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High Performance Materials & Manufacturing

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Bright Light-Emitting Diodes Based on Organometal Halide Perovskite Nanoplatelets Dr. Hanwei Gao 16-021 Garrett Edmunds <p>As LED technology advances, there is a need for cost effective materials with incredible performance. Solution-processable electronic materials have attracted great attention for the low-cost, scalable fabrication of lightweight, flexible devices. Recently, earth-abundant organometal halide perovskites that can be solution processed have emerged as a new class of semiconductors for photovoltaic devices. However, the performance of perovskite-based LEDs (PeLEDs) reported to date has not reached the level of performance typically associated with organic or quantum dot based LEDs that share similar device architecture and operating mechanisms. </p> <p>FSU researchers have fabricated bright light-emitting diodes (LEDs) based on solution-processable organometal halide perovskite nanoplatelets. These ligand-capped nanoplates are stable in moisture which allows the perovskite-based LEDs to be fabricated without an inert-gas glovebox. This novel technology demonstrates a new pathway toward optoelectronic devices based on solution-processable materials. Nanoscale organic-inorganic halide perovskites are a new class of semiconductors with desirable characteristics for optoelectronic devices.</p> <h2><strong>Advantages</strong></h2> <ul> <li>Low-cost</li> <li>High-performance</li> <li>Low temperature processing</li> <li>Tunable optical band gap</li> <li>Easily fabricated</li> </ul>
Solution-Processed, Bright Light-Emitting Diodes Based on CsPbBr3 Perovskite Dr. Hanwei Gao 16-113 Garrett Edmunds <p>Optoelectronics is the combined used of electronics and light. Solution-processed halide perovskites have shown great potential as the building blocks for the next generation of low-cost, high-performance optoelectronics and the next generation of LEDs. LED technology is rapidly advancing and there is a need for new materials with remarkable performance. </p> <p>One novel solution is LEDs that use MAPbBr3 as the emitter. These LEDs are high performing but are inherently unstable. Dr. Gao and his team have created all inorganic perovskites which are more stable both thermally and chemcially. This new material does not limit the performance of LEDs and shows the highest brightness among all perovskite LEDs demonstrated thus far. Furthermore, the synthesis creates films with incredibly small grain sizes which improves the smoothness of the films. This new material has the potential to revolutionize LEDs.</p> <h2 id="advantages"><strong>Advantages</strong></h2> <ul> <li>Excellent performance including brightness and efficiency</li> <li>Low-cost</li> <li>High-stability</li> </ul>
Stimulus Triggered Recyclable Catalysts Dr. Hoyong Chung 17-006 Garrett Edmunds <p>N-heterocyclic carbene ("NHC") compounds are often used as supporting ligands in homogeneous organometallic catalysts. NHC-based catalysts can catalyze a wide range of reactions, including metathesis reaction, Suzuki reactions, Negishi coupling reactions, Buchwald-Hartwig amination reactions, and organo-catalytic reactions among many others.</p> <p>This invention shows that host-guest interactions can be used to recover/recycle well-defined organometallic catalysts. The host-guest interaction is a strong molecular recognition (non-covalent bonding) based on supramolecular chemistry. The N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) is an excellent supporting ligand for homogeneous organometallic catalysis. Various azobenzene-tagged NHCs are proposed to test the resulting catalyst's activity and recover/recycle capability. The basic principle is that a homogeneous catalyst can be prepared with NHC ligand that has azobenzene group. After a designated chemical reaction, the catalyst can be recovered by 13-cyclodextrin (CD) via host-guest reaction . Note that the catalyst having azobenzene group doesn't engage to CD, if there is no stimulus. Thus, the catalyst can be selectively and conveniently recovered by external stimulus. Those external stimulus includes light and electricity. Also the azobenzene-tagged NHCs can be used in organo-catalytic reactions.</p> <p>Previously, there were two main approaches to recycle/recover the catalyst. The first approach is immobilization of a heterogeneous tag on a catalyst structure. This method allows for easy separation (filtration), but it suffers from severely low catalytic activity. The second strategy is having a switchable tag on a homogeneous catalyst to recover the catalyst in a heterogeneous state (solid) after a desired chemical reaction. This method requires costly processes to trigger phase changes.</p> <h2>Advantages</h2> <ul> <li>Catalyst is homogeneous</li> <li>Phase changes are not necessary</li> <li>Easy recovery process</li> <li>Repeatedly reusable</li> <li>Cost efficient</li> </ul>
Lignin-Based Nanoparticles and Smart Polymers Dr. Hoyong Chung 15-122 Garrett Edmunds <p>Smart polymers are materials that are designed to have advanced functionality, enabling a host of new applications. The next challenge in this field is to develop classes of smart polymers that possess multiple complementary functions. Examples include stimulus-responsive materials that are self-healing and pressure-sensitive adhesives that form the basis for nanolithography.</p> <p>Dr. Chung created numerous approaches to developing these materials while incorporating natural, renewable resources, such as lignin, and leveraging advances in polymer chemistry, such as ruthenium metathesis catalysts. These novel materials can offer significant improvements over current production methods of smart polymers and the application of lignin-based materials.  Applications are nearly limitless with properties such as self-healing, shape-memory functionality, and responsiveness to external stimuli while taking advantage of biodegradable, readily available resources.</p>
Methods of Constructing Polyolefins having Reduced Crystallinity Dr. Alamo 09-166 Garrett Edmunds <p>The invention describes a family of polyolefins characterized by chain-walking defects of the type that add extra backbone carbons per monomer.</p> <p>These polyolefins display a large decrease in crystallinity relative to polyolefins known in the art. Specifically, the reduction in crystallinity is much greater than for earlier polypropylenes with a matched content of stereo or 1-alkene type defects. The claimed polyolefins can be an alkene-based homopolymer, or an alkene-based copolymer and can be made by a diimine-based catalyst or by a late metal catalyst. The defects in the polyolefin backbone are generated by a chain walking mechanism in which three or more carbons per monomer are added to the polymer backbone instead of two, as in conventional polymerization or copolymerization methods of alpha olefins.</p> <h1>Applications and Advantages:</h1> <ul> <li>Plastic wrapping</li> <li>Thin films</li> <li>Co-extrusion layers or molded parts in the absence of polymer blending or copolymerization</li> <li>The cost of materials production can be reduced</li> </ul>
Pulsed Gliding Arc Electrical Discharge Reactors Dr. Bruce Locke 06-142 Garrett Edmunds <p>Gliding arc discharges have been investigated as a potential technology for gas phase pollution treatment and for liquid phase pollution treatment. Ultimately, the practical use of gliding arc technology to promote chemical transformations, such as the removal of organic pollutants in water or the generation of hydrogen peroxide, other reactive oxygen species, or reactive nitrogen species for treatment of potentially contaminated foods, depends on the efficiency that can be achieved.</p> <p>The present invention describes a plasma gliding arc discharge reactor that is useful for chemical transformations in liquids and gases. The reactor may include a housing having a plurality of divergent electrodes, a power supply connected to the electrodes delivering pulsed power to the reactor, and a nozzle that directs a mixture of a carrier gas and a liquid to a region between the divergent electrodes, thereby generating plasma in the region. The nozzle can include a first inlet for receiving the carrier gas, a second inlet for receiving the liquid and a mixing chamber that is configured to mix the carrier gas and the liquid prior to being directed to the region.</p>
Wireless Temperature Sensor for High-Temperature Environments Cheryl Xu 18-043 Garrett Edmunds <p>Existing temperature sensors such as thermocouples, optical-based non-contact sensors, and piezoelectric sensors have their own advantages, but they cannot operate wirelessly. Functional electronics such as batteries, chips, and wires cannot operate at high temperatures furthering the problem. There is a need for high temperature sensors that can wirelessly transmit data to monitor dynamic systems.</p> <p>FSU researchers created a wireless temperature sensor which can measure temperatures of at least 1000 °C. This novel sensor can collect measurements in harsh conditions such as high temperatures (e.g., 700 °C to 1,800 °C), elevated pressures (e.g., 200 psi to 50,000 psi), corrosive environments, and environments including radiation. The novel device is generally made up of a conductive material, a dielectric material, and a ground plane and can be manufactured in any shape. This wireless sensor has the potential to revolutionize the space industry, defense industry, and engineering.</p> <p><strong>Advantages</strong></p> <ul> <li>Wireless sensing in high temperatures, elevated pressure, corrosive environments, and radiation environments</li> <li>The ability to provide real-time, in-flight monitoring of systems that operate in ultra-harsh conditions</li> <li>Small profile</li> <li>Easy manufacturing and rapid prototyping</li> </ul>
The Soret Effect in Polymer-Electrolyte-Based Electrochemical Cells Daniel Hallinan 16-088 Garrett Edmunds <p>The Soret effect arises when a temperature gradient is imposed on a multi-component system, inducing a concentration gradient. There is no comprehensive theory of the Soret effect that applies to all the systems that have been studied. Polymer electrolytes are a novel and interesting system in which to study the Soret effect due to the dissimilar properties of polymers and salts.</p> <p>Polymer electrolytes provide a system in which the mobility of the components are dramatically different and in which the species solvating the ions (polymer segments) cannot transfer with the ion. This can lead to large partial molal free energy of transfer for ions in polymer electrolyte. In addition, the solid nature of polymer electrolytes precludes convection, which is a vexing source of error in thermal diffusion studies. Studies on polymer blends have found unexpectedly large Soret coefficients near a phase transition. With complex phase diagrams, polymer electrolytes provide an avenue to study this phenomena. In addition, the Soret effect in dry polymer electrolytes could potentially be used to convert waste heat into electricity and improve the efficiency of electrochemical cells.</p> <p>This technology describes measuring the Soret coefficient in a dry polymer electrolyte by determining the concentration gradient that develops in an imposed temperature gradient. The concentration gradient may be determined using various methods including an electrochemical approach and by magnetic resonance imaging. Transient studies may be used to determine the thermal diffusion coefficient, providing another way to calculate the Soret coefficient. Consideration is given to higher order effects such as non-constant transport parameters by determining the temperature dependence of both thermal mass diffusion and thermal energy diffusion.</p>
Method for Producing Composite Powder for Dry Process Electrode for Electrochemical Devices Jian-ping (Jim) Zheng 15-235 Garrett Edmunds <p>This novel technology is directed to a low cost and high performance electrode for an energy storage device or an energy storage system and the method for making that device. The types of energy storage devices that can incorporate such electrode include ultracapacitors, lithium ion capacitors, batteries, fuel cells and hybrid cells which are the combination of the above devices. The types of energy storage systems that can incorporate such a low cost and high performance electrode are the energy storage system that uses at least one of the above devices.</p> <p>This technology comprises a binder composition and a method of making a composite powder for a dry process electrode and a method of producing an electrode. Both of these methods can be used for electro-chemical devices. The binder composition includes bulk polymer, polymer solution, and polymer suspension. The method comprises: 1) making electrode composites including an active material, a carbonaceous conductor and binder wherein the working ranges for each include, by weight, about 70-97% for the active materials, about 0-10% for the conductive material additives, and about 2-20% binder material through solvent-free or solvent assistant process; 2) making uniformly mixed, ready-for-press electrode composite powders comprising of an active material, a carbonaceous conductor and binder using a high speed mixer; 3) form a free-standing continuous electrode film by pressing the uniform mixed powder together through the gap between two roller of a roll-mill, and 4) calendering the electrode film onto a substrate, such as a collector.</p>
Alkylamine-Gold Nanoparticle Monolayers having Tunable Electrical and Optical Properties Daniel Hallinan 16-068 Garrett Edmunds <p>The unique physical and chemical properties of most traditional materials are largely determined by the spatial arrangement of the constituent building blocks (i.e. atoms) relative to one another.  When the scale of the building blocks extend to the range outside that of atomic elements (e.g. nanoparticles), the 'artificial solids' composed of such nanoparticles exhibit unique properties different from their bulk counterparts. In particular, monolayer two-dimensional (2D) artificial solids, serving as the structural basis for more complicated nanostructures, display distinct collective optical, electrical, and catalytic properties, thus finding vast prospective applications in high-performance solar cells, electrogenerated chemilumines, chemical sensors, transistors, integrated microcircuitry, batteries, capacitors, and thermolectrics. Akin to traditional materials, the physical and chemical properties of artificial solids are not only dependent on the elementary nanoparticle size and shape, but as importantly on the interparticle separation and the periodic arrangement of the constituents.</p> <p>FSU researchers have successfully prepared monolayer gold nanoparticle (Au NP) films using a water/organic solvent self-assembly strategy. A new approach, “drain to deposit”, is demonstrated most effective to transfer the Au NP films from a liquid/liquid interface to various solid substrates while maintaining their integrity. The interparticle spacing was tuned from 1.4 nm to 3.1 nm using different length alkylamine ligands. The ordering of the films increased with increasing ligand length. The surface plasmon resonance and the in-plane conductivity of the Au NP films both exhibit an exponential dependence on the particle spacing. These findings show great potential in scaling up the fabrication of high-performance optical and electronic devices based on metallic nanoparticle superlattices.</p> <p>In addition, these FSU researchers have developed a three phase system for depositing monolayer gold nanoparticle films. Using this three-phase system, centimeter-scale monolayer gold nanoparticle (Au NP) films have been prepared that have long-range order and hydrophobic ligands. The system contains an interface between an aqueous phase containing Au NPs and an oil phase containing one of various types of amine ligands, and a water/air interface. As the Au NPs diffuse to the water/oil interface, ligand exchange takes place which temporarily traps them at the water/oil interface. The ligand exchanged particles then spontaneously migrate to the air/water interface, where they self-assemble, forming a monolayer under certain conditions. The spontaneous formation of the NP film at the air/water interface was due to the minimization of the system Helmholtz free energy. However, the extent of surface functionalization was dictated by kinetics. This decouples interfacial ligand exchange  from interfacial self-assembly, while maintaining the simplicity of a single system. The interparticle center-to-center distance was dictated by the amine ligand length. The Au NP monolayers exhibit tunable surface plasma resonance and excellent spatial homogeneity, which is useful for surface-enhanced Raman scattering. The “air/water/oil” self-assembly method developed here not only benefits the fundamental understanding of NP ligand conformations, but is also applicable to the manufacture of plasmonic nanoparticle devices with precisely designed optical properties.</p> <h1>Applications and Advantages</h1> <ul> <li>Batteries <ul> <li>Electric car</li> <li>Laptop</li> <li>Mobile device</li> <li>Other electric vehicles and locomotion devices</li> </ul> </li> <li>Extremely precise detection of compounds</li> <li>Increases reliability of batteries</li> <li>Increases the performances of batteries</li> <li>Reduces the possibility of catastrophic failure of devices due to battery failure</li> </ul> <p> </p> <p> </p>
Additive Manufacturing of a Wireless Ceramic High Temperature and Pressure Sensor Cheryl Xu 17-004 Garrett Edmunds <p>Maintaining situational awareness of the weapon environment is desirable for developing the next generation of robust missile and munition (M&amp;M) systems that can withstand the extreme acceleration, temperature, and pressure conditions that are presented by traditional fighter and hypersonic aircraft. In addition, tracking the temperature and pressure of high temperature turbines used in turbojets both for aircraft and energy production is highly desirable. Conventional techniques for remotely monitoring munition assets are primarily performed by proximate environmental monitoring by fuel sensors, accelerometers, surface acoustic wave sensors, chemical resistors, and temperature sensors. These are limited to storage and transportation purposes and typically have a limited temperature range, e.g., -55 °C to 125 °C.</p> <p>Conventional temperature sensors used in the evaluation of M&amp;M systems and turbine systems include thermocouples, thermistors, resistance thermometers, quartz thermometers, which all include a metallic coil inductor. Due to the oxidation of the metallic coil inductor, these temperature sensors cannot be used in high temperature environments for prolonged periods of time and can only be used under wired measurement conditions.</p> <p>Conventional pressure sensors used in these applications include passive pressure sensors based on resistive or capacitive sensing mechanisms. These sensors also require a wire interconnection and they cannot operate effectively in high temperature environments. Moreover, pressure sensors that utilize a patch antenna operate within a limited temperature range, e.g., -55 °C to 125 °C, because of the metallic wire used with the patch antenna.</p> <p>The technology developed at FSU comprises a wireless temperature and pressure sensor which includes a ceramic coil inductor having ceramic material and a relatively high volume fraction of carbon nanotubes. The combination leverages the remarkable electrical and mechanical properties (stiff and strong) of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and the thermal properties (temperature sensitivity) of ceramic materials. </p> <p>Generally, the temperature sensors comprise a ceramic coil inductor that is formed of a ceramic composite and a thin film polymer-derived ceramic (PDC) nanocomposite having a dielectric constant that increases monotonically with temperature and the pressure sensors comprise a ceramic coil inductor formed of a ceramic composite, which includes carbon nanotubes and/or carbon nanofibers.<span> This novel technology has the potential to revolutionize the space industry, defense industry, and engineering.</span></p> <h2>Advantages</h2> <ul> <li> <p class="lead"><span class="small">The ability to provide real-time, in-flight monitoring of systems that operate in high temperature and pressure environments</span></p> </li> <li> <p class="lead"><span class="small">The ability to maintain safety and effectiveness of critical parts and materials without the need for extensive nondestructive evaluation (NDE) (for temperature sensors), thereby reducing cost and time</span></p> </li> <li> <p class="lead"><span class="small">On-demand tracking and assessing of the status of systems over extended periods, based upon changing conditions</span></p> </li> </ul> <p> </p>
Metal Halide Nanotubes, Devices, and Methods Biwu Ma 18-009 Garrett Edmunds <p>Since the discovery of carbon nanotubes, materials with tubular structures have attracted scientific interest because of their  intriguing physical and/or chemical properties. Besides carbon nanotubes, a number of synthetic tubular structures such as metal oxides, polymers, metal organic frameworks (MOFs) etc. have been developed over the last decades, which show promising applications in various areas, ranging from gas separation and storage, to catalysts, and drug delivery.</p> <p>Organic-inorganic metal halide hybrids have received research attention for their exceptional optical and/or electronic properties with useful applications in a variety of optoelectronic devices, including photovoltaic cells, light emitting diodes, photodetectors, and lasers. The structural tunability of this class of materials can enable the formation of various types of crystal structures by using appropriate organic and inorganic components, ranging from three- (3D), to two- (2D), one- (1D), and zero-dimensional (0D) structures on the molecular level.</p> <p>This technology comprises organic metal halide hybrids having a 1D tubular structure, and facile solution processing methods for preparing the metal halide hybrids. For example, the metal halide crystals provided herein may include an array of 1D nanotube structures. In some embodiments, the methods provided herein including simple bottom up solution self-assembly processes.</p> <h2 class="lead">Applications</h2> <ul> <li>Gas storage</li> <li>Ion selection</li> <li>Catalysts</li> <li>Sensors</li> <li>Molecular machines</li> </ul> <h2 class="lead">Advantages</h2> <ul> <li>They have optical response and relatively good quantum yield.</li> <li>The solution-based preparation of these phosphors at room temperature is easy and cost effective.</li> <li>Their crystals are bulk-assembly of the nano-structures therefore exhibit the intrinsic properties of an individual nanotube.</li> <li>They have multiple potential applications such as gas storage, ion selection, catalyze, sensing, molecular machines, and so on.</li> <li>They have relatively good thermal and photostability.</li> </ul> <p class="lead"> </p>
Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Bulk Quantum Materials and Methods Biwu Ma 17-036 Garrett Edmunds <p>Various types of light emitting materials have been developed, including organic and polymeric emitters, transition metal complexes, rare-earth doped phosphors, nanocrystals, and organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites.</p> <p>Organic-inorganic metal halide hybrids are a class of crystalline materials that may have unique structures and/or permit the tenability of one or more properties. Metal halide polyhedra can form three- (3D), two- (2D), one- (1D), and zero-dimensional (0D) structures surrounded by organic moieties. The decreased dimensionality of the inorganic structures can lead to the emergence of unique properties. For example, unlike narrow emissions with a small Stokes shift that has been observed in typical 3D metal halide hybrids, broadband photoluminescence with a large Stokes shifts has been realized in corrugated-2D, 1D, and 0D metal halide hybrids, likely due to exciton self-trapping or excited state structural deformation.</p> <p>This invention comprises a bulk quantum material. In some embodiments, the bulk quantum material includes two or more photo- and/or electro-active species; and a wide band gap organic network comprising a plurality of organic cations; wherein each of the two or more photo- and/or electro-active species are (i) disposed in the wide band gap organic network, and (ii) isolated from each other. In some embodiments, the two or more photo- and/or electro-active species comprise two or more metal halide species.</p>
Perovskite Based Charge Transport Layers for Thin Film Optoelectronic Devices Biwu Ma 16-097 Garrett Edmunds <p>Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) are used widely in solid state lighting, electronic displays, bio-imaging, and photovoltaic (PV) applications.  A cheaper, more efficient LED device can impact multiple markets.  Some of the primary applications include television displays, mobile device displays, medical applications, solid state lighting, and energy applications.</p> <p>This LED technology comprises two components—an LED device and the process of manufacturing that device.  The LED device comprises earth-abundant materials. The manufacturing process takes place at room temperature using simple starting materials and common organic solvents in a single container. The color of the LEDs can be tuned.</p> <p>Typically, thin film optoelectronic devices, such as LEDs and PVs, are configured with a layered structure. This includes a photoactive (either light emitting or light harvesting) layer sandwiched between charge transport layers that contact with electrodes.  These charge transport layers play a crucial role in efficiency of the entire device.</p> <p>This technology uses perovskite materials to create cost effective, efficient charge transport layers.</p>
Metal Halide Perovskite Phosphors in LEDs for Full Color Display and Solid State Lighting Biwu Ma 17-009, 16-109 Garrett Edmunds <p>Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) are used widely in solid state lighting, electronic displays, bio-imaging, and photovoltaic applications.  A cheaper, more efficient LED device can impact multiple markets.  Some of the primary applications include television displays, mobile device displays, medical applications, solid state lighting, and energy applications.</p> <p>This LED technology comprises two components—an LED device and the process of manufacturing that device.  The LED device comprises earth-abundant materials. The manufacturing process takes place at room temperature using simple starting materials and common organic solvents in a single container. The color of the LEDs can be tuned. </p> <p>In addition, this technology focuses on using phosphors to get the desired color and intensity of light. Organic/inorganic perovskite materials are abundant, non-toxic, and inexpensive.  Thus, by using these materials to create phosphors, the cost of the LED device is reduced significantly. This is especially true as our technology approaches 100% conversion of the base LED energy to the phosphor.</p>
Transparent Armored Windows and Walls Using Novel Materials Such As Steel, Concrete and Wood Alexey Kovalev 13-166 Michael Tentnowski <p>Presently, transparent bulletproof windows and walls are made of multilayers of glass. These structures can withstand the impact of the small armor like guns and even the impact of the standard military light personal weapon from a certain distance, yet the hardness and antiballistic properties of these structures are limited by the hardness of the glass.</p> <p>The proposed inventions use the known hardness of much stronger materials: steel, concrete, special plastics, etc. to protect against the impact of ballistic and types of weapons. The thickness of the proposed walls is not limited and can be made arbitrarily large, with only moderate attenuation in the optical transparency. The invention is not limited to optical frequencies and can be used in the full electromagnetic spectrum with any materials and lenses. For example, lenses can be transparent only for the microwave radiation or for only a narrow band of the electromagnetic spectrum. The novel feature is a special combination of optical and constructive elements which provide both protection and transparency.</p> <h2>Advantages:</h2> <ul> <li>Can be used whenever both the safety and large field of view is required</li> <li>Provide much better protection while retaining visibility</li> <li>Structural elements can be made from any materials, depending on the purpose (including wood, paper, or any other material)</li> <li>All dimensions are flexible and not fixed in absolute or relative terms to each other</li> <li>Modular design allows for easy deployment in the field and portability</li> <li>Less expensive alternative to retrofitting existing structures to support the weight of ballistic glass</li> <li>Ideal for school hardening </li> </ul>
Materials Genome Software to Accelerate Discovery of New Materials Jose Mendoza-Cortes 18-012 Garrett Edmunds <p>The creation of a material genome can accelerate the discovery of new materials in much the same way the human genome is accelerating advances in gene therapy. It often takes 15-20 years to transfer advanced materials from the laboratory to the marketplace. Our predictive software utilizes unique databases of predicted materials to drastically accelerate the discovery of new materials by allowing users in research and industry to synthesize and characterize only the most promising compounds for the desired application in lieu of experimental trial and error on thousands candidates or even more. Genomes and predictive algorithms for energy storage and light capture materials have been developed. This technology is primed to be commercialized as a software as a service (SaaS).</p>
Space Efficient Photobioreactor System Jose Vargas 10-090 Michael Tentnowski <p>The continued use of petroleum-derived fuels is now widely seen as unsustainable. Presently available biofuels can be substituted for petroleum-derived fuels without the need for extensively modifying existing internal combustion engines.</p> <p>The present invention describes a microalgae-based bio-fuels production system in a space efficient photo-bioreactor. The bioreactor grows microalgae in a tall array of transparent flooded tubes. A nutrient media is circulated through the tubes. The array is configured to maximize the amount of sunlight falling upon each tube so that growth of the microalgae is as uniform as possible. Gassing/degassing systems are attached to the array of tubes at appropriate locations. These introduce carbon dioxide and remove oxygen. Cooling systems are preferably also provided so that the circulating media can be maintained at a desired temperature. Microalgae are harvested from the photo-bioreactor. The microalgae are filtered and dried. Lipids are then extracted from the microalgae. These lipids are made into biodiesel through a trans-esterification process and can be used to make other products as well.</p> <h2>Advantages:</h2> <ul> <li>Compact microalgae cultivation in a high productive manner</li> <li>Reduces the need for land since it has the potential to provide higher biomass production density than traditional systems of microalgae biomass production</li> <li>The modular conception allows for the gradual implementation of the system for in situ biofuel production wherever it is needed</li> </ul>
Sharing Cyrogenic Cooling Systems Between Large and Auxiliary Devices Sastry Pamidi 13-040 Michael Tentnowski <p>Cryo-cooled or super-cooled power applications are increasing in popularity because they are typically lower in weight and volume, and more efficient than traditional power applications. Cryocooling is well suited to superconducting technologies (e.g., high-speed accelerators, wind power and flywheel applications) that need to be kept at cryogenic temperatures in order to function.</p> <p>Currently, the cost of cryocoolers is prohibitively high for small applications, in part, because cryocoolers are primarily designed for large devices. Additionally, cryocooling systems are suboptimum in their design because they 1) are based on a “use-or-lose” model that wastes cooling power that is not fully utilized and 2) cannot be shared between critical devices.</p> <p>A potential solution to these two issues involves a new design by Dr. Sastry Pamidi that enables cryogenic sharing of “waste” cooling between a large superconducting device and smaller devices in close proximity that also benefit from cryocooling. In it basic form, the invention is an add-on heat exchanger that is attached to an existing cryocooler through which a controllable flow of helium gas is circulated to “steal” excess cooling power from the device. The helium circulation system enables the productive use of excess cooling power and also eliminates the need for resistive heaters that are typically used to maintain required operating temperatures in cryocooled devices. Importantly, this exchanger will make it easier to run auxiliary devices under cryogenic environments without the need for each device to have its own dedicated cryocooler, thus reducing costs and improving the efficiency of operation as well as creating new opportunities for using cryogenics.</p> <h2>Applications:</h2> <ul> <li>Aerospace</li> <li>Cryogenic equipment manufacturing</li> <li>Military</li> <li>Power grid</li> <li>Transportation</li> <li>Research laboratories</li> <li>Universities, national labs, and hospitals</li> </ul> <h2>Advantages:</h2> <ul> <li>Enables sharing of cryocooling between a large device and smaller devices to minimize or eliminate the cooling waste produced by “use-or-lose” cryogenic methods</li> <li>Multiple devices can be cooled by a single cryocooler, rather than each device requiring its own cooler</li> <li>Improves energy efficiency and reduced cost of operation</li> <li>Creates new opportunities for using cryogenics in smaller devices and applications</li> <li>May be designed into new cryocoolers or added on to existing cryocoolers</li> <li>Compact design</li> <li>Vacuum tight</li> <li>Low pressure drop</li> <li>Highly efficient due to maximum heat transfer</li> <li>Simple design and manufacturing</li> <li>Optimal for a gas having low viscosity</li> </ul>
Adaptive Control of Air Flow Using a Piezoelectric Controlled Pulsed Micro-jet Actuator William Oates 10-045 Michael Tentnowski <p>Traditionally, structures and systems used to influence air flow include mechanical and/or servo-hydraulic actuators that rotate an aileron or rotor blade to mitigate the loss of lift from separated flow. More recently, active flow control systems in the form of bench-top demonstrations have been successful alternatives to controlling air flow; however, these applications are limited in their effectiveness because their designs are unable to effectively handle the performance variations that occur across different aircraft structures and operating conditions. Namely, these active flow systems are limited to a narrow frequency band and subsonic flow applications.</p> <p>A solution to the limitations mentioned above involves the design of a piezoelectric microjet actuator that integrates smart materials into a microjet to produce broadband pulsed flow with high actuation forces that can be adjusted in real-time.  This pulsed flow is able to better prevent stall scenarios and reduce noise on a case-by-case and as-needed basis for a wide variety of aircraft types. The actuator operates effectively under subsonic and supersonic conditions.  IN addition, the adaptive structures inherent in the actuator’s design reduce the parasitic load on the jet engine to ½% or less of the main flow field. The result of this design is a lighter, smaller, more efficient, and less complex air flow actuator that improves aircraft agility and efficiency while reducing noise.</p> <h2>Applications:</h2> <ul> <li>Aerospace</li> <li>Automotive</li> <li>Military</li> </ul> <h2>Advantages:</h2> <ul> <li>Improves agility and efficiency, reduces noise</li> <li>Can adjust air pulsations in real-time to prevent/reduce stall scenarios</li> <li>Has a built-in feedback loop that enables air to be pulsed at different frequencies</li> <li>Produces high actuation forces (kN) and broad bandwidth (quasi-static to approximately 10kHz) at small displacements</li> <li>Capable of pulsing subsonic and supersonic flows</li> <li>Actuator is less complex in design and smaller in size and weight</li> <li>Can work in compact aerodynamic structures, such as rotor blades and rockets</li> </ul>
A Peptide Building Block for P-trefoil Protein Architecture Dr. Blaber 10-114 Brent Edington <p>Protein folding is a poorly understood science, and therefore, protein engineering has yet to realize the functional potential inherent in proteins. Development of a useful "structural toolkit" for de novo protein design is a highly desirable, yet unrealized goal of the field.</p> <p>A novel 42 amino acid polypeptide sequence has been designed that spontaneously assembles into a homo-trimer, forming a thermostable P-trefoil protein architecture. The polypeptide can also be ligated, to form three identical repeating sequences within a single polypeptide, which also spontaneously folds into a thermostable P-trefoil protein architecture. The peptide is thus useful for either de novo design, rational design, or directed evolution of novel proteins based upon the P-trefoil architecture. The Invention represents an initial successful example of the development of a useful peptide building block for a common protein architecture (the P-trefoil).</p> <p>The peptide sequence was designed using a novel approach, and as a consequence there are an extremely limited number of useful related "building blocks" in protein design. The idea of a "structural toolkit" for protein design is largely conceptual; the current Invention is arguably one of the first successful examples.</p>
Antifouling Coatings for Ion Exchange Resins Professor Joseph Schlenoff 17-053 Garrett Edmunds <p>Ion exchange resins are widely used for water polishing and purification (e.g. removal of heavy metals). This FSU invention provides a way to rapidly add a coating of nontoxic polymer to an existing anion exchange resin. This coating reduces fouling by algae, other microorganisms, and more, extending the life of the resin and making it easier to clean the resin bed by backflushing.</p> <p>The coating is produced by negative polyelectrolytes, which interacts with the positively charged resin and forms a thin film on the surface of the resin bead. Because the positive charge at the surface of the bead is substantially reduced, or even switched to negative, potential fouling materials interact less strongly with the resin surface.</p> <p>The molecular weight of the negative polyelectrolyte is selected to be sufficiently high such that it does not absorb into the resin bead. Thus, an ultrathin film of complex is limited to the surface of the bead. The bead capacity is not diminished and the amount of material consumed is on the order of a few mg per square meter of resin surface.</p> <p>The polyelectrolyte is water soluble and of low toxicity. Beads can be treated in situ or they can be pretreated in a batch during a typical washing step.</p> water,filter,water purification,potable water,ion exchange resin,antifouling
3-D Printed Flexible Electronics and Sensors Using Carbon Nanotube Ink Changchun (Chad) Zeng 18-011 Michael Tentnowski <p>At FSU, we have developed a breakthrough process for scalable and low-cost functionalization of carbon nanotubes with tailored functionality. A provisional patent application was filed in October 2017. This technology enables the preparation of highly concentrated CNT ink for 3-D printing and printed electronics and sensors. As an example, while typical CNT ink has a CNT content &lt; 0.5 wt%, our ink concentration can be tuned at will and can reach as high as 10 wt%. Such flexibility allows for our high quality printing process and superior device performance. This superior performance is characterized by a gauge factor (GR) that can reach ~3000; one to two orders of magnitude higher than any printed strain sensor from any other inks in the world. We have further demonstrated that our devices can be used as sensors to detect human motion. We strongly believe this technology will revolutionize printed electronics and sensors.</p>
Solid-State Fabrication of Graphene Nanoribbons and Their Networks Mei Zhang 13-244 Michael Tentnowski <p>This invention is for fabricating freestanding graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) and GNR networks by unzipping carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in a freestanding CNT film using laser irradiation. It provides a novel solid-state process to fabricate freestanding GNRs and GNR networks.</p> <p>Since CNTs are cylindrical shells made, in concept, by rolling graphene sheets into a seamless cylinder, the unzipping of CNTs is a new and very promising approach for controlled and large-scale GNR production. In this process, CNTs are unzipped (opened or fractured) along their longitudinal axes in such a way that the obtained structures are the desired GNRs. Another advantage of using CNTs as starting materials to produce GNRs resides in the fact that the vast existing knowledge on CNT synthesis and purification methods can be used to control and to optimize GNR fabrication.</p> <p>Unzipping CNTs has been practiced in many different ways. However, these chemical and physical methods use strong acids, oxidizing agents, or other solvents. The wet-processes alter the properties of GNRs because of a high proportion of oxygen functionalities or particles and cause problems in device fabrication process because of wrinkles and folding of GNRs as well as positioning issues.</p> <p>Our invention uses freestanding CNT sheets as the starting material and uses controlled laser irradiation in a preferred environment to convert (unzip) CNTs to GNRs and weld (joint) GNRs together to form GNR network. This is a solid-state fabrication process, which does not use any acids or solvents. Only this process is capable of fabricating large, freestanding GNRs and GNR networks and creating controllable CNT-graphene intramolecular junctions. Freestanding GNR networks are transparent conductive layers, which can be transferred easily onto any kind of substrates as a transparent electrode for various electronic and photonic applications. This solid state process is fast, clean, and scalable, and can be developed to a large-scale nanomanufacturing process.                         </p>
Novel Method for Growth of Metal Oxide Single Crystals Dr. Whalen and Dr. Siegrist 11-129 Michael Tentnowski <p>The present invention outlines a process application for the growth of new, and difficult-to-synthesize, metal oxide single crystals from a molten metal flux. This new method of growth applies a chemical pressure in the form of a molten metal solvent that is capable of dissolving and subsequently crystallizing metal oxides. The chemical pressure accomplishes the creation of highly reducing conditions in the growth media which force equilibration of crystal lattice energies with kinetic energy losses from cooling of the reactions. This allows for the growth of phases below their melting points and can also be used to access incongruently melting phases. More precisely, batches of individual reactions are heat-treated to synthesize single crystals comprised of oxygen with one or more transition, alkaline-earth and/or lanthanide metals. Stoichiometries are calculated, weighed out then loaded into metal crucibles which are welded under -1atm Argon gas then jacketed in quartz ampoules under vacuum. The entire reaction vessel is heated appropriately then the furnace is opened, the ampoule is removed, inverted and briefly centrifuged to mechanically separate the flux and product crystals.</p> <p>Metal fluxes are new to the growth of metal oxide single crystals and our preliminary reactions have yielded both new phases, and phases that normally require costly, extreme conditions to grow. Contrarily to current state of the art technology for the growth of metal oxide single crystal, this method of this invention utilizes temperatures below 1,000°C and no applied pressure. Since currently known metal oxides have such expansive applications, growth of these materials from synthesis routes that are less expensive or faster will have significant value to industry and government. Traditional methods of metal oxide single crystal growth do not possess the exploratory edge of this new method, which is not limited by the oxidative and thermodynamic constraints of current state of the art "open crucible" stoichiometric growth techniques.</p>
Polyethylene Glycol Based Oligomers for Coating Nanoparticles Dr. Hedi Mattoussi 12-026 Garrett Edmunds <p id="p-0013" class="style-scope patent-text">We have developed nanoparticle coatings that are water dispersible, have a strong affinity for binding to magnetic nanoparticles, and can be easily modified for attaching the coating to biological materials. The nanoparticle coatings comprise a polyacrylic acid based backbone onto which PEG-based oligomers are appended by modifying the native carboxyl groups of the PAA backbone. The PEG-based oligomers include functional groups on their terminal ends, which are chosen to provide a certain function. Some of the terminal functional groups bind the coatings to the nanoparticle's surface, while others provide reactive sites for binding other compounds to the coating. The method we developed for making these coatings allows one to tune the number and type of PEG-based oligomers appended to the PAA backbone based on the desired properties of the coating.</p> <p id="p-0014" class="style-scope patent-text">In accordance with a composition aspect of the invention, the nanoparticle coatings comprise repeating polyacrylic acid monomers covalently bound together in an aliphatic chain having a plurality of carboxylic acid functional groups and modified carboxylic acid functional groups extending there from. A first portion of the modified carboxylic acid functional groups are modified by a PEG oligomer having a terminal methoxy functional group and a second portion of the modified carboxylic acid functional groups are modified by a PEG oligomer having at least one terminal catechol group.</p>
Self-Assembled Multilayers to Enhance Photon Upconversion and Solar Cell Efficiency Dr. Kenneth Hanson 15-035 Garrett Edmunds <p>Photon upconversion (UC), combining two lower energy photons to generate a higher energy excited state, can be used to harness "sub-band gap photons" and reach maximum theoretical solar cell efficiencies of &gt;40%. Molecular photon upconversion, by way of triplet-triplet annihilation (TTA-UC), is particularly appealing because UC is achievable even under low intensity, non-coherent, solar irradiation. Current efforts to harness TTA-UC in solar energy conversion are predominantly based on using UC solution or polymer film as a filter or reflector working in conjunction with a conventional solar cell but increase the cost and complexity of the device.</p> <p>Our technology is capable of facilitating photon upconversion in films of self-assembled bilayers, presented in Tech ID 15-001. The films can be prepared by a step-wise soaking/loading procedure that is amenable to roll-to-roll printing for large scale manufacturing of devices. The self-assembled bilayer strategy is effective at facilitating photocurrent generation from the upconverted state. This technology offers a new class of self-assembled UC solar cells that show promise as a means of passing the maximum theoretical limit for single junction solar cells.</p>
Preparation of Expanded Polyaromatics Dr. Igor Alabugin 15-220 Garrett Edmunds <p>Current methods utilized to synthesize crowded polyaromatic architecture often use strategies that demand stringent design to achieve control over the size and substitution of the product. The proposed technique addresses this challenge by using a robust and flexible cyclization method in which a functional handle is installed during the reaction sequence to offer means for further extensions and functionalization.</p> <p>The present invention is an efficient process to prepare synthetically challenging large distorted aromatics. The new approach developed at Florida State University efficiently transforms enynes into polyaromatic structures of precise dimensions and tunable electronic properties, solving the problem of selectivity in cascades aimed at the preparation of polyaromatic structures from conjugated enynes.</p> <p>The overall process incorporates an unprecedented sequence in which chemo-and regioselective interaction of the triple bond with Bu<sub>3</sub>Sn radicals originates from a conceptually novel source and propagates in such a way that renders alkenes synthetic equivalents of alkyns. By coupling the cyclization/rearrangement cascade with an aromatizing C-C bond fragmentation, the net result is a convenient transformation of readily available enyne reactants to a-Sn substituted naphthalenes that can serve as a lauching platform for the preparation of extended distorted polyaromatics.</p> <p>The key challenge that had remained in the design of radical cascades was achieving control over chemoselectivity of initial radical attack and the subsequent cyclization mode. We resolved these problems by using the first radical enyne cascade in which chemo- and regioselective interaction of the triple bond with Bu<sub>3</sub>Sn radicals originates from a novel 1,2 metallotropic shift.</p> <p>The use of alkenes assists in the elimination of a radical leaving group via scission at the end of the cascade, aromatizing the final product without the need for external oxidants. This selective radical transformation opens a new approach for the controlled transformation of enynes into polycyclic distorted aromatics of tunable dimensions.</p> <h2>Advantages:</h2> <ul> <li>The feasibility with which the scission of strong C-C bonds is accomplished under mild conditions.</li> <li>Provides a convenient and efficient method to synthesize large distorted aromatics and polycyclic ribbons of tunable dimensions.</li> <li>Installation of Bu<sub>3</sub>Sn at a specific position and conversion of readily available enynes into highly valuable a-Sn naphthalene derivatives in high yields in a single cascade step</li> </ul>
New High-Refractive Index Polymers: Solutions for Next Generation Eyewear, Optical Adhesives and Microarray Lens Technology Dr. Albert Steigman 09-124 Garrett Edmunds <p>Organic polymers play a key role in a number of important optical applications. Principle among them are as lens materials for consumer eye-wear where their unique combination of high refractive index and optical transmission combined with scratch and fracture resistance have lead to the safe light-weight corrective lenses that are used today. In addition, they are critical in a number of specialized advanced technological applications such as microlens arrays for CCD sensors and encapsulates for light emitting diodes.</p> <p>Dr. Albert Stiegman has developed a new class of low-density, high refractive index polymers that have optical and mechanical properties that recommend them for a number of current and future optical applications. The polymers are hybrid organic-inorganic materials, the constituents of which contain highly polarizable atoms and groups that contribute to the high refractive indices and excellent optical transparency observed for specific compositions. They can be formed into hard monolithic structures that can be ground and polished to obtain lenses and other optical components. Synthesis of the polymers is technologically simple and from easily obtained components suggesting that their manufacture will be cost effective. Potential applications include eyewear and other consumer optical products such as camera, magnifying glasses and telescopes. In addition, the polymers have excellent adhesive properties that may find application as index-matched adhesives in optical assemblies</p> <p><a data-id="6634" href="/media/3985/stiegman.pdf" title="stiegman.pdf">Download PDF Version</a> </p> <h2>Applications:</h2> <ul> <li>Consumer eyewear and optics</li> <li>Microlens array technology</li> <li>Encapsulates</li> <li>Optical Adhesives</li> </ul>
Polymer Foam Based Piezoelectric Materials Manufactured in an Environmentally Benign Novel Process Dr. Changchun (Chad) Zeng 13-161 Michael Tentnowski <p>FSU researchers have developed thermally stable piezoelectric polymer foams (ferroelectrets) with high piezoelectric activity for sensing and actuation, with tailored morphology, cell structure and mechanical and electro-mechanical properties. These piezoelectric foams have extremely high piezoelectric coefficients and very high thermal stability up to two orders of magnitude higher than other published results.</p> <p>Thermoelectric (TE) materials generate energy in the presence of temperature differential by virtue of converting thermal energy to electrical energy. Combination of different semiconductors are the dominant thermoelectric materials. Currently all research on TE materials focus on inorganic substance and the applications of most TE materials are limited to high temperature regime (&gt; 200 oC) to achieve meaningful figure of merit, which restricts application area. In this technology, COC ferroelectrets can harvest thermal energy operated at low temperature with high figure of merit.</p> <p>Commercially available ferroelectrets are based on porous polypropylene films which has been applied in various devices, i.e., audio devices as microphones, force sensors, actuators and respiration detectors. However, these devices lack sufficient thermal and UV stability. Our foams overcome these limitations.</p>
Carbon Nanotube Foam with Controllable Architectures: Fabrication Method and Applications Dr. Mei Zhang 14-030 Michael Tentnowski <p>Dr. Zhang created a method for fabricating carbon nanotube (CNT) foam, and all carbon prous structures, with controllable cell shape and distribution and therefore tunable properties including density, porosity, elasticity, conductivity, and strength.</p> <p>Compared with conventional foams, CNT solid foams offer additional advantages such as mechanical flexibility and robustness, electrical conductivity, thermal stability and resistance to harsh environment, and can impact a broad range of applications such as multifunctional structural media, sensors, high strength to weight ratio composites, membranes and electrodes.</p>
Reusable Colorimetric Fluoride Sensors Dr. Sourav Saha 10-186 Garrett Edmunds <p>Fluoridation of drinking water has been effective in preventing tooth decay and improving overall den-tal health; however, overexposure to fluoride poses numerous serious health risks including brittle bone disease and increases in bone cancers. Thus, accurate detection of fluoride levels in water and food sources as well as in body fluids is essential. </p> <p><a rel="noopener" data-id="7056" href="/media/4156/marketing-document-10-186-saha.pdf" target="_blank" title="Marketing document 10-186 Saha.pdf">Download PDF Version</a> </p> <h2>Applications:</h2> <ul> <li>Medicine and health applications, both commercial and consumer-oriented, to test for the presence of fluoride in tap water, foods, blood and urine</li> <li>Food industry applications, such as testing toothpaste, bottled water, and food products</li> <li>Commercial product to enable water purifier manufacturers to test the effectiveness of their products more easily and at a reduced cost</li> <li>Municipal water-testing applications, particularly field testing</li> <li>Humanitarian application for use in developing countries with few or non-existent fluoride testing tools or standards</li> </ul> <h2>Advantages:</h2> <ul> <li>Offers both colorimetric and fluorimetric detection</li> <li>Can detect fluoride presence and quantity in a variety of environments including water, food, gas/air, and body fluids</li> <li>The sensors are easy to synthesize, environmentally benign, and can detect a range of fluoride concentration levels, with high sensitivity at extremely low nanomolar concentrations</li> <li>Dip-stick and spot-test forms are easy to use, effective, and comparatively inexpensive to produce</li> <li>Tests are reversible, reusable (with power source), and recyclable (disposable), thus reducing waste and costs</li> </ul>
Advancing Wound Treatment with Saloplastic Dressings Dr. Joseph Schlenoff 10-019 Garrett Edmunds <p>The demand for medical wound dressings is universal. Ranging in use from treating minor cuts to traumatic injuries, medical wound dressings prevent infections and save lives. In the case of traumatic injury, current wound dressings often require the application of a variety of materials, such as a combination of wound-filling gels, gauze, tape, and splints. However, Dr. Schlenoff’s research and discovery of saloplastics can decrease the number of necessary materials needed since saloplastic dressings can treat multiple aspects of a wound.</p> <p>The process of creating saloplastics uses salt instead of heat to melt plastics made from blends of charged polymers. By placing layers of positively and negatively charged electrolytes on top of one another, their electrical charges cancel each other out and create a neutrally charged, ultrathin film. These ultra-thin polymer coatings are useful for producing biocompatible surfaces that can be implanted into the human body for medical purposes.</p> <p>Approximately 750,000 Americans suffer strokes each year. Worldwide, that number increases to 20 million people. Primary stroke damage occurs from blood clotting and secondary damage occurs when toxic byproducts, including hemin, are produced from the trauma experienced during a stroke. This condition, known as hemin toxicity, leads to cell damage and cell death that in turn may cause irreparable brain damage or death for the individual.</p> <p>With Dr. Schlenoff’s research, stents used for implantation inside coronary arteries during surgical procedures could be coated with an ultrathin film that prevents cells and proteins from adhering, thus avoiding a narrowing of the arteries and restriction of blood flow.</p> <p><a rel="noopener" data-id="7055" href="/media/4155/marketing-document-polymer-schlenoff.pdf" target="_blank" title="Marketing document polymer schlenoff.pdf">Download PDF version</a></p> <h2>Applications:</h2> <ul> <li>First responder scenarios</li> <li>Chronic Wounds</li> <li>Medical practitioners to consumers</li> <li>Military</li> </ul> <h2>Advantages:</h2> <ul> <li>Antibacterial, moldable when wet, and cast-like when dry</li> <li>Low heating temperatures, 45 – 55 degrees C, are needed to soften the material.</li> <li>One material can treat multiple aspects of a wound.</li> <li>Within minutes, the most serious wounds and breaks can be sealed and immobilized.</li> </ul>
Lightweight Sensor Material Systems and Their Method of Manufacturing Changchun (Chad) Zeng 15-162 Michael Tentnowski <p>Flexible, stretchable, highly sensitive and low-cost pressure sensors are key elements in advancing wearable or implantable measuring devices.</p> <p>The present invention provides a flexible piezoresistive sensor that exhibits improved piezoresistive sensitivity over other conventional flexible sensors currently available. The sensor is based on 3D porous auxetic materials and conductive materials coating layers. The sensing mechanism is the piezoresistivity of the conductive coating. The auxetic materials provide the overall sensing environment, and the unique auxetic properties enable high sensor sensitivity and larger sensing range.</p> <h2>Advantages:</h2> <ul> <li>The auxetic structure improves sensor performance compared to regular substrate.</li> <li>The unique auxetic properties, such as synclastic curvature, enable the fabrication of large area sensors of complicated contours and ensure accurate detection of signals.</li> </ul> <h2>Applications:</h2> <ul> <li>Wearable sensors</li> <li>Sports protection equipment</li> <li>Medical devices</li> <li>Underwater ultrasonic transducer</li> </ul>
Precision Polystyrene-sulfonate (PSS) Dr. Justin G. Kennemur 17-034 Garrett Edmunds <p>Recent research in the Kennemur Group has discovered a methodology for making a polystyrene-polyethylene-type copolymer analog .The reduction in phenyl branch periodicity for our system dramatically reduces the glass transition temperature (<em>T</em>­<sub>g</sub>) from 110 °C (PS) to ~17 °C (H<sub>2</sub>-P4PCP) and remains amorphous; this makes our system prone to improved softening and flexibility at ambient temperatures. Furthermore, due to the precise and diluted spacing of the phenyl branches, we envisioned that the full sulfonation (i.e. one sulfonate functionality per phenyl branch) of this polymer would create a new materials that rivals PSS due to the enhanced flexibility of the native polymer. Here it should be noted that ethylene and styrene monomers can be copolymerized to form ethylene-styrene copolymers (for example Dow INDEX ESI Interpolymers), however, the catalysts used are complex, styrene incorporation is not precise, and it is very difficult to achieve high styrene content due to the differences in reactivity between ethylene and styrene. </p>
Polymer Ligands for Nanoparticles Conjugation with Biomolecules Dr. Hedi Mattoussi 14-152 Garrett Edmunds <p>Professor Mattoussi developed polymer ligands that are optimally suited for surface-functionalizing magnetic nanoparticles. The amphiphilic polymers are prepared by coupling several amine-terminated anchoring groups, polyethylene glycol moieties, and reactive groups onto a poly(isobutylene-alt-maleic anhydride) (PIMA) chain. The reaction of maleic anhydride groups with amine-containing molecules is highly-efficient and occurs in one-step. The availability of several dopamine groups in the same ligand greatly enhances the ligand affinity, via multiple-coordination, to the magnetic NPs, while the hydrophilic and reactive groups promote colloidal stability in buffer media and allow subsequent conjugation with target biomolecules. Nanoparticles ligated with terminally reactive polymers have been easily coupled to target dyes and tested in live cell imaging with no measurable cytotoxicity.</p> dopamine,polymer,nanoparticle,ligand
Mechanical Decoupling in High-Temperature Superconducting Tapes David Hilton 11-075 Michael Tentnowski <p>The present invention describes a structure and method for creating and insulating high-temperature superconductor tapes that electrically insulates the conductors while mechanically decoupling them from the much stronger encapsulant. The concept of the invention is to use a conductor insulation which not only electrically insulates the conductors of the coil windings from each other, but also mechanically insulates them from the much stronger encapsulant. The insulation material mechanically decouples the conductor from the encapsulant at the boundary between them, thereby preventing damage as a result of thermal and electromagnetic shearing forces. The proposed structure allows the encapsulant to continue performing its functions of preventing coarse motion and stabilizing the coil as a whole, while allowing fine relative displacements of individual coil windings caused by radial stress gradients.</p> <p>This invention is counter-intuitive and new because during normal manufacture of a magnet, conductor insulation and encapsulant are expected to completely immobilize incorporated conductors to prevent damage of the conductors during cooling and energization due to thermal and electromagnetic tensile and shear stresses. Such stresses and damage, however, are the consequences of this expectation. Because shrinkage and not adhesion is the functional basis of the identified and incorporated thin-walled heat-shrink tubing, thermal and electromagnetic tensile and shear stresses are minimized at the boundary between the conductors and the encapsulant. This allows the use of a strong encapsulant, such as epoxy, which would otherwise be disallowed.</p>
A Practical Process to Densify High Temperature Superconducting Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+x (2212) Round Wire Before Coil Winding Maxime Matras 15-257 Michael Tentnowski <p>This invention describes the processing of Bi2Sr2CuO<sub>6+x </sub>(2122) oxide superconducting round wires so as to obtain a magnet with a dense and stable winding pack mad of dense, highly-textured oxide superconductor with high critical current density.</p> <p>The present invention overcomes the limitations of the prior art by pre-densifying the 2212 wire before it is wound on the coil form. The invention significantly reduces, and can even eliminate, the decrease in wire diameter that occurs during the final heat treatment when the coil receives its final OP heat treatment, thus avoiding changes to the geometry of the coil.</p> <p>The advantages of round wire, compared to tape, are its ability to be twisted, its electromagnetic isotrpy and its ability to be easily cabled.</p>
Photo-Induced Phase Transfer of Luminescent Quantum Dots Dr. Hedi Mattoussi 12-207 Michael Tentnowski <p>A method for the photo-mediated phase transfer of inorganic nanocrystals, such as luminescent quantum dots, QDs, is provided. Irradiation, specifically UV excitation (λ<sub class="style-scope patent-text">ex</sub>&lt;400 nm), promotes the in-situ ligand exchange of hydrophobic quantum dots with hydrophilic ligands and their facile transfer to polar solvents and buffer media. The technique enables transfer of quantum dots and other nanocrystal materials from hydrophobic to polar and hydrophilic solutions.</p> polar solvent,nanoparticle,phase transfer
Direct Conversion of Phenols into Amides and Esters of Benzoic Acid Dr. Igor Alabugin 10-128 Garrett Edmunds <p>Dr. Alabugin and his team have designed a method is for the preparation of an aromatic carboxylic acid aryl ester or an N-aryl aromatic carboxamide. The method comprises contacting an O,O-diaryl thiocarbonate or an O-aryl-N-aryl thiocarbamate with a reactant that regioselectively reacts with sulfur, which contact causes an O-neophyl rearrangement, thereby forming either the aromatic carboxylic acid aryl ester or the N-aryl aromatic carboxamide, respectively.</p>
A Universal Method for the Scalable Manufacturing of Macroscopic Nanomaterials Superstructures Changchun (Chad) Zeng 15-232 Michael Tentnowski <p>The present invention is a novel technology capable of continuously manufacturing on a large scale of superstructure based on a broad range of nanoparticles. The technology has the potential to be a cost-effefctive way to manufacture nanomaterials based macroscopic parts and components, whose properties approach to those of the individual nanoparticles.</p> <h2>Advantages:</h2> <ul> <li>Uses supercritical water as a moderate oxidizer to remove the catalyst and purify the carbon nanotubes. This approach is superior compared to other technology forits efficiency of catalyst removal and low impact to the CNT structure and properties.</li> <li>This process can be scaled-up to a continuous process to manufacture these assemblies in industrial scale.</li> </ul>
Heterogeneously Structured Conductive Carbon Fiber Composites by using Multiscale Silver Particles Shaokai Wang 14-012 Michael Tentnowski <p>This technology enhances the through thickness thermal conductivity (TTTC) of laminated graphite fiber fabric reinforced composites by applying nanoscale and microscale silver particles to construct heterogeneous thermally conductive paths along the composite's through-thickness direction.</p> <p>The FSU technology increased the TTTC of EWC300X/Epon862 composite to 3.51 and 4.33 W/(m•K), respectively.</p> <p>Silver flakes, copper particles, carbon black, carbon nanotubes, and aluminum powder have been applied to improve the thermal conductivity of polymer resins, and some have also been homogeneously applied in the fiber reinforced composite materials as fillers in matrix. The through-thickness thermal conductivities of the composites produced with these fillers were no more than 3.5 W/(m K), less than the FSU approach. Other changes increased performance compared to other approaches.</p> <p>The combination of microscale and nanoscale silver particles can effectively connect the conduction paths among intra- and inter-tow, resulting in greater thermal conductivity under the similar density.</p>
Improved Fire Retardant Materials Dr. Liang and Dr. Zhang 10-135 and 11-109 Michael Tentnowski <p>Current fire retardant polymer composites contain additives that weaken their structure. This invention foregoes those additives and adds a single layer of Buckypaper to the composite. The result is a structurally sound, fire-retardant polymer composite that is ideal for aircraft and ships, where fires can be devastating.</p> <p>Buckypaper is a free standing 'paper-like' material based on nanoscale dispersed carbon nanotubes. Due to its low density, small pore size, low gas permeability, chemical resistance and high thermal stability of carbon nanotubes, buckypaper acts as a physical protective layer to reduce fire spread, toxic smokes and gases generation during combustion. The nanotubes may also be applied using a spray method. The chemical inert nature of carbon nanotube also protects itself from atmosphere.</p> <p>The combustion nature of polymer-matrix system is a major technical challenge that has limited the use of composites on board warships and aircrafts. The introduction of nanotubes on the surface of polymeric composites reduces the fire hazard and toxic smoke and gases generation, which allows significant progress in fire retardant composites. Due to the high electrical conductivity of buckypaper, this new buckypaper-added polymeric composite material can also offer lightning strike protection and enhance EMI shielding properties of the composite structure, which is highly desired for aircrafts and ships structures.</p> <p><a data-id="6633" href="/media/3984/zhang2.pdf" title="zhang2.pdf">Download PDF Version</a> </p> <h2>Applications:</h2> <ul> <li>The primary applications of such materials are advanced composites which require good fire/smoke retardant properties, such as composite structures used on ships, aircraft, etc.</li> <li>Fire protection in aircraft where 40% of fatalities in impact-survivable accidents are due to fire, not impact</li> <li>Firewalls in virtually any structure</li> </ul> <h2>Advantages:</h2> <ul> <li>30-50 second delay in time to ignition</li> <li>50-60% reduction in toxic emissions and smoke upon combustion over the composite material to be protected</li> <li>Reduction in smoke can reduce fatalities caused by disorientation and inhalation</li> <li>Maintains the mechanical properties in the composite material to be protected</li> <li>Improved durability and adhesion over current fire retardant coatings</li> <li>Electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding properties</li> <li>Lightning protection</li> </ul>
Composite Materials Reinforced with Carbon Nanotube Yarns aka Fabricating Reinforced Transparent Composite by Using Carbon Nanotube Yarns Dr. Mei Zhang 11-055 Michael Tentnowski <p>This invention describes the fabrication of reinforced transparent composite by using the filler based on carbon nanotube (CNT) yarns. CNTs belong to a class of nanomaterial that has remarkable physical and mechanical properties. Their superlative mechanical properties make them the filler material of choice for composite reinforcement. However, it is difficult to uniformly disperse CNTs in matrix in high content or using long CNTs, hard to align CNTs in composite, and there is a weak interconnection between CNTs and matrix material. By using CNT yarns as filler, it overcomes the problems of CNT dispersion and alignment. The composite could have high mechanical properties and keep the transparency since CNTs in composite are well aligned and distributed as designed.</p> <p>This invention provides a solution for using CNTs to reinforce transparent materials, where the distribution, alignment, and content of CNTs are well controlled.</p> <p>The technology described has two main steps:</p> <ol> <li>Arranging CNT yarns into a desired pattern, and 2. embedding the pattern into the matrix material.</li> </ol> <p>The term "CNT yarn" is defined as a plurality of CNTs arranged to form a very-high aspect ratio, approximately cylindrical structure. The CNTs within the yarn are substantially parallel, in a local sense, to neighboring CNTs. The CNT yarns are a special assembly of CNTs. The CNT yarns could be made by solid-state process and wet process. The wet process involve disperse CNTs in solution and then spun into yarn (or called fiber). The solid-state processes are to assemble CNTs into yarn without solution.</p> <h2>Applications:</h2> <ul> <li>Reinforcing other materials, such as metals and ceramics with/without requirements to optical transparency</li> </ul>
A Method to Fabricate Highly Aligned Nanotube Buckypaper by Mechanically Stretching Thermoplastics /Buckypaper Composite Films Dr. Zhiyong (Richard) Liang 09-057 Michael Tentnowski <p>The present invention describes a method of creating lightweight efficient parabolic solar panels and a unique approach to realize improved alignment of nanotubes in buckypaper materials.</p> <p>This invention provides a new method to align carbon nanotubes in buckypapers by stretching thermoplastics/buckypaper films. Buckypaper is a thin film (approximately 20µm) of nanotube networks, which can be utilized in various products, such as composites, electronic devices and sensors. Since nanotubes are highly anisotropic in nature, the alignment of nanotubes in buckypaper is critical for achieving high mechanical performance and high electrical and thermal conductivity.</p> <h2>Applications:</h2> <ul> <li>This invention has an excellent potential for use in the mass production of high-performance nanotube and nanofiber-reinforced epoxy composites</li> <li>The significantly improved alignment is key factor toward realizing the potential of nanotubes for high mechanical, electrical and thermally conductive applications in composites and electronic devices</li> <li>The high-performance buckypaper nanocomposites can be used for EMI shielding, thermal management and structural materials applications</li> <li>Immediate applications include composite applications for aircraft and thermal management for electronic device package. High-performance buckypaper materials are also expected to be widely used to develop lightweight-conducting films and current-carrying materials for electronic products</li> </ul>
A Method of In-Situ Polymerization Functionalization of Nanotubes for Composite Applications Dr. Wang and Dr. Liang 08-096 Michael Tentnowski <p>This invention provides a novel technique to enhance carbon nanotube dispersion and interfacial bonding in epoxy-based nanotube nanocomposites through in-situ polymerization. The in-situ polymerization reaction grafts peroxide groups onto the surfaces of nanotubes and the functionalized carbon nanotubes or nanofibers react with epoxy resin during nanocomposites fabrication. This in-situ polymerization can lead to high-exfoliation and uniform dispersion of carbon nanotubes or nanofibers in the epoxy polymer matrix during modification of nanotube surface characters. Furthermore the in-situ reaction produces covalent bond between nanotubes or nanofibers and the epoxy polymer matrix during composite fabrication through drafted peroxide groups to substantially improve load-transfer between nanotubes and resin. The significantly improved dispersion and interface bonding considerably increase the load-transfer and acquire high performance.</p> <h2>Applications:</h2> <ul> <li>This invention has excellent potential for use in the mass production of high-performance nanotube and nanofiber reinforced epoxy composites for multifunctional applications, such as lightweight high-performance structural materials, electromagnetic interference, and thermal management materials, etc.</li> <li>Immediate applications include composite applications for aircraft, thermal management for electronic device package, etc. The yield rate using this method is almost I 00% and has the excellent potential for low cost mass production and scale-up.</li> </ul>
Pressure Sensors including an Ionic Conduction Sensing Mechanism Dr. Liu 08-132 Michael Tentnowski <p>The present invention describes thin film sensors for detecting the presence, intensity, and/or location of a compressive force, or pressure based on ionic conduction variation as the sensing principle. Upon wisely choosing soft materials-- elastomer-like polymer and polymeric gel electrolytes/polymer electrolytes in combination with appropriate patterning, the present invention offers low pressure level sensing and mapping capability with enhanced sensitivity. The sensor includes a plurality of conducting elements spaced apart from each other and at least one deformable electrolyte bridge contacting each of the conducting elements at one or more contact points having an aggregate contact area. Upon formation of an ionic circuit between two of the conducting elements, a first resistivity between the two conducting element exists. Upon application of a compressive force on the at least one deformable electrolyte bridge directed toward at least one of the conducting elements, the aggregate contact area increases such that a second resistivity between the two conducting elements exists. The difference between the first and second resistivity can be correlated with the pressure or mechanical displacement to be measured.</p> <h2>Applications:</h2> <ul> <li>This invention has numerous potential application in pressure sensing and mapping, e.g., seat occupancy detection for the automobile industry, tactile feedback for robots to sense and respond to environments, rehabilitation progress monitoring of a patient for the medical industry, biting force mapping in dentistry application, or measuring force on golf club grips.</li> </ul>
Carbon Nanotube and Polymeric Thin Film Assemblies for Pressure Sensing and Mapping Dr. Liang, Dr. Lu, Dr, Whang and Dr. Zhang 08-132 Michael Tentnowski <p>Pressure/force sensing technologies are used in a broad range of applications. Many pressure/force sensors are available, but thin film sensors are limited. Currently, the most common film pressure sensors are either resistive or capacitive, which are both reusable. This new technology utilizes the rupture of microcapsules filled with dyes for pressure sensing to create a disposable thin film mapping.</p> <p>The sensing assembly is composed of a top and bottom element. The top element is made of elastomer-like polymer with grooves that are filled with polymer gel electrolyte and the bottom is made of patterned conducting material thin film strips on top of flexible polymer film. When pressure is applied, a deformation of the material in the top element causes the gel to come in contact with the film strips, which creates an ionic-conducting path.</p> <p><a data-id="6119" href="/media/3841/liu2.pdf" title="Liu2.pdf">Download PDF Version</a> </p> <h2>Applications:</h2> <ul> <li>Seat occupancy detection in the automobile industry</li> <li>Tactile feedback for robots to sense and respond to environments</li> <li>Rehabilitation progress monitoring in the medical industry</li> <li>Bite force mapping in dentistry</li> <li>Measuring force of golf grips</li> </ul> <h2>Advantages:</h2> <ul> <li>Disposable</li> <li>Low percolation threshold</li> <li>Detects low levels of pressure sensing</li> <li>Utilizes ionic conduction as the major sensing mechanism</li> </ul>
Manufacturing of Superluminescent Light-Emitting Diodes with a Ternary Halide Perovskite/Polymer Composites Zhibin Yu 16-111 Michael Tentnowski <p>Halide perovskites have emerged as a new generation semiconducting materials for LED applications. A recent finding at the Flroida State University found by adding an ionic insulating polymer into the mixture of perovskite/ionic-conducting polymer the device can perform significantly better. The use of a ternary composite to replace the previously used binary composite can help optimize the morphology and crystallinity of the perovskite materials, which led to efficient charge injection and transportation in the composites.</p> <p>This invention allows LEDs to achieve a reach of 800,000 cd m-2, 40x higher than the previous record. These devices can also be switched on at 1.8V, 40 percent lower than the devices with a binary composite.</p>
Single Layer Emitting Diodes Using Organometal Halide Perovskite/Ionic- Conducting Polymer Composite Zhibin Yu 15-231 Michael Tentnowski <p>Organometal halide perovskite (Pero) materials have been recently intensively explored. They are ideal in forming optoelectronic devices due to their optical and electronic properties. For example, solar cells with a thin layer of methyl ammonium lead iodide have achieved about 20% power conversion efficiency, approaching the state-of-the-art performance of polycrystalline thin film solar cells. Pero materials also exhibit high photoluminescence yield and can be tuned to cover the visible spectrum, thus they are potentially valuable in light-emitting diodes (LEDs) for information displays and lighting luminaires.</p> <p>We have created single-layer LEDs using a composite thin film of Pero and poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO). In contrast to the multi-layer strategy, a simplified device structure is certainly advantageous in terms of processing flexibility and fabrication cost at the manufacturing stage. Our single-layer thin films are synthesized by a one-step spin coating process and have a device structure that resembles “bottom electrode (ITO)/Pero-PEO/top electrode (In/Ga or Au)”. In spite of the simple device structure, the green emission LEDs with methylammonium lead bromide (bromide-Pero) and PEO composite thin films exhibit a low turn-on voltage of ~2.8-3.1V (defined at 1 cd m<sup>-2 </sup>luminance), a maximum luminance of 4064 cd m<sup>-2</sup>  and a moderate maximum current efficiency of ~0.24-0.74 cd A<sup>-1</sup>. Such performance is on par with reported results in literature involving a more complex multi-layer device structure. Blue and red emissions LEDs have also been fabricated.</p>
Fully Printable Halide Perovskite Light-Emitting Diodes Zhibin Yu 16-064 Michael Tentnowski <p>Organometal halide perovskites (Pero) have been well known for their astounding opto-electronic properties and in their utilizations in photovoltaic cells and light emitting diodes (LEDs). They are highly efficient, have low processing temperatures, and are cost effective. For Pero solar cells, the highest power conversion efficiency has reached about 20%, which approaches the best efficiencies of thin film solar cells. With continuing efforts to improve device efficiency and operational stability, the next challenge is to develop Pero solar cells and LEDs using a scalable printing technique to fulfill the promise of large scale, low cost devices.</p> <p>The present technology is first to develop printed Pero LEDs on rigid indium tin oxide (ITO)/glass and flexible carbon nanotubes (CNTs)/polymer substrates. The devices have ITO or CNTs as the transparent anode, a printed composite film consisting of methyl ammonium lead tri-bromide (Br-Pero) and polyethylene oxide (PEO) as the emissive layer, and printed silver nanowires as the cathode. The printing process can be carried out in air without any deliberate control of humidity; in fact, printing the PEO/Br-Pero in air actually improves its photoluminescence properties. The light intensity, turn-on voltage, and maximum luminescence compare favorably to existing Pero LEDs that are made of multi-layer structures which are formed by more complex fabrication techniques.</p> <p>For more information, please see publication <a rel="noopener noreferrer" href="" target="_blank">here</a>.</p> <h2>Applications:</h2> <ul> <li>Scalable manufacturing of Pero <span class="small">based</span> opto-electronic devices for various surfaces</li> </ul> <h2><span class="small"> </span></h2> <p> </p>
Novel Method for Producing Ultra Small Iron Oxide Particles Dr. Joseph Schlenoff 12-166 Garrett Edmunds <p>The proposed invention describes methods of producing, in one pot, iron oxide nanoparticles of total diameter less than 10 nm bearing a stabilizing shell of zwitterion and associated compositions. The synthesis of zwitterated iron oxide nanoparticles was achieved by a modified Massart method by the addition of sulfobetaine siloxane either post-synthesis or before co-precipitation of iron salts (in situ). The particles are precipitated in the presence of a zwitterion siloxane which caps the particles and stabilizes them as soon as they are made.</p> <p>This fine tuning finds mass applications in data storage, catalysis, and in biotechnology and medicine. Detection, cell sorting, and diagnosis using iron oxide nanoparticles have been reported. However, their potential use as contrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or as magnetic fluids for hyperthermia treatment continues to be the driving force for their miniaturization and surface chemistry manipulation. The particles obtained using this new method are super stable and small enough to be excreted so that they do not remain in circulation after the imaging is finished.</p>
A New Organic Synthetic Route which Opens Access to a Variety of Graphene Substructures Dr. Igor Alabugin 12-027 Garrett Edmunds <p>Several approaches to graphene nanoribbons exist in the literature. However, in all of them the central part of the molecule is built first and then additional rings are added at the periphery via electrophile induced cyclization or oxidative cyclodehydrogenation. These methods are difficult to apply to the preparation of non-symmetric graphene nanostructures.</p> <p>Our approach utilizes a different class of starting materials and different chemistry for the formation of six-membered cycles. In our innovative approach, ortho polyyne chains of varying sizes, equipped with different functionalities, are built in a modular fashion using well-characterized and reliable cross-coupling chemistry. In the key step, these systems are then "zipped" up via an efficient cascade of fast and selective radical cyclizations. The selectivity of transformation is achieved via incorporation of a "weak link" - a chemically different functional group which can undergo transformation into a radical center in the presence of multiple alkynes.</p> <p>Since modular assembly allows each of the peripheral groups to be unique, it will allow preparation of graphene substructures with custom shapes and functionalities.</p>
Controlling the Architecture, Coordination and Reactivity of Nanoparticle Coating Starting from an Aminoacid Precursor Hedi Mattoussi 16-065 Garrett Edmunds <p><span>We have developed a versatile strategy to prepare a series of multi-coordinating and multifunctional ligands optimized for the surface-functionalization of luminescent quantum dots (DGs) and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) alike. Our two new sets of multi-dentate ligands can promote the dispersion of both QDs and gold nanoparticles in buffer media with colloidal stability over a broad range of conditions, while conferring compactness and biocompatibility. </span></p> <p><span>The present synthetic scheme starts from L-aspartic acid to develop a versatile platform that allows the controllable coupling of one or more LA groups, one or more polyethylene glycol (PEG) moieties, along with terminal reactive groups, yielding a series of molecular-scale ligands with various architectures and selective reactivity. By attaching various combinations of lipoic acid and PEG chains on the aspartic acid, via peptide coupling chemistry, we have prepared a series of reactive ligands presenting either one PEG chain appended with multiple lipoic acid, or multiple PEG chains attached onto one lipoic acid. </span></p> <h2>Advantages:</h2> <ul> <li><span>Offers a simpler version for preparing bis(LA-appended ligands compared to the Michael addition reaction we have previously employed </span></li> <li><span>Provides high reaction efficiency at each reaction step, the ligand synthesis can be easily scaled up and various functional groups can be attached easily </span></li> <li><span>Ligands are fully compatible with a mild photoligation strategy to promote the in-situ ligand exchange and phase transfer of hydrophobic QDs to buffer media</span></li> </ul>
A Reinforced Composite Bi2212 Superconductor using an Embedded Internal Oxygen Source Dr. Thomas Painter 09-165 Michael Tentnowski <p>The present invention comprises a method for making a composite superconductor and a superconductor.</p> <p>Superconducting filaments (using a material such as Bi2212) are embedded in a silver-containing matrix material (which may be substantially pure silver). Oxygen-containing filaments are also embedded in the matrix material with the oxygen containing filaments preferably being dispersed evenly among the Bi2212 wire. A surrounding reinforcement material contains the other elements and preferably seals the superconductor from the surrounding atmosphere. The composite superconductor is created using any suitable process, such as passing the constituents through one or more drawing dies. Once the materials are bonded together, the composite superconductor is subjected to one or more heat treatment processes. The oxygen within the oxygen-containing filaments reacts with the Bi2212 to form desired superconducting materials.</p>
Method of Large Scale Fabrication of High CNT Content Composites with High Mechanical and Electrical Performance Dr. Zhiyong (Richard) Liang 18-020 Michael Tentnowski <p>Carbon nanotubes are ideal for polymer matrix composites due to their mechanical and electrical properties. However, to date, the overall properties of CNT-polymer composites have not reached their full potential due to poor dispersion and low concentrations of CNTs. Our new scalable process yields high-CNT content (60 wt%) polymer composites using a simple, three-step process:</p> <ol> <li>A filament winding process that allows for control of CNT orientation and overall composite thickness.</li> <li>A mechanical stretching process that has shown improved CNT alignment and overall composite properties.</li> <li>A curing process under tension that further stretches and aligns the CNTs in the stress direction.</li> </ol> <p>These improved polymer composites are ideal for defense applications and deep space exploration.</p>
Improved Thermoelectric Materials and Devices Dr. Theo Siegrist 18-057 Michael Tentnowski <p>Thermoelectric refrigeration requires no moving parts nor circulating liquid. Thus, it is the most stable form of refrigeration as it is invulnerable to leaks and can be designed to fit applications of various shapes and sizes. Compared with current refrigeration methods, thermoelectric refrigeration is much more economically efficient and environmentally friendly. Ultra-low temperature cooling, in particular, requires critical conditions and is costly due to the price of liquid Helium. Therefore, companies, universities, research institutes would benefit from thermoelectric refrigeration.</p> <p>Florida State University has synthesized heavy-fermion compounds with power values that are orders of magnitude larger than that of most competitive and well known thermoelectric materials. Thus, a new generation of thermoelectric devices are now possible for use in satellites and spacecraft or cryogenic cooling at temperatures below liquid nitrogen.</p>
Novel Material and Manufacturing Method of Three-Dimensional Multi-Reinforced Composites Dr. Cheryl Xu 15-010 Brittany Ferraro <p>Fiber reinforced composites are desirable for structural applications because long fibers, such as carbon fibers, can help prevent brittle failure in structural materials. Fiber reinforced composites are limited by relatively low strength and toughness and lack of thermal/ electrical transport functionality. 3D fiber-reinforced composites made of carbon nanotubes are commonly created using chemical vapor deposition to grow nanotubes and fibers. The method of chemical vapor deposition can damage the strength and structure of carbon nanotubes, deteriorating desirable properties. There is a need for stronger fiber reinforced composites and a new method to create these composites that will not affect the structure.  </p> <p>Dr. Cheryl Xu developed a novel 3D composite with improved mechanical strength and thermal and electrical properties with an easy manufacturing process. These novel composites are made up of one or multiple sheets with carbon fibers woven in orthogonal direction bundles with carbon nanotubes embedded within the pores between the bundles. The composites demonstrate a remarkable improvement to mechanical strength and thermal and electrical conductivities when compared to composites created using chemical vapor deposition. The novel method to create this fiber reinforced composite does not involve any chemical reaction, and therefore does not affect the structural integrity. The manufacturing method is low cost and materializes 3D composite structures without altering the long fiber sheet.</p> <p><strong>Advantages</strong></p> <ul> <li>Improved mechanical strength</li> <li>Increased thermal and electrical conductivities</li> <li>Low cost manufacturing method</li> <li>Does not involve any chemical reaction</li> <li>Creates 3D sheets without altering the long fiber sheet</li> </ul> nanoparticle,nanoparticle sheet,3D nanofiber,nanofiber,composite,fabrication
Formation of Wear-Resistant Nanocomposite Layer on Aluminum Dr. Cheryl Xu 15-145 Garrett Edmunds <p>In structural applications where surface contact is involved the performance and useful life of suitable materials are mainly determined by their surface properties such as wear resistance and hardness. Aluminum-based materials are attractive for these types of structural applications in the aerospace, military, and transportation industries due to their light weight, high strength-to-weight ratio, and good corrosion resistance. However, the applications for aluminum-based materials are significantly limited, due to their poor surface properties, such as poor wear resistance which is evidenced as severe adhesive wear. Other materials, such as magnesium and titanium, also suffer from poor wear resistance, and therefore, applications with these materials are similarly limited.</p> <p>Al<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub>-Al composites containing a relatively high concentration of Al<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3 </sub>nanoparticles have been found to exhibit superior wear resistance by showing both significantly lower wear rates and desired abrasive wear. However, direct usage of these bulk nanocomposites is limited because of the resulting reduction in ductility and thermal conductivity. Furthermore, bulk processing typically used to manufacture Al<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub>-Al composites is time and energy intensive. There is a need for improved nanoparticle-reinforced composites that provide a hard, strong, wear-resistant surface while maintaining the ductility and thermal conductivity of the substrate material that, by itself, otherwise has poor surface properties.</p> <p>Dr. Cheryl Xu invented a method of surface enhancement that binds a hard wearable surface and ductile metal substrate without introducing an interface between them. The interface between these layers is often very weak. Dr. Xu’s method solves this problem and creates composites with strengthened wear resistance and surface hardness. This is accomplished while maintaining good ductility and thermal conductivity.</p> <p><strong>Advantages</strong></p> <ul> <li>Efficient manufacturing</li> <li>Eliminates de-bonding inherent in other surface coating techniques</li> <li>Easily applied to selected areas</li> <li>Low cost</li> <li>Process can be applied to non-flat surfaces</li> <li>Strengthened wear resistance and surface hardness while maintaining good ductility and thermal conductivity</li> </ul> nanoparticle,water-resistant,nanofiber,composite,coating,manufacture,manufacture method,process
Stabilized Nanoabrasive Suspensions for Chemical Mechanical Planarization Dr. Joseph Schlenoff 07-064 Garrett Edmunds <p>With modern advancements in the integrated circuit industry, Chemical Mechanilcal Planarization (CMP) has been widely adopted for high-precision fabrication processes. CMP creates a nearly-perfect flat surface on a silicon wafer by using mechanical polishing and a chemical slurry to remove unwanted conductive and dielectric materials. </p> <p>Two chief problems commonly faced by users of CMP are the tendency of the nanoparticles within the chemical slurry to agglomerate and the adherence of these particles to the surface of the wafer. Dr. Schlenoff has developed a silica nanoparticle with a modified surface that is well suited for these challenges. Importantly, these abrasive nanoparticles form stable suspensions. They resist aggregation or agglomeration without the need for surfactant additives and the additional steps required to remove the resulting residue. Additionally, they demonstrate minimal adhesion to the wafer surface.</p> <p><a href="" title="2x910 / CC BY-SA ("><img src="" alt="Si wafer" width="512" /></a></p>
Flexible and Eco-Friendly X-ray Scintillators Dr. Biwu Ma 20-031 Garrett Edmunds <p>Dr. Ma has recently developed highly efficient X-ray scintillators with state-of-the-art performance based on organic metal halide hybrids, which could be prepared using a facile solution growth method at room temperature to form inch-sized single crystals. These organic-inorganic hybrid materials with a zero-dimensional<br />(0D) structure at the molecular level exhibit tunable emissions in the visible spectrum region with high photoluminescence quantum efficiencies (PLQEs) of up to 100%. X-ray imaging tests have showed that scintillators based on powders could provide an excellent visualization tool for X-ray radiography, and<br />flexible scintillators could be fabricated by blending powders with polymer matrix, such as polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). </p> <p>These X-ray scintillators have numerous advantages over currently-used materials:</p> <ol> <li>The scintillation materials are low cost (~ 1/10 of commercially available products), i.e. room<br />temperature facile synthesis using abundant low cost raw materials;</li> <li>The scintillation materials are eco-friendly materials, i.e. lead-free, heavy metal-free;</li> <li>The X-ray scintillation characteristics are exceptional, i.e. higher light yields than most of the<br />conventional commercially available scintillation materials;</li> <li>It is straightforward to integrate scintillation materials with polymer matrices to make flexible X-ray material</li> </ol>
Lignin-based Biodegradable Plastic Dr. Hoyong Chung 20-006 Garrett Edmunds <p>Researchers at Florida State University have developed a cost-effective and non-polluting biodegradable polymer as an attractive alternative for current petroleum-based plastics. The material is prepared from cheap and naturally degradable biomass lignin and castor oil-based substances. After several years of use, the resulting degradation end products are environmentally non-toxic. The polymer can be used on its own or blended with other resins to achieve improved, tailor-made features.<br /><br />This material can be used as a replacement for petroleum-based plastics, including:<br />• Bottles<br />• Shopping bags<br />• Fishing nets<br />• Straws<br />• Multi-pack beverage rings</p> <p><strong>Advantages</strong><br />Compared to petroleum-based plastics:<br />• Biomass-based<br />• Biodegradable<br />• Sustainable</p> <p>Compared to other biodegradable plastics such as PLA and PHB:<br />• Biomass source – castor oil and lignin – is not food-based and not subject to global pressures<br />• Recyclable<br />• Low-cost<br />• Can be readily incorporated into existing conventional processes and machinery<br />• Tough, strong, and easily tunable<br />• Totally synthetic manufacturing process</p> Bioplastic,Bioresin,Biodegradable,Green Material,Plastic,Lignin,Castor Oil
Anhydrous Polyelectrolyte Drying Agents Dr. Joseph Schlenoff 21-026 Garrett Edmunds <p>Dr. Schlenoff has developed "Thirsty Saloplastics", polyelectrolyte complexes that efficiently dry solvents down to the parts-per-million level. Many small-scale and industrial-scale processes require the use of solvents or gases absent of water, as "wet" or "humid" reagents may produce undesirable reactions or may even be corrosive. There is a need for drying agents which absorb even trace amounts of water, can be reactivated at low temperatures for re-use, and have high water capacity. Dr. Schlenoff's polyelectrolyte complexes (PECs) dries solvents at a level comparable to commercially available adsorbents and are non-toxic and easy to produce. PECs are prepared by mixing solutions of positive and negative polyelectrolytes; the resulting powder can be readily extruded to form a tougher more efficient material.</p> <ul> <li>When compared to other drying agents, PEC: <ul> <li>has the lowest activation temperature at 120 <span>°C</span></li> <li>released the least amount of dust after drying</li> <li>has the highest water capacity at about 40 wt%</li> </ul> </li> <li>PECs are thermally stable and non-toxic</li> <li>The drying efficiency of PECs increases with decreasing solvent polarity and works best in non-polar solvents <ul> <li>However, even polar solvents were dried to sub-PPM levels after sufficient time has passed</li> </ul> </li> </ul> Desiccant,Adsorbent,anyhydrous,saloplastic
Composite Coating on Stainless Steel Tape for Insulation in HTS Magnets Jun Lu 13-117 Michael Tentnowski <p>Stainless steel tapes are dip coated with a tape withdrawal speed of ~16 mm/s, dried at ~300 °C for 10-20 seconds, followed by a calcination process at 600 °C.  This system consists of a pay-off and a take-up spool with a driving mechanism, a vertical two zone furnace, and a dip tank. The sol-gel solution to powder loading ratio was fixed at a composition that contained enough sol-gel solution to bind the powder to produce thick and adherent coating.</p>
Halide Perovskite-Polymer Composites for High Energy Photon Detection and Protection Dr. Zhibin Yu 18-048 Michael Tentnowski <p>An FSU researcher created a novel material comprised of halide perovskite crystals embedded in a polymer matrix for radiation blocking and detection. The material is lightweight and lead free. Other materials require expensive and long manufacturing processes, but this novel material can be manufactured in a variety of ways such as solution-based drop casting, hot pressing, melt extrusion, injection molding, and 3D printing, to save time and money. Electrodes can be embedded in the material for passive and accurate x-ray and gamma-ray detection.  </p> <p>Third party independent testing has shown that the material is 50% more effective than current state of the art radiation blocking technology. These semiconducting nanocrystals are uniformly dispersed in the polymer matrix to not only block radiation but also detect high energy radiation.</p>
Improvement of Electromagnetic Interference Shielding through the Optimization of Carbon Nanotube Buckypaper Layup Stacking in Composites Dr. Richard Liang 09-055 Michael Tentnowski <p>FSU researchers created a novel technique to improve the lightweight electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding properties based on preformed thin films or buckypaper layers made of single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT), multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWNT), carbon nanofibers (CNF), and their mixed forms in composites.  Carbon nanotubes are promising material for EMI shielding because of their electrical conducting properties and lighter weight compared to metal. Film materials made of entangled network using carbon nanotubes, called buckypapers (BP), provides free standing films. The film materials are easy to be use and integrate into various structures and composites fabrication processes to reduce manufacturing cost. Nanotube buckypapers can have an areal density from 18.1 g/m<sup>2</sup> to 21.5 g/m<sup>2</sup>, while offering electrical conductivity as high as 50S/cm to 8,000S/cm.</p> <p>To improve the EMI shielding effectiveness (SE), layers of BP were stacked together. The absorption loss increased due to the increased thickness of conducting material since the thickness of individual BP layers is usually less than 30 mm. However, in experiments, the EMI SE does not linearly increase with the increased of number of BP layers directly stacked together. Since the absorption contribution to the total SE is small as a result of directly stacking multiple BP layers together, we discovered a new method to effectively utilize internal multiple reflection effects to further improve the SE. This invention achieves high EMI shielding effectiveness by inserting polymer insulators in between conducting nanotube buckypaper layers in composites.</p>
Method for Making High-Performance Carbon Nanotube Reinforced Polymer Composites through Integrating Alignment and Tailored Degree of Functionality Richard Liang 10-134 Michael Tentnowski <p>This invention provides a novel technique to make high-performance carbon nanotube (CNT) polymer composite through integrating alignment and tailored degree of functionalization of carbon nanotubes. Lack of alignment, weak interface bonding, and low CNT concentration are major obstacles for developing high mechanical performance CNT reinforced composites. The team at FSU has developed several unique techniques to realize alignment and interfacial bonding improvement through chemical functionalization. With the demonstrated alignment and tailored functionalization, record-high mechanical performance of CNT polymeric matric composites can be achieved. Active epoxide groups on CNTs created through the chemical functionalization can react with amine and phenolic hydroxyl groups. Therefore, interfacial bonding between nanotube and matrices, such as epoxy and bismaleimide (BMI) resin, can improve resulting nanocomposites. Specifically, the proper combination of alignment enhancement and tailored functionalization led to record high mechanical and electrical performance. This novel method created high mechanical properties exceeding state-of-the-art carbon fiber composites which are widely sued in aerospace, defense, and sporting goods, etc.</p>
Flexible/embeddable 3D Wire-Shaped Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSCs) in Solid State using Carbon Nanotube Yarns (CNYs) with Hybrid Photovoltaic Structure for Sensing Dr. Okenwa Okoli 14-224 Michael Tentnowski <p>Dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) is a photoelectrochemical (PEC) system based on a semiconductor formation with a photo-sensitized anode, a conductive cathode and an electrolyte. The incorporation of conventional flat cells with FTO substrates may yet prove challenging to the integrity of engineering structures due to their rigid substrates and unavoidable thickness. FSU researchers created hybid flexible wire shaped DSSCs to replace conventional devices with similar functions. These novel structures possess higher flexibility on a smaller scale for novel integration. Moreover, the hybrid sensitizer realize both MEG effects and multiple electron transmission paths, which can improve the cell performance to a large extend.</p> <p>The 3D PY sensor construction is embedded smart composites with intrinsic triboluminescent/mechanoluminescent (TL/ML) features. Hybrid wire-shaped DSSC was developed as PY sensor using as a tool in TL-based structural health monitoring (SHM) system. The current design allows it to capture, convert, and transport light signal for TL events for the detection of damage and in-situ SHM. It also allows for the harvesting of energy in systems.</p> <p>Novel Features:</p> <p>-High flexibility when applying wire-shaped DSSC to replace conventional FTO glass based rigid device.</p> <p>-CNTs are light weight, and exhibit strong mechanical performance, and significant electrical and chemical properties, all which make it competitive when replacing other metal wires in the research.</p> <p>-The combination of two efficient quantum dots (QDs) has been first applied into wire-shaped DSSCs and the effects of QDs have been enlarged when acting in concert with porous TiO2.</p> <p>-All soli- state fabrication method ensures stable mechanical properties and illustrates the simplicity of assembly, which also provides a protection to cell itself.</p> <p>-The novel small size wire shaped DSSC has been proved to maintain stable under various working environment, which is beneficial for future installment and other engineering applications.</p>
Integrated Setup for Continuously Manufacturing Carbon Nanotube Buckypaper Materials Gerald Horne 15-089 Michael Tentnowski <p>A novel custom-designed setup and system to produce high quality continuous carbon nanotube buckypaper (CBP) materials has been created. A fully automated system was developed to produce 6 inch-wide continuous roll-to-roll of buckypaper materials. The technology includes two major engineering designs, consisting of (1) continuous sonication process of high-quality and large quantity CNT suspension preparation, and (2) automation filtration process by preciously controlling the filter membrane movement and the automatically separating the membrane from buckypaper. Our tests resulted in demonstrating that the continuous sonication setup can produce up to 300Uday high quality CNT suspensions and achieved 5 feet per hour or greater production rate of 6 inch-wide continuous buckypaper materials, with an aerial density ol 2-10 GSM (g/m2) buckypaper materials. This production speed is about 10x higher than previous models we developed by implementing a large filtration area and using a high concentration of CNT suspension. The system also features an automatic filter member movement, drying process and CBP/filter member separation fully controlled by Micro PLC Controllers. The system only requires one person to operated, compared to the need at least four people to operate previous prototypes. The system can produce up to 1,000 ft long or longer CBPs and is only limited by the available length of filter members.</p>
Method of Large Scale Fabrication of Continuous CNT Cable/ Sheet with High Conductivity and Stability Richard Liang 17-033 Michael Tentnowski <p> </p> <p>This invention offers a novel technique to fabricate large-scale, lightweight electrically conductive cable using carbon nanotubes (CNTs). CNTs have good intrinsic electrical conductivity. However, entangled structures of CNTs in the form of yam or sheet has lower conductivity due to intertube contact resistance and gaps in between. Lightweight and high electrically conductive CNT materials can be used for cables for such applications as signal or power transmission, electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding in electronic devices and lightning protection in aircraft etc.</p> <p>An integrated approach of three major steps was used to improve the CNT sheet conductivity:</p> <p>1) Mechanical stretching of entangled CNT sheets provides CNT alignment. Random and pristine CNT sheets in rolls were continuously stretched producing narrow and densely packed CNT networks, which reduced intertube contact resistance. With increased alignment, conductivity improved two or three times higher compared to the pristine, randomly aligned CNT sheets. This process can be performed continuously and scale-up production is possible.</p> <p>2) A doping approach increases the carrier concentration of CNTs. For this purpose, vapor phase iodine doping was adopted, which can be expanded to other oxidizing liquids (acids such as HNO3, HCI or SOCh). Upon this chemical doping process, conductivity improved 3-4 times and a final room temperature conductivity of 10,000 <em>Siem </em>(up to 13,000 Siem). The doping process is a typical diffusion process and conductivity saturated after several hours, and its speed is depended on the packing of CNTs and mobility of the dopant and followed by time.</p> <p>3) An approach to coating dramatically increased the cable stability. After doping process, the dopants are diffused out and kept inside the CNT yams/sheets to maintain the conductivity. For this purpose, doped CNT sheets were dipped in air stable conducting polymer, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)poly(styrenesulfonate)(PEDOT:PSS). The thin polymer coating on the surface provides synergetic effects for the conductivity and a protection layer. Different polymer layers, such as polyvinyl ch loride, polyethylene and rubber can also be used as protection layers as for conventional cables.</p>
Deterministic Nucleation for Halide Perovskite Thin Films with Large and Uniform Grains Dr. Zhibin Yu 17-040 Michael Tentnowski <p>In recent years, remarkable optoelectronic properties have been discovered in a group of halide perovskite semiconductors. Their potential to invigorate the current solar cell and light-emitting diode (LED) industries has been demonstrated by achieving very high device efficiencies in relatively short periods. While higher efficiency records are pursued, an equally important task is to improve their device reliability. So far, most reported perovskite solar cells and LEDs employed a polycrystalline thin film for light absorbing or light emitting purposes. The size of the grains in such films typically varied from sub-100 nanometers to a few micrometers. The high density of grain boundary defects can trap charge carriers and aid the diffusion of water molecules and ionic species in the perovskites, deteriorating their structural integrity and transportation properties in long-term applications.</p> <p>We recently have invented a new process enabling the formation of perovskite thin films with a ultra-large and uniform grain size. The large grain size will significantly reduce the density of grain boundaries, and the films perform nearly the same as single crystalline materials. In addition, the simple solution process in our approach will potentially more practical to scaled up for future high throughput industrial production. The new discovery is based on our scientific understanding to precisely control the nucleation sites and nucleation densities of halide perovskites during film formation on a substrate.</p> <p>Our halide perovskite thin films with large and uniform grains can exhibit enhanced structural and morphological stability in ambient air. For instance, efficient LEDs had been made with our methylammonium lead tribromide films after exposing them in air for three months without encapsulation. Our halide perovskite thin films also showed greatly reduced ionic migration tendency under an external electrical field. Photo-detectors had been fabricated using our methylammonium lead triiodide films. The devices exhibited 10 times lower dark current at a constant applied voltage compared to devices with conventional halide perovskite thin films that were processed using previously reported methods. In addition, no measurement hysteresis was observed in our halide perovskite thin films when a dynamic voltage was applied at both dark and illuminated conditions.</p>
Lightweight and Flexible Heat Sink from Carbon Nanotube Sheet Dr. Richard Liang 18-028 Michael Tentnowski <p>FSU researchers created a lightweight and flexible heat sink based on carbon nanotube (CNT) sheet which can also be expanded to other lightweight sheets such as graphene and boron nitride free-standing sheets. CNTs have good electrical and thermal conductivity with large surface to volume ratio due to its nanostructures and these properties are good for heat dissipation. Compared to the conventional aluminum heat sink or copper heat pipes, CNT sheets are more lightweight and have more flexibility; this reduces the manufacturing cost and makes it possible for versatile application with easier shape deformations.</p> <p>Different CNTs can be used for free-standing sheet fabrication either multi-walled CNT and/or double-walled CNT. Entangled CNT structures show voids and large surface area and this also increase the convective heat dissipation in addition to the thermal conduction. Also the novel heat sink design has increased surface area to enhance the convective heat dissipation and flexible CNT sheet can increase the design freedom of the heat sink with higher number of fins for larger surface area for convection. Furthermore, the overall thermal conductivity is low.</p>
A Method for Making Ultralow Platinum Loading and High Durability Membrane Electrode Assembly for PEMFCS Dr. Jim Zheng 18-032 Garrett Edmunds <p>FSU researchers have created a method of making membrane electrode assembly (MEA) which has following characteristics:</p> <p>(1) the unique microstructure and well-connected nanotubes network ensures a high electron conductivity</p> <p>(2) the platinum group metal (PGM) nanoparticles are de posited electrochemically in a liquid solution on the outermost surface area of an established porous CNT/CNF buckypaper network such that the locations of these nanoparticles are accessible by both electrons and gas</p> <p>(3) the surfaces of deposited PGM nanoparticles and buckypaper network are coated in a layer of Nafion electrolyte using electrophoretic deposition (EPD) in a Nafion monomer solution and combined with  the liquid dropping method, in order for the PGM nanoparticles to be accessible by protons.</p> <p>This method provides a novel approach to fabrication of the “ideal” membrane electrode assembly (MEA) in which most of the platinum group metal (PGM) catalytic particles are located at sites that satisfy the triple-phrase boundary (THB) condition and maximize the PGM usage.</p>
Electro-Coating Method for Uniform Layer Thickness of Perovskite Material on Carbon Wire-Shaped Substrates Dr. Okenwa Okoli 18-035 Michael Tentnowski <p>This novel method allows the individual to predictably and repeatably coat semi-conductive wire shaped materials (such as carbon nano-tube yarn (CNY)) with perovskite solution (CH3NH3Pb13). Perovskite is a rising star in the photo-voltaic community. With the research community rushing to bring 2D planar perovskite solar cells to market, coating/manufacturing methods for 3D structures have been left behind. Controllable and uniform heating of the substrate is necessary for a high-quality perovskite layer. Due to the complex 3D geometry of wires, the repeatable control and uniform heating of CNYs has not been possible until this method was created. Here we use Joule Heating to accurately and stably control the temperature of the wire in order achieve a uniform perovskite layer. Not only does this method add control and repeatability to the process, but it is also more energy efficient than any other published method. This makes this process ideal for scalable research applications and eventually industrial fabrication of wire-shaped perovskite LEDs, photo-detectors, and solar cells.</p> <p>Advantages:</p> <p>- Uses less energy than other methods, making it a strong candidate for scalable manufacturing as perovskite solar cells continue to rise in efficiency and performance.</p> <p>- Provides instant heating and cooling to the substrate using Joule heating.</p> <p>- Allows for the instantaneous control over heating of the substrate by merely adjusting the power source.</p>
Solid-state Upconversion for Photovalics and Infrared Sensing Dr. Lea Neinhaus 20-003 Garrett Edmunds <p>This is a novel bulk-semiconuctor material that provides a new approach to photon upconversion. Infrared light is neither visible to the eye nor to silicon-based optoelectronic devices such as solar cells or cameras. Upconversion describes the process of converting low-energy infrared light into high-energy visible light, which can then be detected or used by optoelectronic devices. Upconversion in organic molecules stores energy in long-lived spin-triplet states which cannot be excited by incident light. Current, state-of-the-art upconversion devices involve metal-organic complexes and/or nanocrystals as sensitizers to absorb and funnel energy for collection. These devices are limited by poor exciton diffusion or large exchange energies between the singlet and triplet states.</p> <p>To overcome these limitations, the current technology uses bulk-semiconductor thin films as sensitizers for the triplet state to achieve efficient upconversion based on triplet-triplet annihilation. The thickness of the film can be varies, which enables the shift of the threshold of efficient upconversion to subsolar incident powers. This approach foregoes the requirement of efficient singlet-to-triplet conversion in the sensitizer, enabling more efficient triplet sensitization.</p> <p>This technology bears potential to overcome the Shockley-Queisser limit efficiency limit of solar cells. It additionally can find use in infrared sensing and photocatalysis.</p>
Flexible, Stretchable, Electrically Conductive Adhesive And Coating Dr. Hoyong Chung 20-005 Garrett Edmunds <p>This FSU developed polymer is a broadly applicable, multifunctional electronic adhesive and coating. The design of the polymer enables solvent-free electric conductivity, interfacial adhesion, flexibility, stretchability, water-compatibility, thin thickness, thermoplasticity, and transparency, with low production costs.</p> <p>With flexible and wearable electronics becoming more commonplace, new compatible technologies will be needed to support and promote their use. The Electrically Conductive Adhesive (ECA) fills a need by providing a useful, multi-functional polymer for use in a variety of fields from battery binding to flexible displays.</p> <p>The current generation of heterogenous electronically conducting polymers suffers from poor adhesion resulting in high energy loss, signal error, and undesirable electrical resistance. Additionally, they experience phase separation, severe stiffness, and rapid aging. The ECA has a well-defined block polymer structure and controllable crosslinking behavior, resulting in a long-lasting material with strong adhesive properties, high electrical conductivity, and flexibility.</p> <p>Electrically conducting polymers must have both adequate adhesive and conductive properties to fulfill their purposes. Traditional conducting polymers will generally use fillers to achieve conductivity; however, this leads to many drawbacks including severe phase separation, deterioration of mechanical properties, and shortened lifetime of the material. Currently available materials that attempt to overcome these challenges are costly and relatively poor conductors per unit mass of material. The ECA is a homogenous polymer that intrinsically overcomes these barriers at a fraction of the cost.</p> <p>The ECA promises to improve performance and reduce costs of applications wherever electrically conducting polymers are found.</p> <p>For example, graphite anodes are begrudgingly used in lithium-ion batteries as the higher capacity Silicon anode has poor tolerance for existing PVDF binders during charge/discharge cycles. ECA could be a suitable replacement that improves battery performance ten-fold.</p> <p>Solar cells need excellent adhesion and conductivity between the Silicon substrate and photovalic device, which ECA provides.</p> <p>Existing mechanical strain sensors have problems due to short detection ranges and poor flexibility. ECA can accurately transfer electronic signals upon long-range movement on uneven surfaces, promoting its use in biomedical motion sensors and smart fabrics.</p> <p>ECA can work in OLED displays that are thin, flexible, stretchable, rollable, and lightweight.</p> <p>ECA can also be used as an anti-corrosive conductive coating material. It undergoes a redox process that controls the surrounding counter ions on metal surfaces, preventing localized corrosion</p>
Efficient and Stable Pigment-Coated Perovskite Solar Cells Dr. Biwu Ma 21-002 & 21-038 Garrett Edmunds <p>Low-cost, nontoxic, highly stable industrial organic pigments are utilized as surface passivation agents for perovskite solar cells (PSCs).</p> <p>Next-generation thin-film perovskite solar cells have been shown to have major advantages over their silicon-based counterparts. They are low-cost, highly efficient, and are simple to synthesize from earth-abundant materials. However, to become truly competitive with current on-the-market solar cells, PSCs need to overcome the challenge of long-term stability while maintaining their ability to be mass-produced.</p> <p>Dr. Biwu Ma of Florida State University has developed a method to apply a layer of organic pigments to PSCs as a passivation agent, increasing the useable lifespan of these solar cells. The pigments are well-known, low-cost, and have been shown to improve the efficiency PSCs; in one experiment, the efficiency of a solar cell was increased from 18.9% to 21.1% with the application of the pigment.</p> <p>The pigments are applied via solution processing of soluble pigment derivatives followed by thermal annealing to convert them into insoluble coating. This enables effective passivation through strong interactions organic pigments and the metal halides of the solar cell. Together with the hydrophobicity of the coating, this enables highly efficient PSCs with remarkable stability.</p> <p>News article: <a href=""></a></p>
Sustainable Bioplastic from Pine Trees Dr. Justin Kennemur 21-008 Garrett Edmunds <p>Researchers at Florida State University have developed a method of converting α-pinene, sourced from forestry biomass, into an isomeric form that renders it suitable for polymerization. The resulting material is predicted to have ballistic, barrier, and mechano-responsive properties. This presents a cheap and new plastic material based on a feedstock that is available on an industrial scale. The conversion method utilizes commercially available catalyst systems and can be performed at scale.</p> <p><strong>Applications</strong></p> <p>Replacement for commonly used petroleum-based plastics, including:</p> <ul> <li>Bottles</li> <li>Shopping bags</li> <li>Fishing nets</li> <li>Straws</li> <li>Multi-pack beverage rings</li> </ul> <p><strong>Advantages</strong></p> <ul> <li>Presents a significant advancement over α- and β-pinene polymers in terms of ease of manufacture</li> <li>Can be harvested sustainably through tapping or through forestry by-products</li> <li>Resistant to ill-effects brought on by contamination</li> <li>Has similar desirable properties when compared to commercially available petroleum-based plastics</li> </ul> <p>News article:</p> <p> </p> <p>Research Article:</p>
Oxygen-substituted, Solid-state, Lithium-ion Batteries Yan-yan Hu 21-033 Garrett Edmunds <p>Lithium-ion batteries have quickly become an integral part of everyday life with their use in laptops, smartphones, electric vehicles, etc. However, a major safety concern of commercial Lithium Ion Batteries stems from the use of flammable organic electrolytes. To overcome this, solid electrolytes have been extensively studied, especially Li<sub>3</sub>PS<sub>4</sub> because of its stability against lithium and low cost. Li<sub>3</sub>PS<sub>4</sub> does have the draw back of having a staggering decrease in ionic conductivity due to a lack of stability in its highly conductive β-phase; stabilizing this phase promises to provide access to a range of next-generation batteries that are stable and highly efficient.</p> <p>Dr. Yan-yan Hu and her team at FSU have developed a range of oxygen-substituted materials with the structure Li<sub>3</sub>PS<sub>4-x</sub>O<sub>x</sub> (0 &lt; x &lt; 1) that are more stable and provides up to a seven-fold increase in ionic conductivity and a lower activation energy compared to experimental β-Li<sub>3</sub>PS<sub>4</sub>. Additionally, they have developed a method to synthesize the material through high-energy ball-milling.</p> <p>The result is a high-performance battery with fast Li-ion transport and decreased activation energy. Coupled with a facile synthetic method, the enhanced electrochemical performance of this material makes it a great candidate for next generation solid-sate batteries.</p> Battery,Lithium-ion,Solid-state
Efficient, Earth-abundant Electrocatalytic Material for Water Oxidation Dr. Michael Shatruk 19-009 Garrett Edmunds <p>AlFe<sub>2</sub>B<sub>2</sub> exhibits excellent electrocatalytic performance in oxygen-evolution reactions, and is inexpensive, facilely synthesized, and comprised of earth-abundant elements.</p> <p>Key Benefits</p> <ul> <li>AlFe<sub>2</sub>B<sub>2 ­</sub>serves as an excellent oxygen-evolution reaction (OER) pre-catalyst and has long-term stability under alkaline conditions.</li> <li>This material outperforms well-known platinum group metal catalysts, including IrO<sub>2</sub> and RuO<sub>2</sub>, as well as Co- and Ni- containing noble-metal-free catalysts</li> <li>The material is made of readily available and inexpensive materials and is synthesized simply by arc-melting followed by ball-milling.</li> </ul> <p>Technical Summary</p> <p>Fast depletion of fossil fuels drives extensive research efforts aimed at the development of renewable energy sources, including water electrolysis to produce fuel cells. The state-of-the-art electrocatalysts are Pt, IrO<sub>2</sub>, and RuO<sub>2</sub>, which are expensive and limited in their reserves. AlFe<sub>2</sub>B<sub>2</sub> is a promising alternative due to its low-cost and lack of noble-metal elements. AlFe<sub>2</sub>B<sub>2</sub> acts as a scaffold for the <em>in situ</em> formation of catalytically active Fe<sub>3</sub>O<sub>4</sub> nanoclusters. The material is exceptionally efficient and exhibits substantially lower overpotentials at all current densities when compared to commonly used electrocatalysts. The material is also remarkably stable and an overpotential value of 240 mV was observed at a constant current density of 10 mA cm<sup>-2</sup> for more than ten days. These outcomes establish AlFe<sub>2</sub>B<sub>2</sub> as a highly active and inexpensive OER electrocatalyst with remarkable long-term stability.</p> <p>Development Stage</p> <p>AlFe<sub>2</sub>B<sub>2</sub> has been thoroughly tested and evaluated in a laboratory setting and is currently undergoing further testing and refinement in industry-scale environments. Further research into improved variations are also ongoing.</p> <p> </p>
LEDs from Metal Halide Perovskites Dr. Biwu Ma 18-034 Garrett Edmunds <p><span>Metal halide perovskites have emerged as a new class of low-cost solution processable semiconductor materials with applications in a variety of optoelectronic devices, from photovoltaics, to photodetectors, lasers, and light emitting diodes (LEDs). Efficient electrically driven LEDs with green light emission based on lead bromide perovskites, such as MAPbBr3 and CsPbBr3 have been achieved. While electrically driven perovskite LEDs have shown great promise with the device efficiency approaching to those of organic and quantum dot LEDs, a number of challenges, such as long-term stability and color tunability, remain to be addressed before the consideration of commercialization. For full-color display and solid-state lighting applications, highly efficient blue and red LEDs are required in addition to green ones, which however have yet achieved comparable device performance for perovskites-based devices. To implement red perovskite LEDs, two major strategies have been attempted to date, one relying on mixing halide, and the other involving the control of quantum well structures. Mixing halide has been shown to enable precise color tuning of photoluminescence and electroluminescence of perovskite LEDs. However, mixed halide perovskites show relatively low photoluminescence quantum efficiency. More critically, mixed-halide perovskites suffer from low spectral stability due to ion migration and phase separation under illumination and electric field. the change of electroluminescence color during the device operation has been observed in all LEDs based on mixed-halide perovskites. In this invention disclosure, we report bright and efficient red perovskites LEDs with great spectral stability by using quasi-2D halide perovskites/polymer (i.e. PEO, PVK, PIP, etc.) composite thin films as the light-emitting layer. By controlling the molar ratios of large organic salt (i.e. benzyl ammonium iodide, phenethylammonium iodide, butylammonium iodie, etc.) and inorganic salts (Csl and Pbl2), FSU researchers have been able to obtain luminescent quasi-2D perovskite thin films with tunable colors from red peaked at 615 nm to deep red peaked at 676 nm. The perovskites/polymer composite approach enables quasi-2D perovskite/PEO composite thin films to possess much higher photoluminescence quantum efficiencies and smoothness than their neat quasi-2D perovskite counterparts. Advantages include: 1. These quasi-2D halide perovskites/polymer composite thin films have high photoluminescence quantum efficiency and superior thin film morpology. 2. Electrically driven LEDs with tunable emissions based on quasi-2D halide perovskites/polymer composite thin films have been achieved with superior device performance. 3. These devices show exceptional EL spectra stability and device performance stability.</span></p> <p> </p> <p><span>Key Words : Chemical Synthesis, LEDs, Perovskites</span></p>
Organic Photovoltaic Materials for Mechanoluminescence Sensing and Structural Health Monitoring Okenwa Okoli 22-052 Michael Tentnowski <p>Structural health monitoring (SHM) is an essential tool for ensuring safety and integrity while detecting the progression of damage within engineering structures to estimate expected failure.1-4 This is usually done over time through periodically sampled response measurements to monitor changes in material and geometrical properties of a given system. Take a commercial aircraft, for example, that usually travels at around 580 MPH. Any impact at this speed could cause damage to the material.  If it goes unnoticed, then it will progress and further risk ultimate failure or the lives of that on-board.5 Because of situations like this, there is a demand for a real-time SHM device within damage-prone systems.  A proposed idea to meet the demand is a flexible mechanoluminescent (ML)-organic photodiode. The device consists of a photodiode constructed on top of an ML layer which emits light when it experiences some mechanical action, such as pressure.</p> <p>Organic photovoltaic (OPV) materials can be used as a photo-absorbing layer for ML light. This OPV layer is made up of a blend of donor polymer, poly (3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl (P3HT), and non-fullerene acceptor (BTP-4F or Y6). The broad ultraviolet-visible to near-infrared light absorption and excellent charge transport efficiency make P3HT:Y6 active materials a promising alternative as the light absorbing layer to detect photon emission from the ML layer in flexible organic photodiodes for sensing and SHM. The pressure sensor is a vertical device structure of indium tin oxide (ITO)/tin oxide (SnO2)/P3HT:Y6/silver (Ag) electrode. The current-voltage measurements revealed that the P3HT:Y6 OPVs exhibited an excellent rectification ratio.  When this technology is coupled with a software and data acquisition system, sensor’s data can be received and interpreted</p> <ul> <li>Advantages:</li> <li>The response time measurement demonstrated that the device has an impressive response speed. The three-point bending test unveiled that the pressure sensor possesses excellent stability after several cycles.   </li> </ul>
Manufacturing of Polymer Derived Ceramic Composites with High Thermal Shock Resistance Zhibin Yu 22-040 Michael Tentnowski <p>Ceramics and their composites are demanded for high temperature and extreme environment applications. However, they are brittle and easy to crack especially upon mechanical shock and thermal shock. We discovered that by incorporating nanotube/nanowire fillers and following the manufacturing procedure in this invention, high performance ceramic composites can be obtained with greatly enhanced mechanical shock resistance and thermal shock resistance. The composite can also be rapidly fabricated with 10-50 times improvement of manufacturing throughput.</p> <p>Advantages:</p> <ul> <li>Improved speed in manufacturing without cracking and deformation</li> </ul>
Bioreactor for Continuously Metabolizing 1,4-Dioaxane to Less Than a Half Microgram Per Liter Youneng Tang 22-034 Garrett Edmunds <p>1,4-Dioxane is a contaminant of emerging concern.  It is found above the health-based reference level (0.35 microgram/liter) in 6.9% of the U.S. public water systems. It is also found in many sites on the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) National Priorities List (NPL).  Bioreactors that are filled with adsorbent for biofilm attachment are widely utilized for water treatment.  They have been studied for 1,4-dioxane removal.  In such reactors, biofilms continuously metabolize 1,4-dioxane to harmless forms by respiring oxygen.  Existing bioreactors are not able to remove 1,4-dioxane to close to the health-based reference level.  The main reason is that the environmentally relevant 1,4-dioxane concentrations (&amp;lt; tens of microgram/liter) cannot sustain growth of microbes. </p> <p>This invention adds a screen above the adsorbent in the bioreactor, which is operated in the up-flow mode.  The screen retained the detached biofilm that would have been out of the reactor.  By accumulating biomass, the reactor was able to degrade 1,4-dioxane to &amp;lt;0.5 microgram/liter, which is the detection limit of the equipment in the researchers’ laboratory.  The combination of a medium empty bed retention time and a low influent 1,4-dioxane concentration also plays a critical role in the success of the bioreactor. </p> <p>Advantages</p> <ul> <li>The bioreactor can be directly used to treat contaminated water.</li> <li>It can also be used to enrich 1,4-dioxane-metabolizing microbes.</li> <li>These can then be injected into contaminated sites through bioaugmentation for in-situ remediation.</li> </ul>
Method of Manufacturing Large-Area Boron nitride-Phosphor Composites with a Nanoscale Phase Separation for Efficient thermal Neutron Detection Zhibin Yu 22-017 Michael Tentnowski <p>Commercial neutron detectors have problems of heavy weight, high power consumption and low response speed. This new invention disclosed a new method of manufacturing compact boron nitride-phosphor composites for efficient, portable, and fast-responding thermal neutron detection. Since the composite can be manufactured like conventional commodity plastics using a solution or compress molding process, they can be made at a very-low cost and large area, enabling a high efficiency of stand-off detection and imaging of thermal neutrons in presence of special nuclear materials and nuclear events.</p> <p>Advantages</p> <ul> <li>Lower Cost</li> <li>Higher Efficiency</li> </ul>
Interface Engineering for Flexible Radiation Shielding Composites with High Attenuation Zhibin Yu 22-009 Michael Tentnowski <p>Numerous materials have been used for radiation protection.  For example, radiation protection materials have been used in articles of clothing, such as gloves, but such materials typically include relatively low concentration of particles, such as concentrations of up to 80 %, by weight, of embedded particles.  Greater concentrations have not been used, because doing so makes it difficult, if not impossible, to maintain suitable flexibility of the materials.   There remains a need for flexible radiation shielding composite materials with high attenuation, including materials that can maintain a desired degree of flexibility at relatively high particle concentrations.  </p> <p> </p> <p>This invention embodies composite materials including bismuth oxide that may be flexible and include relatively high particle loadings.  These composite materials, therefore, may be flexible, and have very high attenuation properties per unit thickness and/or per unit weight.  The potential uses are improved flexible and stretchable radiation protection material which have potential uses in clothing, gloves, and more.</p> <p> </p> <p>Advantages</p> <ul> <li>Very high loading concentration of inorganic particles in an elastic polymer matrix.</li> <li>Demonstrated high radiation attenuation without damaging mechanical flexibility.</li> </ul>
Software Code Fast Computing Gaussian Process Regression Chiwoo Park 20-048 Michael Tentnowski <p>Gaussian Process (GP) regression is a popular Bayesian nonparametric approach for non-liner regression analysis.  It has many useful applications in remote sensing, spatial data analysis, and simulation meta-modeling.  However, its computation is prohibitively expensive when the amount of data is very large.  This software code implements an inexpensive approximate computation algorithm to achieve a Gaussian Process regression solution quickly and accurately.  The name of the approximation algorithm is the Patchwork Kriging.  The inventor developed it in 2019. </p> <p>The Patchwork Kriging involves partitioning the regression input data into multiple local regions with a different local Gaussian Process models that are fitted in each specific region.  Unlike existing local Gaussian Process models, this application introduced a technique which can patch together the local Gaussian Process models nearly seamlessly to ensure that the local Gaussian Process models for two neighboring regions produce nearly the same response prediction and prediction error variance on the boundary between the two regions.  This largely mitigates well known discontinuity problems that tend to degrade the prediction accuracy of existing locally partitioned Gaussian Process methods over regional boundaries. </p> <p>Advantages</p> <ul> <li>Accuracy in estimations</li> <li>Differentiation between neighboring area and their calculations</li> </ul>
Nano and Micro-Fiber-Bundle/Matrix Interface Strength Test Method: Custom Batch Sample Manufacturing Mold and Testing Fixture Rebekah Sweat 20-041 Michael Tentnowski <p>Adhesive and surface treatment technologies are crucial for the structural integrity of the composite parts. The interfacial shear strength (IFSS) reflects the load transfer efficiency between reinforcement and matrix. However, no current test can be performed quickly with statistically significant replications. As a solution, this invention embodies a horizontal mold and geometry matched testing fixture for manufacturing samples for the pullout test in large quantity batches. The open-face mold design can accommodate matrices with a wide range of viscosity and solves the problem of testing nanomaterial and micromaterial bundle interfaces using the same pattern. The effectiveness of sample manufacturing made of carbon nanotube (CNT) yarns and IM7 carbon fiber (CF) with three different polymer matrices was demonstrated in this work. The IFSS of each sample were recorded using a conventional tensile machine, and their surface morphology was evaluated with SEM images. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's pairwise comparison tests demonstrated a significant difference in IFSS means when changing matrices on CNT yarn specimens but no statistically significant difference on IM7-CF specimens for the three matrices. This mold is expected to help researchers obtain faster results and study matrices that have not been thoroughly tested.</p> <p>Advantages</p> <p>The interface strength between matrix and reinforcement is challenging to quantify with meaningful statistic and data.  The invention is a horizontal mold and geometry matched fixture for manufacturing samples for the fiber-bundle pullout test in large quantity batches.  The fiber-bundle pullout test is a way to test the novel custom manufacturing mold and matching mechanical test frame fixture.  The invention will manufacture large batches of samples in a wide range of matrix viscosity.  The invention will also be able to test both nanomaterial and micromaterial bundle interfaces using the same mold.  The invention also includes a geometry matched mechanical testing fixture to precisely fit the geometry of the manufactured samples and can be used in virtually any existing mechanical testing load frame.</p>
Water Purification and Desalination Membrane Justin Kennemur, PhD 20-049 Garrett Edmunds <p><strong>Applications</strong></p> <p>An easily-synthesized and highly-efficient polymer membrane which can be used for water purification and desalination, membrane purification and separation, anti-bacterial coatings, and any industry interested in patterned nanostructures.</p> <p><strong>Key Benefits</strong></p> <ul> <li>A single, well-ordered nanoarray membrane allows simultaneous transport of both positive and negative ions</li> <li>Synthesis utilizes inexpensive and widely available precursors</li> <li>Process is milder than previously created materials</li> </ul> <p><strong>Technical Summary</strong></p> <p>Charged mosaics are polymers with coexisting yet separate domains of positive and negative charges. As a membrane, they have unique transport properties over typical ion exchange membranes composed of one type of single ion conductor used in many nanofiltration processes. This membrane with coexisting zones of polyanions and polycations can produce high salt flux with high rejection of neutral solutes. </p> <p>While these types of membranes have been long known to be technologically valuable, previous syntheses required harsh treatments and economically prohibitive techniques. FSU researchers have developed a new low-cost, mild system that utilizes block copolymer (BCP) self-assembly to synthesize these charge mosaic membranes. The two-step process ensures that reactions occur one domain at a time and maintains integrity of film morphology.</p> <p>An article detailing the innovation was published in <a rel="noopener" href="" target="_blank" title="Macromolecules">Macromolecules</a></p> <p><strong>Inventor Information</strong></p> <p>Dr. Justin G. Kennemur received his PhD in Analytical Polymer Chemistry from North Carolina State University in 2005. His current research <span>seeks to understand how chemical composition and architecture of macromolecules ultimately leads to advanced functionality, chemical recyclability, and self-assembly capabilities. This is done by leveraging physical organic chemistry concepts to develop synthetic techniques in modern polymer chemistry.</span></p> <p> </p> <p> </p> water purification,desalination,nanoparticle,nanofiltration,anti-bacterial,polymer
Ship Hull Coating to Prevent Marine Fouling Joseph Schlenoff, PhD 23-042 Garrett Edmunds <p class="lead">Marine fouling costs the shipping industry billions of dollars each year. This tough glass-like coating provides long-lasting protection, unlike potentially toxic gel-like alternatives.</p> <h2>Problem</h2> <p>On ships and in ports around the world, plants, algae, and marine animals such as barnacles find homes on whatever surfaces they can reach, a problem that costs the shipping industry billions of dollars each year. Known as “marine fouling,” these organisms are adapted to living on all manner of surfaces. Marine fouling accumulated on a ship’s hull can increase drag so much that a captain must use up to double the typical amount of fuel to move a ship through the water. Various antifouling coatings already exist, but many of these release toxic chemicals into water that can harm marine organisms. These materials are soft and gel-like, quickly degrading in harsh marine environments.</p> <h2>Solution</h2> <p>This tough coating, a blend of positively and negatively charged polymers called “zwiterglass”, is easily sprayed onto surfaces using water instead of volatile organic solvents. The surface is glassy and hard, with increased durability that provides long-lasting protection against the wear and tear of a marine environment. The high water content of the material prevents waterborne animals from latching onto it they way they would a rock or piece of metal.</p> <ul> <li>Easy spray-on application</li> <li>Long-lasting protection</li> <li>Environmentally friendly</li> <li>Reduce drag and fuel consumption</li> </ul> <h2>Applications</h2> <ul> <li>Shipping Industry</li> <li>Naval Ships</li> <li>Civilian Watercraft</li> <li>Docks and Buoys</li> </ul> antifouling,marine,coating,zwitterglass,polymer