biodiesel through a trans-esterification process and can be used to make other products as well.</p> <h2>Advantages:</h2> <ul> <li>Compact microalgae cultivation in a high productive manner</li> <li>Reduces the need for land since it has the potential to provide higher biomass production density than traditional systems of microalgae biomass production</li> <li>The modular conception allows for the gradual implementation of the system for in situ biofuel production wherever it is needed</li> </ul>
Reusable Colorimetric Fluoride Sensors Dr. Sourav Saha 10-186 Dr. Matthieu Dumont mfdumont@fsu.edu <p>Fluoridation of drinking water has been effective in preventing tooth decay and improving overall den-tal health; however, overexposure to fluoride poses numerous serious health risks including brittle bone disease and increases in bone cancers. Thus, accurate detection of fluoride levels in water and food sources as well as in body fluids is essential. </p> <p><a href="/media/4156/marketing-document-10-186-saha.pdf" target="_blank" title="Marketing document 10-186 Saha.pdf" data-id="7056">Download PDF Version</a> </p> <h2>Applications:</h2> <ul> <li>Medicine and health applications, both commercial and consumer-oriented, to test for the presence of fluoride in tap water, foods, blood and urine</li> <li>Food industry applications, such as testing toothpaste, bottled water, and food products</li> <li>Commercial product to enable water purifier manufacturers to test the effectiveness of their products more easily and at a reduced cost</li> <li>Municipal water-testing applications, particularly field testing</li> <li>Humanitarian application for use in developing countries with few or non-existent fluoride testing tools or standards</li> </ul> <h2>Advantages:</h2> <ul> <li>Offers both colorimetric and fluorimetric detection</li> <li>Can detect fluoride presence and quantity in a variety of environments including water, food, gas/air, and body fluids</li> <li>The sensors are easy to synthesize, environmentally benign, and can detect a range of fluoride concentration levels, with high sensitivity at extremely low nanomolar concentrations</li> <li>Dip-stick and spot-test forms are easy to use, effective, and comparatively inexpensive to produce</li> <li>Tests are reversible, reusable (with power source), and recyclable (disposable), thus reducing waste and costs</li> </ul>
Alkali Metal-Air Flow Battery Jian-Ping (Jim) Zheng 11-077 Robby Freeborn-Scott cfreebornscott@fsu.edu <p>Alkali metal-air batteries, and in particular, lithium (Li)-air batteries have attracted much attention due to their relatively low cost and extremely high specific capacity.</p> <p>This technology describes an alkali metal-air flow battery system including an electrochemical reaction unit having a lithium conductive membrane disposed between an anode and a cathode section, and an electrolyte reservoir. The electrolyte reservoir can be fluidly coupled to a cathode electrolyte chamber to allow for circulation of an electrolyte solution from the electrolyte reservoir to the cathode electrolyte chamber. Circulation of the electrolyte solution from the electrolyte reservoir to the cathode electrolyte chamber can be accomplished at a rate sufficient to maintain the solubility of at least one discharge product of a reaction occurring in the cathode section in the electrolyte solution.</p> <h2><span class="CmCaReT" style="display: none;">�</span>Advantages</h2> <ul> <li>Low cost</li> <li>High energy density</li> <li>Good cyclability</li> <li>High efficiency</li> <li>Easy to scale-up.</li> </ul> <p>Moreover, Li-air flow batteries are particularly-suited for large-scale grid applications by virtue of being cost effective, having a large energy density, and having a large cycle life compared to other electrical energy storage systems for grid applications.</p>
Catalytic Electrode with Gradient Porosity and Catalyst Density for Fuel Cells Jian-Ping (Jim) Zheng 10-113 Robby Freeborn-Scott cfreebornscott@fsu.edu <p>In the past decade, huge effort and resource has been devoted to developing proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) technology to realize the wide commercialization in automotive and portable application. However, challenges still remain related to the high cost especially the precious metal cost, relative low performance at low platinum loading, and poor long-term durability.</p> <p>The technology developed is a membrane electrode assembly (MEA) for a fuel cell comprising a gradient catalyst structure and a method of making the same. The gradient catalyst structure can include a plurality of catalyst nanoparticles, e.g., platinum, disposed on layered buckypaper. The layered buckypaper can include at least a first layer and a second layer and the first layer can have a lower porosity compared to the second layer. The gradient catalyst structure can include single wall nanotubes, carbon nanofibers, or both in the first layer of the layered buckypaper and can include carbon nanofibers in the second layer of the layered buckypaper. The MEA can have a catalyst utilization efficiency of at least 0.35 g,a1/kW or less.</p> <p>The SWNT/CNF buckypaper based Pt catalyst has shown a good Pt utilization and a good durability under an accelerated degradation test in a mimic cathode environment in our previous patent application. However, this new invention by using the Pt/DLBP with tailored gradient structure was demonstrated even better Pt utilization and stability. Therefore, the fuel cell made with this new structure catalytic electrodes will have better power density and operation time, and low cost.</p> <h2>Advantages:</h2> <ul> <li>Will have significant impact on the structure of future fuel cell</li> <li>Will significantly reduce the cost of fuel cells, because the usage of catalytic material (platinum) can be significantly reduced</li> <li>Fuel cells are capable of providing high energy efficiency and relatively rapid start-up</li> <li>Fuel cells are capable of generating power without generating the types of environmental pollution that characterize many other sources of power</li> <li>Thus, fuel cells can be a key to meeting critical energy needs while also mitigating environmental pollution by substituting for conventional power sources</li> </ul>
High Efficiency Ion Exchange in Zeolites Dr. Susan Latturner 09-002 Dr. Matthieu Dumont mfdumont@fsu.edu <p>Aqueous ion exchange in zeolites is currently hindered by the acidic byproducts that deteriorate the zeolite structure. This invention improves the ion exchange efficiency in zeolites by utilizing polymer solutions that do not damage the zeolite network. The result is an efficient zeolite that is ideal for ion exchange, catalysis, and gas exchange.</p> <p><a href="/media/3827/latturner2.pdf">Download PDF Version</a> </p> <h2>Applications:</h2> <ul> <li>Industries that use ion exchange, i.e., nuclear power, petroleum processing, etc</li> <li>Lithium-ion batteries</li> <li>Gas exchange</li> </ul> <h2>Advantages:</h2> <ul> <li>Increased ion exchange efficiency than zeolites with aqueous solutions</li> <li>Ion exchange efficiency further increased by the use of zeolites with lower Si/Al ratio</li> <li>Operation at intermediate temperatures, unlike molten salts</li> </ul>
Pulsed Gliding Arc Electrical Discharge Reactors Bruce Locke 06-142 Robby Freeborn-Scott cfreebornscott@fsu.edu <p>Gliding arc discharges have been investigated as a potential technology for gas phase pollution treatment and for liquid phase pollution treatment. Ultimately, the practical use of gliding arc technology to promote chemical transformations, such as the removal of organic pollutants in water or the generation of hydrogen peroxide, other reactive oxygen species, or reactive nitrogen species for treatment of potentially contaminated foods, depends on the efficiency that can be achieved.</p> <p>The present invention describes a plasma gliding arc discharge reactor that is useful for chemical transformations in liquids and gases. The reactor may include a housing having a plurality of divergent electrodes, a power supply connected to the electrodes delivering pulsed power to the reactor, and a nozzle that directs a mixture of a carrier gas and a liquid to a region between the divergent electrodes, thereby generating plasma in the region. The nozzle can include a first inlet for receiving the carrier gas, a second inlet for receiving the liquid and a mixing chamber that is configured to mix the carrier gas and the liquid prior to being directed to the region.</p>
Metal-Air Flow Batteries Using Water Based Electrolytes Jian-ping (Jim) Zheng 12-206 Robby Freeborn-Scott cfreebornscott@fsu.edu <p>FSU researchers introduce new lithium (Li)-air flow batteries aimed to overcome major disadvantages of traditional Li-air batteries such as low current density and poor cyclability. The battery consists of three Units: the electrochemical (EC) reaction unit, the electrolyte storage unit, and the oxygen exchange unit which mimics the structure of a classical fuel cell system.</p> <p>Traditional Li-air batteries have an extremely large theoretical energy density, but suffer from several drawbacks:</p> <ol> <li>The Li20 2/Li20 discharge product deposits on the air side of the electrode reducing the pore size and limiting the access of the 0 2 in the cathode</li> <li>The cyclability and energy efficiency of Li-air batteries are poor due to the lack of effective catalysts to convert solid Li20 2/Li20 discharge products into Li ions</li> <li>The current and power densities of Li-air batteries are much lower compared to conventional batteries due to extremely low oxygen diffusion coefficient in liquid solution</li> </ol> <p>The FSU batteries overcome all of these drawbacks by circulating and refreshing the electrolyte continuously between the three units and using catalysts to increase the cathode potential during the discharge and decrease it during the charging process.</p>
Novel Catalytic Air Electrodes for Rechargeable Lithium-Air Batteries Jian-ping (Jim) Zheng 11-160 Robby Freeborn-Scott cfreebornscott@fsu.edu <p>Due to the high energy density, lithium-air batteries have become very popular.  One of the most important components of a lithium-air battery system is the air diffusion electrode. The properties of an air electrode directly determine the performance of the entire battery system. The significant components of the air electrode, which are critical for its properties, include the surface area, porosity, thickness, catalysts, conductivity, and polarity for various organic electrolytes.  Among these factors, catalysts for oxygen electrochemical reduction enhance the discharge properties of the lithium-air battery and reduce over-voltage during the discharge. Thereby improving the energy and power densities.</p> <p>The technology developed is a novel lithium-air battery. The battery includes an anode comprising lithium, a cathode comprising an Ag<sub>2</sub>Mn<sub>8</sub>O<sub>16</sub> catalyst, and an<br />electrolyte comprising a lithium salt. The Ag<sub>2</sub>Mn<sub>8</sub>O<sub>16</sub> particles can range in diameter between 2 nm and 100 nm. The loading of the Ag<sub>2</sub>Mn<sub>8</sub>O<sub>16</sub> catalyst can range from 5% to 75%.</p> <p>The anode comprises lithium, which can take few forms including metal, powder, alloy, etc. The cathode may comprise single-wall carbon nanotubes, multi-wall carbon nanotubes, and/or carbon nanofibers. In addition, the cathode may include carbon black, carbon micro beads, and/or activated carbon. In some versions of the technology small and large diameter multi-wall nanotubes, an entanglement of flexible single-wall nanotubes, small diameter multi-wall nanotubes around nanofibers, and/or large diameter multi-wall nanotubes may be included in the cathode. The electrode can take many forms of a lithium salt.</p> <p> </p>
Sharing Cyrogenic Cooling Systems Between Large and Auxiliary Devices Sastry Pamidi 13-040 Robby Freeborn-Scott cfreebornscott@fsu.edu <p>Cryo-cooled or super-cooled power applications are increasing in popularity because they are typically lower in weight and volume, and more efficient than traditional power applications. Cryocooling is well suited to superconducting technologies (e.g., high-speed accelerators, wind power and flywheel applications) that need to be kept at cryogenic temperatures in order to function.</p> <p>Currently, the cost of cryocoolers is prohibitively high for small applications, in part, because cryocoolers are primarily designed for large devices. Additionally, cryocooling systems are suboptimum in their design because they 1) are based on a “use-or-lose” model that wastes cooling power that is not fully utilized and 2) cannot be shared between critical devices.</p> <p>A potential solution to these two issues involves a new design by Dr. Sastry Pamidi that enables cryogenic sharing of “waste” cooling between a large superconducting device and smaller devices in close proximity that also benefit from cryocooling. In it basic form, the invention is an add-on heat exchanger that is attached to an existing cryocooler through which a controllable flow of helium gas is circulated to “steal” excess cooling power from the device. The helium circulation system enables the productive use of excess cooling power and also eliminates the need for resistive heaters that are typically used to maintain required operating temperatures in cryocooled devices. Importantly, this exchanger will make it easier to run auxiliary devices under cryogenic environments without the need for each device to have its own dedicated cryocooler, thus reducing costs and improving the efficiency of operation as well as creating new opportunities for using cryogenics.</p> <h2>Applications:</h2> <ul> <li>Aerospace</li> <li>Cryogenic equipment manufacturing</li> <li>Military</li> <li>Power grid</li> <li>Transportation</li> <li>Research laboratories</li> <li>Universities, national labs, and hospitals</li> </ul> <h2>Advantages:</h2> <ul> <li>Enables sharing of cryocooling between a large device and smaller devices to minimize or eliminate the cooling waste produced by “use-or-lose” cryogenic methods</li> <li>Multiple devices can be cooled by a single cryocooler, rather than each device requiring its own cooler</li> <li>Improves energy efficiency and reduced cost of operation</li> <li>Creates new opportunities for using cryogenics in smaller devices and applications</li> <li>May be designed into new cryocoolers or added on to existing cryocoolers</li> </ul>
Adaptive Control of Air Flow Using a Piezoelectric Controlled Pulsed Micro-jet Actuator William Oates 10-045 Robby Freeborn-Scott cfreebornscott@fsu.edu <p>Traditionally, structures and systems used to influence air flow include mechanical and/or servo-hydraulic actuators that rotate an aileron or rotor blade to mitigate the loss of lift from separated flow. More recently, active flow control systems in the form of bench-top demonstrations have been successful alternatives to controlling air flow; however, these applications are limited in their effectiveness because their designs are unable to effectively handle the performance variations that occur across different aircraft structures and operating conditions. Namely, these active flow systems are limited to a narrow frequency band and subsonic flow applications.</p> <p>A solution to the limitations mentioned above involves the design of a piezoelectric microjet actuator that integrates smart materials into a microjet to produce broadband pulsed flow with high actuation forces that can be adjusted in real-time.  This pulsed flow is able to better prevent stall scenarios and reduce noise on a case-by-case and as-needed basis for a wide variety of aircraft types. The actuator operates effectively under subsonic and supersonic conditions.  IN addition, the adaptive structures inherent in the actuator’s design reduce the parasitic load on the jet engine to ½% or less of the main flow field. The result of this design is a lighter, smaller, more efficient, and less complex air flow actuator that improves aircraft agility and efficiency while reducing noise.</p> <h2>Applications:</h2> <ul> <li>Aerospace</li> <li>Automotive</li> <li>Military</li> </ul> <h2>Advantages:</h2> <ul> <li>Improves agility and efficiency, reduces noise</li> <li>Can adjust air pulsations in real-time to prevent/reduce stall scenarios</li> <li>Has a built-in feedback loop that enables air to be pulsed at different frequencies</li> <li>Produces high actuation forces (kN) and broad bandwidth (quasi-static to approximately 10kHz) at small displacements</li> <li>Capable of pulsing subsonic and supersonic flows</li> <li>Actuator is less complex in design and smaller in size and weight</li> <li>Can work in compact aerodynamic structures, such as rotor blades and rockets</li> </ul>
Light-Weight Vacuum Chamber Sean Barton 05-080 Robby Freeborn-Scott cfreebornscott@fsu.edu <p>This technology developed at Florida State University comprises a vacuum chamber with an innovative wall structure. Instead of a conventional homogeneous wall structure, the vacuum chamber uses an array of internally-pressurized, thin-walled cells to contain an enclosed volume. The walls are arranged so that when a vacuum is present in the enclosed volume, the cell walls are placed in tension. In this way the potential modes of buckling instability are substantially reduced. The result is a much lighter vessel compared to a conventional homogeneous wall vessel of similar strength.</p> <p>Traditional vacuum chamber designs have been quite heavy. For earth-bound vacuum chambers, weight is frequently not a concern. However, for mobile chambers, weight can be a very significant concern. The weight associated with traditional vacuum chambers can be highly significant in such an environment.</p> <p>In addition to the mobile aspect advantage of having a light-weight vacuum chamber, this vacuum chamber raises the possibility of displacing a greater weight of atmosphere than the weight of the vacuum chamber itself. Such a design could achieve positive buoyancy, creating a rigid "vacuum balloon."</p>
Carbon Nanotube and Polymeric Thin Film Assemblies for Pressure Sensing and Mapping Dr. Liang, Dr. Lu, Dr, Whang and Dr. Zhang 08-132 Abby Queale aqueale@fsu.edu <p>Pressure/force sensing technologies are used in a broad range of applications. Many pressure/force sensors are available, but thin film sensors are limited. Currently, the most common film pressure sensors are either resistive or capacitive, which are both reusable. This new technology utilizes the rupture of microcapsules filled with dyes for pressure sensing to create a disposable thin film mapping.</p> <p>The sensing assembly is composed of a top and bottom element. The top element is made of elastomer-like polymer with grooves that are filled with polymer gel electrolyte and the bottom is made of patterned conducting material thin film strips on top of flexible polymer film. When pressure is applied, a deformation of the material in the top element causes the gel to come in contact with the film strips, which creates an ionic-conducting path.</p> <p><a href="/media/3841/liu2.pdf" title="Liu2.pdf" data-id="6119">Download PDF Version</a> </p> <h2>Applications:</h2> <ul> <li>Seat occupancy detection in the automobile industry</li> <li>Tactile feedback for robots to sense and respond to environments</li> <li>Rehabilitation progress monitoring in the medical industry</li> <li>Bite force mapping in dentistry</li> <li>Measuring force of golf grips</li> </ul> <h2>Advantages:</h2> <ul> <li>Disposable</li> <li>Low percolation threshold</li> <li>Detects low levels of pressure sensing</li> <li>Utilizes ionic conduction as the major sensing mechanism</li> </ul>
Method to Increase Dynamic Range of Segmented Non-Linear Devices Kurtis Johnson 10-048 Robby Freeborn-Scott cfreebornscott@fsu.edu <p>The present invention describes a method to increase the dynamic range of a solid-state monolithic device such as a silicon photomultiplier (SiPM). In this method, the incoming flux of photons is rendered non-uniform allowing a significant increase in the useful dynamic range achieved. The desired distortion of the incoming flux can be obtained in a variety of ways. These include simple non-focused lenses, prisms, interference films, mirrors, and attenuating films. Virtually any device which distorts the incoming flux will increase the dynamic range of the SiPM and combinations may be used to tailor the response to a desired application.</p> <p>In addition to silicon photomultiplier, the present inventive method can be applied to a wide range of non-linear detectors, sensors, or transducers. This invention enables an inexpensive jump in dynamic range which otherwise would only be attained by awaiting a new round of silicon chip production and masking.</p>
Pressure Sensors including an Ionic Conduction Sensing Mechanism Dr. Liu 08-132 Abby Queale aqueale@fsu.edu <p>The present invention describes thin film sensors for detecting the presence, intensity, and/or location of a compressive force, or pressure based on ionic conduction variation as the sensing principle. Upon wisely choosing soft materials-- elastomer-like polymer and polymeric gel electrolytes/polymer electrolytes in combination with appropriate patterning, the present invention offers low pressure level sensing and mapping capability with enhanced sensitivity. The sensor includes a plurality of conducting elements spaced apart from each other and at least one deformable electrolyte bridge contacting each of the conducting elements at one or more contact points having an aggregate contact area. Upon formation of an ionic circuit between two of the conducting elements, a first resistivity between the two conducting element exists. Upon application of a compressive force on the at least one deformable electrolyte bridge directed toward at least one of the conducting elements, the aggregate contact area increases such that a second resistivity between the two conducting elements exists. The difference between the first and second resistivity can be correlated with the pressure or mechanical displacement to be measured.</p> <h2>Applications:</h2> <ul> <li>This invention has numerous potential application in pressure sensing and mapping, e.g., seat occupancy detection for the automobile industry, tactile feedback for robots to sense and respond to environments, rehabilitation progress monitoring of a patient for the medical industry, biting force mapping in dentistry application, or measuring force on golf club grips.</li> </ul>
A Method of In-Situ Polymerization Functionalization of Nanotubes for Composite Applications Dr. Wang and Dr. Liang 08-096 Abby Queale aqueale@fsu.edu <p>This invention provides a novel technique to enhance carbon nanotube dispersion and interfacial bonding in epoxy-based nanotube nanocomposites through in-situ polymerization. The in-situ polymerization reaction grafts peroxide groups onto the surfaces of nanotubes and the functionalized carbon nanotubes or nanofibers react with epoxy resin during nanocomposites fabrication. This in-situ polymerization can lead to high-exfoliation and uniform dispersion of carbon nanotubes or nanofibers in the epoxy polymer matrix during modification of nanotube surface characters. Furthermore the in-situ reaction produces covalent bond between nanotubes or nanofibers and the epoxy polymer matrix during composite fabrication through drafted peroxide groups to substantially improve load-transfer between nanotubes and resin. The significantly improved dispersion and interface bonding considerably increase the load-transfer and acquire high performance.</p> <h2>Applications:</h2> <ul> <li>This invention has excellent potential for use in the mass production of high-performance nanotube and nanofiber reinforced epoxy composites for multifunctional applications, such as lightweight high-performance structural materials, electromagnetic interference, and thermal management materials, etc.</li> <li>Immediate applications include composite applications for aircraft, thermal management for electronic device package, etc. The yield rate using this method is almost I 00% and has the excellent potential for low cost mass production and scale-up.</li> </ul>
A Method to Fabricate Highly Aligned Nanotube Buckypaper by Mechanically Stretching Thermoplastics /Buckypaper Composite Films Dr. Liang 09-057 Abby Queale aqueale@fsu.edu <p>The present invention describes a method of creating lightweight efficient parabolic solar panels and a unique approach to realize improved alignment of nanotubes in buckypaper materials.</p> <p>This invention provides a new method to align carbon nanotubes in buckypapers by stretching thermoplastics/buckypaper films. Buckypaper is a thin film (approximately 20µm) of nanotube networks, which can be utilized in various products, such as composites, electronic devices and sensors. Since nanotubes are highly anisotropic in nature, the alignment of nanotubes in buckypaper is critical for achieving high mechanical performance and high electrical and thermal conductivity.</p> <h2>Applications:</h2> <ul> <li>This invention has an excellent potential for use in the mass production of high-performance nanotube and nanofiber-reinforced epoxy composites</li> <li>The significantly improved alignment is key factor toward realizing the potential of nanotubes for high mechanical, electrical and thermally conductive applications in composites and electronic devices</li> <li>The high-performance buckypaper nanocomposites can be used for EMI shielding, thermal management and structural materials applications</li> <li>Immediate applications include composite applications for aircraft and thermal management for electronic device package. High-performance buckypaper materials are also expected to be widely used to develop lightweight-conducting films and current-carrying materials for electronic products</li> </ul>
A New Organic Synthetic Route which Opens Access to a Variety of Graphene Substructures Dr. Igor Alabugin 12-027 Dr. Matthieu Dumont mfdumont@fsu.edu <p>Several approaches to graphene nanoribbons exist in the literature. However, in all of them the central part of the molecule is built first and then additional rings are added at the periphery via electrophile induced cyclization or oxidative cyclodehydrogenation. These methods are difficult to apply to the preparation of non-symmetric graphene nanostructures.</p> <p>Our approach utilizes a different class of starting materials and different chemistry for the formation of six-membered cycles. In our innovative approach, ortho polyyne chains of varying sizes, equipped with different functionalities, are built in a modular fashion using well-characterized and reliable cross-coupling chemistry. In the key step, these systems are then "zipped" up via an efficient cascade of fast and selective radical cyclizations. The selectivity of transformation is achieved via incorporation of a "weak link" - a chemically different functional group which can undergo transformation into a radical center in the presence of multiple alkynes.</p> <p>Since modular assembly allows each of the peripheral groups to be unique, it will allow preparation of graphene substructures with custom shapes and functionalities.</p>
A Reinforced Composite Bi2212 Superconductor using an Embedded Internal Oxygen Source Dr. Thomas Painter 09-165 Abby Queale aqueale@fsu.edu <p>The present invention comprises a method for making a composite superconductor and a superconductor.</p> <p>Superconducting filaments (using a material such as Bi2212) are embedded in a silver-containing matrix material (which may be substantially pure silver). Oxygen-containing filaments are also embedded in the matrix material with the oxygen containing filaments preferably being dispersed evenly among the Bi2212 wire. A surrounding reinforcement material contains the other elements and preferably seals the superconductor from the surrounding atmosphere. The composite superconductor is created using any suitable process, such as passing the constituents through one or more drawing dies. Once the materials are bonded together, the composite superconductor is subjected to one or more heat treatment processes. The oxygen within the oxygen-containing filaments reacts with the Bi2212 to form desired superconducting materials.</p>
Binder-Free Nanocomposite Material Dr. Smithyman and Dr. Liang 10-047 Abby Queale aqueale@fsu.edu <p>The present invention provides a new material and its manufacturing process to create improved binder-free composite materials having a network of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and activated carbon (aC) particles in which one or more types of particles or fibers is embedded. The activated carbon particles are embedded in a network or matrix of single-walled or multiple-walled CNTs. The highly dispersed and entangled CNT network provides essential high electrical conductivity, mechanical strength and durability which provides for the free-standing and binder-free characteristics. The high aspect ratio of the entangled CNTs allow for the incorporation of micron sized particles within the network structure. The absence of binders, which block surface pores and thus decrease usable surface area, allows for maximum adsorption of desired materials onto the carbon's highly microporous surface. The composite materials may be made by filtering suspensions containing carbon nanotubes, particles or fibers of interest, or both carbon nanotubes and particles or fibers of interest. The particles may be silicon particles, activated carbon particles, particles of a lithium compound, any other particles, or a combination thereof.</p> <p>The produced sheets can have a multitude of uses where high surface area, low electrical resistivity, low mass density and the chemical or electrochemical properties of carbon are desired. These applications include but are not limited to: batteries, fuel cells and electrochemical capacitor electrodes, water purification systems (capacitive deionization electrode, membrane filtration), hydrogen storage materials, gas purification, etc.</p>
Composite Materials Reinforced with Carbon Nanotube Yarns aka Fabricating Reinforced Transparent Composite by Using Carbon Nanotube Yarns Dr. Zhang 11-055 Abby Queale aqueale@fsu.edu <p>This invention describes the fabrication of reinforced transparent composite by using the filler based on carbon nanotube (CNT) yarns. CNTs belong to a class of nanomaterial that has remarkable physical and mechanical properties. Their superlative mechanical properties make them the filler material of choice for composite reinforcement. However, it is difficult to uniformly disperse CNTs in matrix in high content or using long CNTs, hard to align CNTs in composite, and there is a weak interconnection between CNTs and matrix material. By using CNT yarns as filler, it overcomes the problems of CNT dispersion and alignment. The composite could have high mechanical properties and keep the transparency since CNTs in composite are well aligned and distributed as designed.</p> <p>This invention provides a solution for using CNTs to reinforce transparent materials, where the distribution, alignment, and content of CNTs are well controlled.</p> <p>The technology described has two main steps:</p> <ol> <li>Arranging CNT yarns into a desired pattern, and 2. embedding the pattern into the matrix material.</li> </ol> <p>The term "CNT yarn" is defined as a plurality of CNTs arranged to form a very-high aspect ratio, approximately cylindrical structure. The CNTs within the yarn are substantially parallel, in a local sense, to neighboring CNTs. The CNT yarns are a special assembly of CNTs. The CNT yarns could be made by solid-state process and wet process. The wet process involve disperse CNTs in solution and then spun into yarn (or called fiber). The solid-state processes are to assemble CNTs into yarn without solution.</p> <h2>Applications:</h2> <ul> <li>Reinforcing other materials, such as metals and ceramics with/without requirements to optical transparency</li> </ul>
Improved Fire Retardant Materials Dr. Liang and Dr. Zhang 10-135 and 11-109 Abby Queale aqueale@fsu.edu <p>Current fire retardant polymer composites contain additives that weaken their structure. This invention foregoes those additives and adds a single layer of Buckypaper to the composite. The result is a structurally sound, fire-retardant polymer composite that is ideal for aircraft and ships, where fires can be devastating.</p> <p>Buckypaper is a free standing 'paper-like' material based on nanoscale dispersed carbon nanotubes. Due to its low density, small pore size, low gas permeability, chemical resistance and high thermal stability of carbon nanotubes, buckypaper acts as a physical protective layer to reduce fire spread, toxic smokes and gases generation during combustion. The nanotubes may also be applied using a spray method. The chemical inert nature of carbon nanotube also protects itself from atmosphere.</p> <p>The combustion nature of polymer-matrix system is a major technical challenge that has limited the use of composites on board warships and aircrafts. The introduction of nanotubes on the surface of polymeric composites reduces the fire hazard and toxic smoke and gases generation, which allows significant progress in fire retardant composites. Due to the high electrical conductivity of buckypaper, this new buckypaper-added polymeric composite material can also offer lightning strike protection and enhance EMI shielding properties of the composite structure, which is highly desired for aircrafts and ships structures.</p> <p><a href="/media/3984/zhang2.pdf" title="zhang2.pdf" data-id="6633">Download PDF Version</a> </p> <h2>Applications:</h2> <ul> <li>The primary applications of such materials are advanced composites which require good fire/smoke retardant properties, such as composite structures used on ships, aircraft, etc.</li> <li>Fire protection in aircraft where 40% of fatalities in impact-survivable accidents are due to fire, not impact</li> <li>Firewalls in virtually any structure</li> </ul> <h2>Advantages:</h2> <ul> <li>30-50 second delay in time to ignition</li> <li>50-60% reduction in toxic emissions and smoke upon combustion over the composite material to be protected</li> <li>Reduction in smoke can reduce fatalities caused by disorientation and inhalation</li> <li>Maintains the mechanical properties in the composite material to be protected</li> <li>Improved durability and adhesion over current fire retardant coatings</li> <li>Electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding properties</li> <li>Lightning protection</li> </ul>
Heterogeneously Structured Conductive Carbon Fiber Composites by using Multiscale Silver Particles Shaokai Wang 14-012 Abby Queale aqueale@fsu.edu <p>This technology enhances the through thickness thermal conductivity (TTTC) of laminated graphite fiber fabric reinforced composites by applying nanoscale and microscale silver particles to construct heterogeneous thermally conductive paths along the composite's through-thickness direction.</p> <p>The FSU technology increased the TTTC of EWC300X/Epon862 composite to 3.51 and 4.33 W/(m•K), respectively.</p> <p>Silver flakes, copper particles, carbon black, carbon nanotubes, and aluminum powder have been applied to improve the thermal conductivity of polymer resins, and some have also been homogeneously applied in the fiber reinforced composite materials as fillers in matrix. The through-thickness thermal conductivities of the composites produced with these fillers were no more than 3.5 W/(m K), less than the FSU approach. Other changes increased performance compared to other approaches.</p> <p>The combination of microscale and nanoscale silver particles can effectively connect the conduction paths among intra- and inter-tow, resulting in greater thermal conductivity under the similar density.</p>
Mechanical Decoupling in High-Temperature Superconducting Tapes David Hilton 11-075 Abby Queale aqueale@fsu.edu <p>The present invention describes a structure and method for creating and insulating high-temperature superconductor tapes that electrically insulates the conductors while mechanically decoupling them from the much stronger encapsulant. The concept of the invention is to use a conductor insulation which not only electrically insulates the conductors of the coil windings from each other, but also mechanically insulates them from the much stronger encapsulant. The insulation material mechanically decouples the conductor from the encapsulant at the boundary between them, thereby preventing damage as a result of thermal and electromagnetic shearing forces. The proposed structure allows the encapsulant to continue performing its functions of preventing coarse motion and stabilizing the coil as a whole, while allowing fine relative displacements of individual coil windings caused by radial stress gradients.</p> <p>This invention is counter-intuitive and new because during normal manufacture of a magnet, conductor insulation and encapsulant are expected to completely immobilize incorporated conductors to prevent damage of the conductors during cooling and energization due to thermal and electromagnetic tensile and shear stresses. Such stresses and damage, however, are the consequences of this expectation. Because shrinkage and not adhesion is the functional basis of the identified and incorporated thin-walled heat-shrink tubing, thermal and electromagnetic tensile and shear stresses are minimized at the boundary between the conductors and the encapsulant. This allows the use of a strong encapsulant, such as epoxy, which would otherwise be disallowed.</p>
New High-Refractive Index Polymers: Solutions for Next Generation Eyewear, Optical Adhesives and Microarray Lens Technology Dr. Albert Steigman 09-124 Dr. Matthieu Dumont mfdumont@fsu.edu <p>Organic polymers play a key role in a number of important optical applications. Principle among them are as lens materials for consumer eye-wear where their unique combination of high refractive index and optical transmission combined with scratch and fracture resistance have lead to the safe light-weight corrective lenses that are used today. In addition, they are critical in a number of specialized advanced technological applications such as microlens arrays for CCD sensors and encapsulates for light emitting diodes.</p> <p>Dr. Albert Stiegman has developed a new class of low-density, high refractive index polymers that have optical and mechanical properties that recommend them for a number of current and future optical applications. The polymers are hybrid organic-inorganic materials, the constituents of which contain highly polarizable atoms and groups that contribute to the high refractive indices and excellent optical transparency observed for specific compositions. They can be formed into hard monolithic structures that can be ground and polished to obtain lenses and other optical components. Synthesis of the polymers is technologically simple and from easily obtained components suggesting that their manufacture will be cost effective. Potential applications include eyewear and other consumer optical products such as camera, magnifying glasses and telescopes. In addition, the polymers have excellent adhesive properties that may find application as index-matched adhesives in optical assemblies</p> <p><a href="/media/3985/stiegman.pdf" title="stiegman.pdf" data-id="6634">Download PDF Version</a> </p> <h2>Applications:</h2> <ul> <li>Consumer eyewear and optics</li> <li>Microlens array technology</li> <li>Encapsulates</li> <li>Optical Adhesives</li> </ul>
Novel Method for Growth of Metal Oxide Single Crystals Dr. Whalen and Dr. Siegrist 11-129 Abby Queale aqueale@fsu.edu <p>The present invention outlines a process application for the growth of new, and difficult-to-synthesize, metal oxide single crystals from a molten metal flux. This new method of growth applies a chemical pressure in the form of a molten metal solvent that is capable of dissolving and subsequently crystallizing metal oxides. The chemical pressure accomplishes the creation of highly reducing conditions in the growth media which force equilibration of crystal lattice energies with kinetic energy losses from cooling of the reactions. This allows for the growth of phases below their melting points and can also be used to access incongruently melting phases. More precisely, batches of individual reactions are heat-treated to synthesize single crystals comprised of oxygen with one or more transition, alkaline-earth and/or lanthanide metals. Stoichiometries are calculated, weighed out then loaded into metal crucibles which are welded under -1atm Argon gas then jacketed in quartz ampoules under vacuum. The entire reaction vessel is heated appropriately then the furnace is opened, the ampoule is removed, inverted and briefly centrifuged to mechanically separate the flux and product crystals.</p> <p>Metal fluxes are new to the growth of metal oxide single crystals and our preliminary reactions have yielded both new phases, and phases that normally require costly, extreme conditions to grow. Contrarily to current state of the art technology for the growth of metal oxide single crystal, this method of this invention utilizes temperatures below 1,000°C and no applied pressure. Since currently known metal oxides have such expansive applications, growth of these materials from synthesis routes that are less expensive or faster will have significant value to industry and government. Traditional methods of metal oxide single crystal growth do not possess the exploratory edge of this new method, which is not limited by the oxidative and thermodynamic constraints of current state of the art "open crucible" stoichiometric growth techniques.</p>
Novel Method for Producing Ultra Small Iron Oxide Particles Dr. Joseph Schlenoff 12-166 Dr. Matthieu Dumont mfdumont@fsu.edu <p>The proposed invention describes methods of producing, in one pot, iron oxide nanoparticles of total diameter less than 10 nm bearing a stabilizing shell of zwitterion and associated compositions. The synthesis of zwitterated iron oxide nanoparticles was achieved by a modified Massart method by the addition of sulfobetaine siloxane either post-synthesis or before co-precipitation of iron salts (in situ). The particles are precipitated in the presence of a zwitterion siloxane which caps the particles and stabilizes them as soon as they are made.</p> <p>This fine tuning finds mass applications in data storage, catalysis, and in biotechnology and medicine. Detection, cell sorting, and diagnosis using iron oxide nanoparticles have been reported. However, their potential use as contrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or as magnetic fluids for hyperthermia treatment continues to be the driving force for their miniaturization and surface chemistry manipulation. The particles obtained using this new method are super stable and small enough to be excreted so that they do not remain in circulation after the imaging is finished.</p>
Polymer Foam Based Piezoelectric Materials Manufactured in an Environmentally Benign Novel Process Dr. Zeng 13-161 Abby Queale aqueale@fsu.edu <p>FSU researchers have developed thermally stable piezoelectric polymer foams (ferroelectrets) with high piezoelectric activity for sensing and actuation, with tailored morphology, cell structure and mechanical and electro-mechanical properties. These piezoelectric foams have extremely high piezoelectric coefficients and very high thermal stability up to two orders of magnitude higher than other published results.</p> <p>Thermoelectric (TE) materials generate energy in the presence of temperature differential by virtue of converting thermal energy to electrical energy. Combination of different semiconductors are the dominant thermoelectric materials. Currently all research on TE materials focus on inorganic substance and the applications of most TE materials are limited to high temperature regime (&gt; 200 oC) to achieve meaningful figure of merit, which restricts application area. In this technology, COC ferroelectrets can harvest thermal energy operated at low temperature with high figure of merit.</p> <p>Commercially available ferroelectrets are based on porous polypropylene films which has been applied in various devices, i.e., audio devices as microphones, force sensors, actuators and respiration detectors. However, these devices lack sufficient thermal and UV stability. Our foams overcome these limitations.</p>
Polymer Mechanical Damping Composites Dr. Joseph Schlenoff 07-030 Dr. Matthieu Dumont mfdumont@fsu.edu <p>The present invention describes a new method of reshaping an article comprising a polyelectrolyte complex made up of an intermolecular blend of a predominantly positively-charged polyelectrolyte and a predominantly negatively charged polyelectrolyte by controlling the salt doping level.</p> <p>The method includes contacting the article with a first solution to change a salt doping level ratio within the polyelectrolyte complex from an initial salt doping level to a second salt doping level, wherein the salt doping level ratio is changed by varying one or more factor selected from the group consisting of salt type, salt concentration, temperature, and pH within the complex; and applying a mechanical force to the article at the second salt doping level in order to reform the complex into a persistent shape.</p> <p>The second salt doping level ratio is between about 0.50 and about 0.990 and the article is fully hydrated when the mechanical force is applied. The mechanical force is applied by a mechanism selected from the group consisting of piston, syringe, screw, rollers, hydrostatic pressure, magnetic field, and any combination thereof.</p> <p>Finally, contacting the compacted polyelectrolyte complex with a second solution to change the doping level ratio in the polyelectrolyte complex from the second doping level ratio to a third doping level ratio, whereby changing the doping level ratio in the polyelectrolyte complex changes the complex shear modulus of the polyelectrolyte complex from the second complex shear modulus to a third complex shear modulus.</p>
Transparent Armored Windows and Walls Using Novel Materials Such As Steel, Concrete and Wood Alexey Kovalev 13-166 Abby Queale aqueale@fsu.edu <p>Presently, transparent bulletproof windows and walls are made of multilayers of glass. These structures can withstand the impact of the small armor like guns and even the impact of the standard military light personal weapon from a certain distance, yet the hardness and antiballistic properties of these structures are limited by the hardness of the glass.</p> <p>The proposed inventions use the known hardness of much stronger materials: steel, concrete, special plastics, etc. to protect against the impact of ballistic and types of weapons. The thickness of the proposed walls is not limited and can be made arbitrarily large, with only moderate attenuation in the optical transparency. The invention is not limited to optical frequencies and can be used in the full electromagnetic spectrum with any materials and lenses. For example, lenses can be transparent only for the microwave radiation or for only a narrow band of the electromagnetic spectrum.The novel feature is a special combination of optical and constructive elements which provide both protection and transparency.</p> <h2>Advantages:</h2> <ul> <li>Can be used whenever both the safety and large field of view is required</li> <li>Provide much better protection while retaining visibility</li> <li>Structural elements can be made from any materials, depending on the purpose (including wood, paper, or any other material)</li> <li>All dimensions are flexible and not fixed in absolute or relative terms to each other</li> </ul>
Solid-State Fabrication of Graphene Nanoribbons and Their Networks Mei Zhang 13-244 Abby Queale aqueale@fsu.edu <p>This invention is for fabricating freestanding graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) and GNR networks by unzipping carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in a freestanding CNT film using laser irradiation. It provides a novel solid-state process to fabricate freestanding GNRs and GNR networks.</p> <p>Since CNTs are cylindrical shells made, in concept, by rolling graphene sheets into a seamless cylinder, the unzipping of CNTs is a new and very promising approach for controlled and large-scale GNR production. In this process, CNTs are unzipped (opened or fractured) along their longitudinal axes in such a way that the obtained structures are the desired GNRs. Another advantage of using CNTs as starting materials to produce GNRs resides in the fact that the vast existing knowledge on CNT synthesis and purification methods can be used to control and to optimize GNR fabrication.</p> <p>Unzipping CNTs has been practiced in many different ways. However, these chemical and physical methods use strong acids, oxidizing agents, or other solvents. The wet-processes alter the properties of GNRs because of a high proportion of oxygen functionalities or particles and cause problems in device fabrication process because of wrinkles and folding of GNRs as well as positioning issues.</p> <p>Our invention uses freestanding CNT sheets as the starting material and uses controlled laser irradiation in a preferred environment to convert (unzip) CNTs to GNRs and weld (joint) GNRs together to form GNR network. This is a solid-state fabrication process, which does not use any acids or solvents. Only this process is capable of fabricating large, freestanding GNRs and GNR networks and creating controllable CNT-graphene intramolecular junctions. Freestanding GNR networks are transparent conductive layers, which can be transferred easily onto any kind of substrates as a transparent electrode for various electronic and photonic applications. This solid state process is fast, clean, and scalable, and can be developed to a large-scale nanomanufacturing process.                         </p>
Advancing Wound Treatment with Saloplastic Dressings Dr. Joseph Schlenoff 10-019 Dr. Matthieu Dumont mfdumont@fsu.edu <p>The demand for medical wound dressings is universal. Ranging in use from treating minor cuts to traumatic injuries, medical wound dressings prevent infections and save lives. In the case of traumatic injury, current wound dressings often require the application of a variety of materials, such as a combination of wound-filling gels, gauze, tape, and splints. However, Dr. Schlenoff’s research and discovery of saloplastics can decrease the number of necessary materials needed since saloplastic dressings can treat multiple aspects of a wound.</p> <p>The process of creating saloplastics uses salt instead of heat to melt plastics made from blends of charged polymers. By placing layers of positively and negatively charged electrolytes on top of one another, their electrical charges cancel each other out and create a neutrally charged, ultrathin film. These ultra-thin polymer coatings are useful for producing biocompatible surfaces that can be implanted into the human body for medical purposes.</p> <p>Approximately 750,000 Americans suffer strokes each year. Worldwide, that number increases to 20 million people. Primary stroke damage occurs from blood clotting and secondary damage occurs when toxic byproducts, including hemin, are produced from the trauma experienced during a stroke. This condition, known as hemin toxicity, leads to cell damage and cell death that in turn may cause irreparable brain damage or death for the individual.</p> <p>With Dr. Schlenoff’s research, stents used for implantation inside coronary arteries during surgical procedures could be coated with an ultrathin film that prevents cells and proteins from adhering, thus avoiding a narrowing of the arteries and restriction of blood flow.</p> <p><a href="/media/4155/marketing-document-polymer-schlenoff.pdf" target="_blank" title="Marketing document polymer schlenoff.pdf" data-id="7055">Download PDF version</a></p> <h2>Applications:</h2> <ul> <li>First responder scenarios</li> <li>Chronic Wounds</li> <li>Medical practitioners to consumers</li> <li>Military</li> </ul> <h2>Advantages:</h2> <ul> <li>Antibacterial, moldable when wet, and cast-like when dry</li> <li>Low heating temperatures, 45 – 55 degrees C, are needed to soften the material.</li> <li>One material can treat multiple aspects of a wound.</li> <li>Within minutes, the most serious wounds and breaks can be sealed and immobilized.</li> </ul>
Polymer Ligands for Nanoparticles Conjugation with Biomolecules Dr. Hedi Mattoussi 14-152 Dr. Matthieu Dumont mfdumont@fsu.edu <p>Professor Mattoussi developed polymer ligands that are optimally suited for surface-functionalizing magnetic nanoparticles. The amphiphilic polymers are prepared by coupling several amine-terminated anchoring groups, polyethylene glycol moieties, and reactive groups onto a poly(isobutylene-alt-maleic anhydride) (PIMA) chain. The reaction of maleic anhydride groups with amine-containing molecules is highly-efficient and occurs in one-step. The availability of several dopamine groups in the same ligand greatly enhances the ligand affinity, via multiple-coordination, to the magnetic NPs, while the hydrophilic and reactive groups promote colloidal stability in buffer media and allow subsequent conjugation with target biomolecules. Nanoparticles ligated with terminally reactive polymers have been easily coupled to target dyes and tested in live cell imaging with no measurable cytotoxicity.</p> dopamine,polymer,nanoparticle,ligand
Photo-Induced Phase Transfer of Luminescent Quantum Dots Dr. Hedi Mattoussi 12-207 Dr. Matthieu Dumont mfdumont@fsu.edu <p>A method for the photo-mediated phase transfer of inorganic nanocrystals, such as luminescent quantum dots, QDs, is provided. Irradiation, specifically UV excitation (λ<sub class="style-scope patent-text">ex</sub>&lt;400 nm), promotes the in-situ ligand exchange of hydrophobic quantum dots with hydrophilic ligands and their facile transfer to polar solvents and buffer media. The technique enables transfer of quantum dots and other nanocrystal materials from hydrophobic to polar and hydrophilic solutions.</p> polar solvent,nanoparticle,phase transfer
Polyethylene Glycol Based Oligomers for Coating Nanoparticles Dr. Hedi Mattoussi 12-026 Dr. Matthieu Dumont mfdumont@fsu.edu <p id="p-0013" class="style-scope patent-text">We have developed nanoparticle coatings that are water dispersible, have a strong affinity for binding to magnetic nanoparticles, and can be easily modified for attaching the coating to biological materials. The nanoparticle coatings comprise a polyacrylic acid based backbone onto which PEG-based oligomers are appended by modifying the native carboxyl groups of the PAA backbone. The PEG-based oligomers include functional groups on their terminal ends, which are chosen to provide a certain function. Some of the terminal functional groups bind the coatings to the nanoparticle's surface, while others provide reactive sites for binding other compounds to the coating. The method we developed for making these coatings allows one to tune the number and type of PEG-based oligomers appended to the PAA backbone based on the desired properties of the coating.</p> <p id="p-0014" class="style-scope patent-text">In accordance with a composition aspect of the invention, the nanoparticle coatings comprise repeating polyacrylic acid monomers covalently bound together in an aliphatic chain having a plurality of carboxylic acid functional groups and modified carboxylic acid functional groups extending there from. A first portion of the modified carboxylic acid functional groups are modified by a PEG oligomer having a terminal methoxy functional group and a second portion of the modified carboxylic acid functional groups are modified by a PEG oligomer having at least one terminal catechol group.</p>
Self-Assembled Multilayers to Enhance Photon Upconversion and Solar Cell Efficiency Dr. Kenneth Hanson 15-035 Dr. Matthieu Dumont mfdumont@fsu.edu <p>Photon upconversion (UC), combining two lower energy photons to generate a higher energy excited state, can be used to harness "sub-band gap photons" and reach maximum theoretical solar cell efficiencies of &gt;40%. Molecular photon upconversion, by way of triplet-triplet annihilation (TTA-UC), is particularly appealing because UC is achievable even under low intensity, non-coherent, solar irradiation. Current efforts to harness TTA-UC in solar energy conversion are predominantly based on using UC solution or polymer film as a filter or reflector working in conjunction with a conventional solar cell but increase the cost and complexity of the device.</p> <p>Our technology is capable of facilitating photon upconversion in films of self-assembled bilayers, presented in Tech ID 15-001. The films can be prepared by a step-wise soaking/loading procedure that is amenable to roll-to-roll printing for large scale manufacturing of devices. The self-assembled bilayer strategy is effective at facilitating photocurrent generation from the upconverted state. This technology offers a new class of self-assembled UC solar cells that show promise as a means of passing the maximum theoretical limit for single junction solar cells.</p>
Direct Conversion of Phenols into Amides and Esters of Benzoic Acid Dr. Igor Alabugin 10-128 Dr. Matthieu Dumont mfdumont@fsu.edu <p>Dr. Alabugin and his team have designed a method is for the preparation of an aromatic carboxylic acid aryl ester or an N-aryl aromatic carboxamide. The method comprises contacting an O,O-diaryl thiocarbonate or an O-aryl-N-aryl thiocarbamate with a reactant that regioselectively reacts with sulfur, which contact causes an O-neophyl rearrangement, thereby forming either the aromatic carboxylic acid aryl ester or the N-aryl aromatic carboxamide, respectively.</p>
Methods of Constructing Polyolefins having Reduced Crystallinity Dr. Alamo 09-166 Robby Freeborn-Scott cfreebornscott@fsu.edu <p>The invention describes a family of polyolefins characterized by chain-walking defects of the type that add extra backbone carbons per monomer.</p> <p>These polyolefins display a large decrease in crystallinity relative to polyolefins known in the art. Specifically, the reduction in crystallinity is much greater than for earlier polypropylenes with a matched content of stereo or 1-alkene type defects. The claimed polyolefins can be an alkene-based homopolymer, or an alkene-based copolymer and can be made by a diimine-based catalyst or by a late metal catalyst. The defects in the polyolefin backbone are generated by a chain walking mechanism in which three or more carbons per monomer are added to the polymer backbone instead of two, as in conventional polymerization or copolymerization methods of alpha olefins.</p> <h1>Applications/Advantages:</h1> <ul> <li>Plastic wrapping</li> <li>Thin films</li> <li>Co-extrusion layers or molded parts in the absence of polymer blending or copolymerization</li> <li><span class="small">The cost of materials production can be reduced</span></li> </ul>
Impedance Matching in NMR Probe with an Adjustable Segmented Transmission Line Chunqi Qian 09-152 Brent Edington bedington@fsu.edu <p>The present invention describes the use of a pair of dielectric slugs in transmission line as impedance transformers for a wide range of load impedance. Impedance matching between the RF probe and the spectrometer is a standard requirement for NMR probes. Both lumped element and branched transmission line methods are in wide use. Here we propose to use a segmented transmission line structure. It relies upon reflections between transmission lines of different impedances that are serially connected to match the impedance of a coil or resonator to the characteristic impedance of the NMR spectrometer. Two quarter-wave length dielectric slugs are placed within a coaxial transmission line. Adjustment of the positions of the slugs allows the variable tuning and matching needed for NMR probes, eliminating the need for variable capacitors and inductors.</p> <h2>Advantages:</h2> <ul> <li>A successful prototype demonstrates this approach outperforms existing technologies as it can match both capacitive and inductive impedance, as compared to matching only one of the two.</li> </ul>
Metal Halide Perovskite Phosphors in LEDs for Full Color Display and Solid State Lighting Biwu Ma 17-009, 16-094 Robby Freeborn-Scott cfreebornscott@fsu.edu <p>Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) are used widely in solid state lighting, electronic displays, bio-imaging, and photovoltaic applications.  A cheaper, more efficient LED device can impact multiple markets.  Some of the primary applications include television displays, mobile device displays, medical applications, solid state lighting, and energy applications.</p> <p>This LED technology comprises two components—an LED device and the process of manufacturing that device.  The LED device comprises earth-abundant materials. The manufacturing process takes place at room temperature using simple starting materials and common organic solvents in a single container. The color of the LEDs can be tuned. </p> <p>In addition, this technology focuses on using phosphors to get the desired color and intensity of light. Organic/inorganic perovskite materials are abundant, non-toxic, and inexpensive.  Thus, by using these materials to create phosphors, the cost of the LED device is reduced significantly. This is especially true as our technology approaches 100% conversion of the base LED energy to the phosphor.</p>
Alkylamine-Gold Nanoparticle Monolayers having Tunable Electrical and Optical Properties Daniel Hallinan 16-068 Robby Freeborn-Scott cfreebornscott@fsu.edu <p>The unique physical and chemical properties of most traditional materials are largely determined by the spatial arrangement of the constituent building blocks (i.e. atoms) relative to one another.  When the scale of the building blocks extend to the range outside that of atomic elements (e.g. nanoparticles), the 'artificial solids' composed of such nanoparticles exhibit unique properties different from their bulk counterparts. In particular, monolayer two-dimensional (2D) artificial solids, serving as the structural basis for more complicated nanostructures, display distinct collective optical, electrical, and catalytic properties, thus finding vast prospective applications in high-performance solar cells, electrogenerated chemilumines, chemical sensors, transistors, integrated microcircuitry, batteries, capacitors, and thermolectrics. Akin to traditional materials, the physical and chemical properties of artificial solids are not only dependent on the elementary nanoparticle size and shape, but as importantly on the interparticle separation and the periodic arrangement of the constituents.</p> <p>FSU researchers have successfully prepared monolayer gold nanoparticle (Au NP) films using a water/organic solvent self-assembly strategy. A new approach, “drain to deposit”, is demonstrated most effective to transfer the Au NP films from a liquid/liquid interface to various solid substrates while maintaining their integrity. The interparticle spacing was tuned from 1.4 nm to 3.1 nm using different length alkylamine ligands. The ordering of the films increased with increasing ligand length. The surface plasmon resonance and the in-plane conductivity of the Au NP films both exhibit an exponential dependence on the particle spacing. These findings show great potential in scaling up the fabrication of high-performance optical and electronic devices based on metallic nanoparticle superlattices.</p> <p>In addition, these FSU researchers have developed a three phase system for depositing monolayer gold nanoparticle films. Using this three-phase system, centimeter-scale monolayer gold nanoparticle (Au NP) films have been prepared that have long-range order and hydrophobic ligands. The system contains an interface between an aqueous phase containing Au NPs and an oil phase containing one of various types of amine ligands, and a water/air interface. As the Au NPs diffuse to the water/oil interface, ligand exchange takes place which temporarily traps them at the water/oil interface. The ligand exchanged particles then spontaneously migrate to the air/water interface, where they self-assemble, forming a monolayer under certain conditions. The spontaneous formation of the NP film at the air/water interface was due to the minimization of the system Helmholtz free energy. However, the extent of surface functionalization was dictated by kinetics. This decouples interfacial ligand exchange  from interfacial self-assembly, while maintaining the simplicity of a single system. The interparticle center-to-center distance was dictated by the amine ligand length. The Au NP monolayers exhibit tunable surface plasma resonance and excellent spatial homogeneity, which is useful for surface-enhanced Raman scattering. The “air/water/oil” self-assembly method developed here not only benefits the fundamental understanding of NP ligand conformations, but is also applicable to the manufacture of plasmonic nanoparticle devices with precisely designed optical properties.</p> <h1>Applications and Advantages</h1> <ul> <li>Batteries <ul> <li>Electric car</li> <li>Laptop</li> <li>Mobile device</li> <li>Other electric vehicles and locomotion devices</li> </ul> </li> <li>Extremely precise detection of compounds</li> <li>Increases reliability of batteries</li> <li>Increases the performances of batteries</li> <li>Reduces the possibility of catastrophic failure of devices due to battery failure</li> </ul> <p> </p> <p> </p>
Additive Manufacturing of a Wireless Ceramic High Temperature and Pressure Sensor Cheryl Xu 17-004 Robby Freeborn-Scott cfreebornscott@fsu.edu <p>Maintaining situational awareness of the weapon environment is desirable for developing the next generation of robust missile and munition (M&amp;M) systems that can withstand the extreme acceleration, temperature, and pressure conditions that are presented by traditional fighter and hypersonic aircraft. In addition, tracking the temperature and pressure of high temperature turbines used in turbojets both for aircraft and energy production is highly desirable.  Conventional techniques for remotely monitoring munition assets are primarily performed by proximate environmental monitoring by fuel sensors, accelerometers, surface acoustic wave sensors, chemical resistors, and temperature sensors, which unfortunately are limited to storage and transportation purposes. In addition, conventional temperature testing for M&amp;M surveillance is performed over a limited temperature range, e.g., -55 °C to 125 °C.</p> <p>Conventional temperature sensors used in the evaluation of M&amp;M systems and turbine systems include thermocouples, thermistors, resistance thermometers, quartz thermometers, which all include a metallic coil inductor. However, these temperature sensors have certain drawbacks. For example, these temperatures sensors cannot be used in high temperature environments (e.g., 800 °C to 1400 °C) for prolonged periods of time due to oxidation of the metallic coil inductor, or can only be used under wired measurement conditions, and therefore are not suitable for in-flight monitoring. As a result, these temperature sensors can provide only limited evaluation of these high temperature and pressure systems.</p> <p>Conventional pressure sensors used in these applications includes passive pressure sensors based on resistive or capacitive sensing mechanisms. However, these pressure sensors have certain drawbacks. For example, wire interconnection is required to interrogate these sensors, and these sensors cannot operate effectively in high temperature environments. Moreover, pressure sensors that utilize a patch antenna operate within a limited temperature range, e.g., -55 °C to 125 °C, because of the metallic wire used with the patch antenna.</p> <p>The technology developed at FSU comprises a temperature and pressure sensor which includes a ceramic coil inductor having ceramic material and a relatively high volume fraction of carbon nanotubes. The combination leverages the remarkable electrical and mechanical properties (stiff and strong) of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and the thermal properties (temperature sensitivity) of ceramic materials.  </p> <p>Generally, the temperature sensors comprise a ceramic coil inductor that is formed of a ceramic composite and a thin film polymer-derived ceramic (PDC) nanocomposite having a dielectric constant that increases monotonically with temperature.  In general, the pressure sensors comprise a ceramic coil inductor formed of a ceramic composite, which has carbon nanotubes or carbon nanofibers, or a combination of carbon nanotubes and carbon nanofibers dispersed in a ceramic matrix, and a polymer-derived ceramic (PDC) nanocomposite. In some embodiments, the ceramic matrix comprises a polymer-derived ceramic (PDC) material.</p> <h2>Advantages</h2> <ul> <li> <p class="lead"><span class="small">The ability to provide real-time, in-flight monitoring of systems that operate in high temperature and pressure environments</span></p> </li> <li> <p class="lead"><span class="small">The ability to maintain safety and effectiveness of critical parts and materials without the need for extensive nondestructive evaluation (NDE) (for temperature sensors), thereby reducing cost and time</span></p> </li> <li> <p class="lead"><span class="small">On-demand tracking and assessing of the status of systems over extended periods, based upon changing conditions</span></p> </li> </ul> <p> </p>
Precision Polystyrene-sulfonate (PSS) Dr. Justin G. Kennemur 17-034 Dr. Matthieu Dumont mfdumont@fsu.edu <p>Recent research in the Kennemur Group has discovered a methodology for making a polystyrene-polyethylene-type copolymer analog .The reduction in phenyl branch periodicity for our system dramatically reduces the glass transition temperature (<em>T</em>­<sub>g</sub>) from 110 °C (PS) to ~17 °C (H<sub>2</sub>-P4PCP) and remains amorphous; this makes our system prone to improved softening and flexibility at ambient temperatures. Furthermore, due to the precise and diluted spacing of the phenyl branches, we envisioned that the full sulfonation (i.e. one sulfonate functionality per phenyl branch) of this polymer would create a new materials that rivals PSS due to the enhanced flexibility of the native polymer. Here it should be noted that ethylene and styrene monomers can be copolymerized to form ethylene-styrene copolymers (for example Dow INDEX ESI Interpolymers), however, the catalysts used are complex, styrene incorporation is not precise, and it is very difficult to achieve high styrene content due to the differences in reactivity between ethylene and styrene. </p>
Perovskite Based Charge Transport Layers for Thin Film Optoelectronic Devices Biwu Ma 16-097 Robby Freeborn-Scott cfreebornscott@fsu.edu <p>Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) are used widely in solid state lighting, electronic displays, bio-imaging, and photovoltaic (PV) applications.  A cheaper, more efficient LED device can impact multiple markets.  Some of the primary applications include television displays, mobile device displays, medical applications, solid state lighting, and energy applications.</p> <p>This LED technology comprises two components—an LED device and the process of manufacturing that device.  The LED device comprises earth-abundant materials. The manufacturing process takes place at room temperature using simple starting materials and common organic solvents in a single container. The color of the LEDs can be tuned.</p> <p>Typically, thin film optoelectronic devices, such as LEDs and PVs, are configured with a layered structure. This includes a photoactive (either light emitting or light harvesting) layer sandwiched between charge transport layers that contact with electrodes.  These charge transport layers play a crucial role in efficiency of the entire device.</p> <p>This technology uses perovskite materials to create cost effective, efficient charge transport layers.</p>