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Energy & Electronics

Name Investigator Tech ID Licensing Manager Name Micensing Manager Email Description Tags 1-Clik License
Solution-Processed, Bright Light-Emitting Diodes Based on CsPbBr3 Perovskite Dr. Hanwei Gao 16-113 Garrett Edmunds <p>Optoelectronics is the combined used of electronics and light. Solution-processed halide perovskites have shown great potential as the building blocks for the next generation of low-cost, high-performance optoelectronics and the next generation of LEDs. LED technology is rapidly advancing and there is a need for new materials with remarkable performance. </p> <p>One novel solution is LEDs that use MAPbBr3 as the emitter. These LEDs are high performing but are inherently unstable. Dr. Gao and his team have created all inorganic perovskites which are more stable both thermally and chemcially. This new material does not limit the performance of LEDs and shows the highest brightness among all perovskite LEDs demonstrated thus far. Furthermore, the synthesis creates films with incredibly small grain sizes which improves the smoothness of the films. This new material has the potential to revolutionize LEDs.</p> <h2 id="advantages"><strong>Advantages</strong></h2> <ul> <li>Excellent performance including brightness and efficiency</li> <li>Low-cost</li> <li>High-stability</li> </ul>
Stimulus Triggered Recyclable Catalysts Dr. Hoyong Chung 17-006 Garrett Edmunds <p>N-heterocyclic carbene ("NHC") compounds are often used as supporting ligands in homogeneous organometallic catalysts. NHC-based catalysts can catalyze a wide range of reactions, including metathesis reaction, Suzuki reactions, Negishi coupling reactions, Buchwald-Hartwig amination reactions, and organo-catalytic reactions among many others.</p> <p>This invention shows that host-guest interactions can be used to recover/recycle well-defined organometallic catalysts. The host-guest interaction is a strong molecular recognition (non-covalent bonding) based on supramolecular chemistry. The N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) is an excellent supporting ligand for homogeneous organometallic catalysis. Various azobenzene-tagged NHCs are proposed to test the resulting catalyst's activity and recover/recycle capability. The basic principle is that a homogeneous catalyst can be prepared with NHC ligand that has azobenzene group. After a designated chemical reaction, the catalyst can be recovered by 13-cyclodextrin (CD) via host-guest reaction . Note that the catalyst having azobenzene group doesn't engage to CD, if there is no stimulus. Thus, the catalyst can be selectively and conveniently recovered by external stimulus. Those external stimulus includes light and electricity. Also the azobenzene-tagged NHCs can be used in organo-catalytic reactions.</p> <p>Previously, there were two main approaches to recycle/recover the catalyst. The first approach is immobilization of a heterogeneous tag on a catalyst structure. This method allows for easy separation (filtration), but it suffers from severely low catalytic activity. The second strategy is having a switchable tag on a homogeneous catalyst to recover the catalyst in a heterogeneous state (solid) after a desired chemical reaction. This method requires costly processes to trigger phase changes.</p> <h2>Advantages</h2> <ul> <li>Catalyst is homogeneous</li> <li>Phase changes are not necessary</li> <li>Easy recovery process</li> <li>Repeatedly reusable</li> <li>Cost efficient</li> </ul>
Intelligent Wi-Fi Packet Relay Protocol Dr. Zhenghao Zhang 13-089 Michael Tentnowski <p>L2Relay is a novel packet relay protocol for Wi-Fi networks that can improve the performance and extend the range of the network. A device running L2Relay is referred to as a relayer, which overhears the packet transmissions and retransmits a packet on behalf of the Access Point (AP) or the node if no acknowledgement is overheard. L2Relay is ubiquitously compatible with all Wi-Fi devices. L2Relay is designed to be a layer 2 solution that has direct control over many layer 2 functionalities such as carrier sense. Unique problems are solved in the design of L2Relay including link measurement, rate adaptation, and relayer selection. L2Relay was implemented in the OpenFWWF platform and compared against the baseline without a relayer as well as a commercial Wi-Fi range extender. The results show that L2Relay outperforms both compared schemes.</p>
Methods of Constructing Polyolefins having Reduced Crystallinity Dr. Alamo 09-166 Garrett Edmunds <p>The invention describes a family of polyolefins characterized by chain-walking defects of the type that add extra backbone carbons per monomer.</p> <p>These polyolefins display a large decrease in crystallinity relative to polyolefins known in the art. Specifically, the reduction in crystallinity is much greater than for earlier polypropylenes with a matched content of stereo or 1-alkene type defects. The claimed polyolefins can be an alkene-based homopolymer, or an alkene-based copolymer and can be made by a diimine-based catalyst or by a late metal catalyst. The defects in the polyolefin backbone are generated by a chain walking mechanism in which three or more carbons per monomer are added to the polymer backbone instead of two, as in conventional polymerization or copolymerization methods of alpha olefins.</p> <h1>Applications and Advantages:</h1> <ul> <li>Plastic wrapping</li> <li>Thin films</li> <li>Co-extrusion layers or molded parts in the absence of polymer blending or copolymerization</li> <li>The cost of materials production can be reduced</li> </ul>
Pulsed Gliding Arc Electrical Discharge Reactors Dr. Bruce Locke 06-142 Garrett Edmunds <p>Gliding arc discharges have been investigated as a potential technology for gas phase pollution treatment and for liquid phase pollution treatment. Ultimately, the practical use of gliding arc technology to promote chemical transformations, such as the removal of organic pollutants in water or the generation of hydrogen peroxide, other reactive oxygen species, or reactive nitrogen species for treatment of potentially contaminated foods, depends on the efficiency that can be achieved.</p> <p>The present invention describes a plasma gliding arc discharge reactor that is useful for chemical transformations in liquids and gases. The reactor may include a housing having a plurality of divergent electrodes, a power supply connected to the electrodes delivering pulsed power to the reactor, and a nozzle that directs a mixture of a carrier gas and a liquid to a region between the divergent electrodes, thereby generating plasma in the region. The nozzle can include a first inlet for receiving the carrier gas, a second inlet for receiving the liquid and a mixing chamber that is configured to mix the carrier gas and the liquid prior to being directed to the region.</p>
The Soret Effect in Polymer-Electrolyte-Based Electrochemical Cells Daniel Hallinan 16-088 Garrett Edmunds <p>The Soret effect arises when a temperature gradient is imposed on a multi-component system, inducing a concentration gradient. There is no comprehensive theory of the Soret effect that applies to all the systems that have been studied. Polymer electrolytes are a novel and interesting system in which to study the Soret effect due to the dissimilar properties of polymers and salts.</p> <p>Polymer electrolytes provide a system in which the mobility of the components are dramatically different and in which the species solvating the ions (polymer segments) cannot transfer with the ion. This can lead to large partial molal free energy of transfer for ions in polymer electrolyte. In addition, the solid nature of polymer electrolytes precludes convection, which is a vexing source of error in thermal diffusion studies. Studies on polymer blends have found unexpectedly large Soret coefficients near a phase transition. With complex phase diagrams, polymer electrolytes provide an avenue to study this phenomena. In addition, the Soret effect in dry polymer electrolytes could potentially be used to convert waste heat into electricity and improve the efficiency of electrochemical cells.</p> <p>This technology describes measuring the Soret coefficient in a dry polymer electrolyte by determining the concentration gradient that develops in an imposed temperature gradient. The concentration gradient may be determined using various methods including an electrochemical approach and by magnetic resonance imaging. Transient studies may be used to determine the thermal diffusion coefficient, providing another way to calculate the Soret coefficient. Consideration is given to higher order effects such as non-constant transport parameters by determining the temperature dependence of both thermal mass diffusion and thermal energy diffusion.</p>
Phase-Shifted Square Wave Modulation Method for Isolated Modular Multilevel DC/DC Converter Hui (Helen) Li 18-008 Michael Tentnowski <p>This invention provides a phase-shifted square wave modulation method for isolated modular multi-level DC/DC (IM2DC) converters. In the present invention, one square wave based modulation waveform with the same frequency and magnitude is applied to each cell of an isolated modular multi-level DC/DC converter and compared with a triangular carrier waveform to generate the gate signals. With the phase-shifted angle of the carrier waves, higher equivalent switching frequency can be achieved. Both full-bridge (FB) and half-bridge (HB) cells are allowed as the single cell.</p> <p>This technology can be implemented to reduce the DC inductor size due to higher equivalent switching frequency. In addition, the required capacitor energy can be reduced, which decreases the capacitor size since they are dedicated to smooth the high switching frequency ripples only. Moreover, a high efficient power transfer capability can be achieved with the square wave compared to conventional sinusoidal waveforms.</p> <p>In addition, this invention proposes a novel phase-shifted square wave modulation technique aiming at reducing passive components and devices sizes for single-phase and three-phase IM2DC applications in HVDC/MVDC systems. In various embodiments a square wave based modulation waveform is applied to each cell of IM2DC and compared to the phase-shifted carrier waveforms to generate device gate signals. Thus, higher equivalent switching frequency will be achieved and square wave based arm and AC link waveforms will be generated. The power flow of IM2DC is controlled by a phase shift angle of the square modulation waveforms between HVS and LVS. Compared to the conventional phase-shift sinusoidal method, the converter cell capacitors can be reduced significantly since they are required to smooth out the high switching frequency ripple components only. In addition, lower TDR can be achieved due to the higher power transferring capability of square waves. Both proposed method and quasi-two-level modulation can achieve low TDR and small cell capacitor size, however, the present invention can allow smaller DC inductors due to the multi-cell phase-shifted characteristics.</p>
Method for Producing Composite Powder for Dry Process Electrode for Electrochemical Devices Jian-ping (Jim) Zheng 15-235 Garrett Edmunds <p>This novel technology is directed to a low cost and high performance electrode for an energy storage device or an energy storage system and the method for making that device. The types of energy storage devices that can incorporate such electrode include ultracapacitors, lithium ion capacitors, batteries, fuel cells and hybrid cells which are the combination of the above devices. The types of energy storage systems that can incorporate such a low cost and high performance electrode are the energy storage system that uses at least one of the above devices.</p> <p>This technology comprises a binder composition and a method of making a composite powder for a dry process electrode and a method of producing an electrode. Both of these methods can be used for electro-chemical devices. The binder composition includes bulk polymer, polymer solution, and polymer suspension. The method comprises: 1) making electrode composites including an active material, a carbonaceous conductor and binder wherein the working ranges for each include, by weight, about 70-97% for the active materials, about 0-10% for the conductive material additives, and about 2-20% binder material through solvent-free or solvent assistant process; 2) making uniformly mixed, ready-for-press electrode composite powders comprising of an active material, a carbonaceous conductor and binder using a high speed mixer; 3) form a free-standing continuous electrode film by pressing the uniform mixed powder together through the gap between two roller of a roll-mill, and 4) calendering the electrode film onto a substrate, such as a collector.</p>
Leakage Current Suppression Solutions for Photovoltaic Cascaded Multilevel Inverter Application Hui (Helen) Li 13-176 Michael Tentnowski <p>The cascaded multilevel inverter is considered to be a promising alternative for the low-cost and high-efficiency photovoltaic (PV) systems. However, the current leakage issue, resulting from the stray capacitances between the PV panels and the earth, needs to be solved for the cascaded inverter to be reliably applied in PV application.</p> <p>The proposed technologies solve the leakage current issue in PV cascaded multilevel inverter by using passive filters. It can retain the simple structure of the inverter and does not complicate the associated control system.  The system is a photovoltaic cascaded inverter, including inverter modules, which have both an AC and a DC side.  In addition, the system includes a common DC-side choke coupled to the DC-side of each of the inverter modules and a common mode AC-side choke coupled to the AC-side of each of the inverter modules.</p> <p> </p>
Fast Electromechanical Disconnect Switching Chamber with Integrated Drive Mechanism Michael (Mischa) Steurer 14-117 Michael Tentnowski <p>The technology developed is a fast electromechanical switch with the drive mechanism integrated into the switching chamber. The integration of the drive mechanism allows for much faster contact travel and therefore faster switching operation.</p> <p>The proposed invention uses a vacuum or pressurized gas chamber with internal piezoelectric-actuator driven contacts for an electrical switch that can provide ultra-fast voltage. It fills a need for use in hybrid breaker applications.</p> <h2>Advantages:</h2> <ul> <li>Compact</li> <li>Low loss</li> <li>Does not need high current pulses</li> <li>Can be automatically reset</li> <li>Simple and fast</li> </ul>
Derivative Reference-Based Method for Detection of Instability in Power Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulation James Langston 16-084 Michael Tentnowski <p>Hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) is a form of simulation wherein a hardware device is interfaced to a digital real-time simulator (DRTS), which models the system that the hardware is intended to be connected to in the real world. HIL simulations offer a method to test physical devices under real time operating conditions. Various scenarios can be tested in a controlled environment to evaluate the performance of the device under test (DUT) before it is connected to the actual physical system.</p> <p>Most HIL simulations are closed-loop meaning that the response of the device is fed back to the DRTS. One type of closed-loop HIL is a Power HIL (PHIL). PHIL simulations involve interfacing the DRTS with a power device such as a motor, generator, transformer, inverter, etc. (DUT). The DRTS and the DUT exchange power over the PHIL interface. In some instances, a digital to analog (D/A) converter, which is included as part of the DRTS provide analog signals scaled down to electronic levels within ±10Vpk, ±10mA. In other instances, digital signals may be exchanged. These voltage levels are well below the operating voltage/current range of the DUT, therefore amplifiers and/or actuators are required in PHIL simulations to scale the signals sent from the DRTS to the DUT.</p> <p>Due to the closed-loop nature of PHIL simulations and the natural delays in the feedback loops, instability is often a problem, and can lead to damage and/or destruction of the equipment involved in the tests. Very little has been published regarding protection methods designed to detect instabilities in PHIL systems. Some of the proposed methods to detect these oscillations include over/under frequency protection and harmonic distortion-based protection.</p> <p>The invention provides a method for detecting instability in a PHIL simulation. The PHIL includes a RTS, a DUT, and an amplifier electrically connected between the RTS and the DUT. The method includes computing in a RTS a magnitude of a time-derivative of reference quantities and applying a low pass filter thereto. The method also includes comparing an output from the low pass filter to a threshold for detection of oscillations of the reference quantities. When oscillations are detected a mitigating step is applied to the DUT. The invention includes other variations of a similar concept.</p>
Combined Gas-Liquid Plasma and Bioreactor Remediation of Liquids and Gases Bruce Locke and Youneng Tang 17-018 Garrett Edmunds <p>An increasing number of types and vast amounts of different complex organic compounds into the natural environment. Of these compounds, the emerging contaminants, those typically not regulated or routinely monitored by government agencies, include a wide range of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), and other compounds that cannot be degraded or removed in conventional drinking water and wastewater treatment processes. Many of these compounds can have adverse effects on the environment, animal, and human health (e.g., endocrine disruption), even at low concentrations. For example, widespread release of antibiotics has led to the evolution of antibiotic resistant bacteria which reduce our capability to manage infectious diseases. Such compounds are released into drinking water, ground water, and wastewater from hospitals, water treatment plants, and distributed sources such as septic field and edge agricultural runoff. Many of these compounds are not readily biodegradable, some are highly persistent in the environment, some may accumulate in the food chain, and some may degrade into more hazardous compounds causing further environmental and health issues. Approximately 700 emerging pollutants, including their metabolic and degradation products, are listed in Europe.</p> <p>Biological reactors offer significant energy efficiency, but require significant residence times, on the order of days or weeks, in order to fully degrade some contaminants. Also, biological reactors are incapable of degrading some toxic organic compounds, or are incapable of completely degrading some organic contaminants to mineralized products. Plasma reactors that only treat liquid contaminants combined with biological reactors are incapable of degrading gas phase contaminants. Such combined systems also are not readily adaptable to changing contaminant composition streams.</p> <p>In order to solve these issues, this novel technology uses a mixture comprising liquid water, a gas and organic compounds, which are injected into a non-thermal gas-liquid plasma discharge reactor to generate a flowing liquid film region with a gas stream flowing alongside. A plasma discharge is propagated along the flowing liquid film region. During this process, water is<br />dissociated and reactive species such as hydroxyl radicals, hydrogen peroxide, and nitrogen oxides are formed. The organic compound reacts with the reactive species such as hydroxyl radicals and hydrogen peroxide present in the flowing liquid film region and in the flowing gas stream to produce organic compound dissociation products. Some of the organic compound dissociation products and nitrogen oxides are transferred to a bioreactor for further degradation. The nitrogen oxides are used as nutrients for bacteria in the bioreactor. The combination of the two reactors saves energy and time on the process of degrading the compounds, thereby cutting costs. Additionally, the increased efficiency of the system is far greater than the addition of the two individual reactors.</p>
Alkylamine-Gold Nanoparticle Monolayers having Tunable Electrical and Optical Properties Daniel Hallinan 16-068 Garrett Edmunds <p>The unique physical and chemical properties of most traditional materials are largely determined by the spatial arrangement of the constituent building blocks (i.e. atoms) relative to one another.  When the scale of the building blocks extend to the range outside that of atomic elements (e.g. nanoparticles), the 'artificial solids' composed of such nanoparticles exhibit unique properties different from their bulk counterparts. In particular, monolayer two-dimensional (2D) artificial solids, serving as the structural basis for more complicated nanostructures, display distinct collective optical, electrical, and catalytic properties, thus finding vast prospective applications in high-performance solar cells, electrogenerated chemilumines, chemical sensors, transistors, integrated microcircuitry, batteries, capacitors, and thermolectrics. Akin to traditional materials, the physical and chemical properties of artificial solids are not only dependent on the elementary nanoparticle size and shape, but as importantly on the interparticle separation and the periodic arrangement of the constituents.</p> <p>FSU researchers have successfully prepared monolayer gold nanoparticle (Au NP) films using a water/organic solvent self-assembly strategy. A new approach, “drain to deposit”, is demonstrated most effective to transfer the Au NP films from a liquid/liquid interface to various solid substrates while maintaining their integrity. The interparticle spacing was tuned from 1.4 nm to 3.1 nm using different length alkylamine ligands. The ordering of the films increased with increasing ligand length. The surface plasmon resonance and the in-plane conductivity of the Au NP films both exhibit an exponential dependence on the particle spacing. These findings show great potential in scaling up the fabrication of high-performance optical and electronic devices based on metallic nanoparticle superlattices.</p> <p>In addition, these FSU researchers have developed a three phase system for depositing monolayer gold nanoparticle films. Using this three-phase system, centimeter-scale monolayer gold nanoparticle (Au NP) films have been prepared that have long-range order and hydrophobic ligands. The system contains an interface between an aqueous phase containing Au NPs and an oil phase containing one of various types of amine ligands, and a water/air interface. As the Au NPs diffuse to the water/oil interface, ligand exchange takes place which temporarily traps them at the water/oil interface. The ligand exchanged particles then spontaneously migrate to the air/water interface, where they self-assemble, forming a monolayer under certain conditions. The spontaneous formation of the NP film at the air/water interface was due to the minimization of the system Helmholtz free energy. However, the extent of surface functionalization was dictated by kinetics. This decouples interfacial ligand exchange  from interfacial self-assembly, while maintaining the simplicity of a single system. The interparticle center-to-center distance was dictated by the amine ligand length. The Au NP monolayers exhibit tunable surface plasma resonance and excellent spatial homogeneity, which is useful for surface-enhanced Raman scattering. The “air/water/oil” self-assembly method developed here not only benefits the fundamental understanding of NP ligand conformations, but is also applicable to the manufacture of plasmonic nanoparticle devices with precisely designed optical properties.</p> <h1>Applications and Advantages</h1> <ul> <li>Batteries <ul> <li>Electric car</li> <li>Laptop</li> <li>Mobile device</li> <li>Other electric vehicles and locomotion devices</li> </ul> </li> <li>Extremely precise detection of compounds</li> <li>Increases reliability of batteries</li> <li>Increases the performances of batteries</li> <li>Reduces the possibility of catastrophic failure of devices due to battery failure</li> </ul> <p> </p> <p> </p>
Additive Manufacturing of a Wireless Ceramic High Temperature and Pressure Sensor Cheryl Xu 17-004 Garrett Edmunds <p>Maintaining situational awareness of the weapon environment is desirable for developing the next generation of robust missile and munition (M&amp;M) systems that can withstand the extreme acceleration, temperature, and pressure conditions that are presented by traditional fighter and hypersonic aircraft. In addition, tracking the temperature and pressure of high temperature turbines used in turbojets both for aircraft and energy production is highly desirable. Conventional techniques for remotely monitoring munition assets are primarily performed by proximate environmental monitoring by fuel sensors, accelerometers, surface acoustic wave sensors, chemical resistors, and temperature sensors. These are limited to storage and transportation purposes and typically have a limited temperature range, e.g., -55 °C to 125 °C.</p> <p>Conventional temperature sensors used in the evaluation of M&amp;M systems and turbine systems include thermocouples, thermistors, resistance thermometers, quartz thermometers, which all include a metallic coil inductor. Due to the oxidation of the metallic coil inductor, these temperature sensors cannot be used in high temperature environments for prolonged periods of time and can only be used under wired measurement conditions.</p> <p>Conventional pressure sensors used in these applications include passive pressure sensors based on resistive or capacitive sensing mechanisms. These sensors also require a wire interconnection and they cannot operate effectively in high temperature environments. Moreover, pressure sensors that utilize a patch antenna operate within a limited temperature range, e.g., -55 °C to 125 °C, because of the metallic wire used with the patch antenna.</p> <p>The technology developed at FSU comprises a wireless temperature and pressure sensor which includes a ceramic coil inductor having ceramic material and a relatively high volume fraction of carbon nanotubes. The combination leverages the remarkable electrical and mechanical properties (stiff and strong) of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and the thermal properties (temperature sensitivity) of ceramic materials. </p> <p>Generally, the temperature sensors comprise a ceramic coil inductor that is formed of a ceramic composite and a thin film polymer-derived ceramic (PDC) nanocomposite having a dielectric constant that increases monotonically with temperature and the pressure sensors comprise a ceramic coil inductor formed of a ceramic composite, which includes carbon nanotubes and/or carbon nanofibers.<span> This novel technology has the potential to revolutionize the space industry, defense industry, and engineering.</span></p> <h2>Advantages</h2> <ul> <li> <p class="lead"><span class="small">The ability to provide real-time, in-flight monitoring of systems that operate in high temperature and pressure environments</span></p> </li> <li> <p class="lead"><span class="small">The ability to maintain safety and effectiveness of critical parts and materials without the need for extensive nondestructive evaluation (NDE) (for temperature sensors), thereby reducing cost and time</span></p> </li> <li> <p class="lead"><span class="small">On-demand tracking and assessing of the status of systems over extended periods, based upon changing conditions</span></p> </li> </ul> <p> </p>
Active Flow Control for Wall-Normal Columnar Vortex Kunihiko Taira 18-004 Michael Tentnowski <p>Flow control is often employed to diminish the appearance of vortices or alter the characteristics of vortices in a liquid. For example, in a sump pump, the emergence of submerged vortices may degrade pump performance. If the submerged vortices are sufficiently strong, these vortices can include strong low pressure cores, which can entrain air/vapor along their vortex cores. If such hollow-core vortices are engulfed by the pump, they can cause unbalanced loading and vibration, leading to undesirable noise and possible structural failure. Strong wall-normal vortices appear inside and outside of many fluid-based machines as well as in natural settings, including tornadoes and hurricanes.</p> <p>There have been numerous attempts to introduce passive vortex control techniques to prevent the generation of the aforementioned vortices or alter their pressure distributions. Yet passive control techniques do not offer the ability to adaptively adjust the control efforts to unsteady flow conditions (beyond design conditions). Moreover, some passive control devices are difficult to manufacture. Thus, these past efforts have shortcomings in offering reliable techniques to modify the pressure distribution of these vortices. Designing a more efficient and flexible vortex control strategy remains a challenge.</p> <p>This invention is directed to spreading the core region of a coherent wall-normal vortex and alleviating the low-pressure in the core in a flow field. Such vortices are ubiquitous in nature and engineering systems, ranging from hydrodynamic/aerospace applications to nature, such as hurricanes and subsurface vortices. Many passive control techniques exist for wall-normal vortices, but none include active flow control methods that can be applied in an adaptive manner. In order to solve this problem, this technology introduces forcing input (e.g., fluid jet and suction) near the core region of the vortex to destabilize the local<br />flow and spread the core region. This in turn lowers the local angular velocity and increase the core pressure of the vortex. The increase of the pressure has engineering benefits because low pressure at the core can create detrimental engineering effects for vortices in air and liquids. In some instances, the forced input follows a sinusoidal form in time and in a co-rotating/counter-rotating direction for effective breakup of the vortex.</p> <p>The invention provides a more adaptive technique than passive controls for alleviating the low-pressure effect of the vortex core using active flow control techniques. That is, the method of control provides a vortex control technique and device for vortices in different flow conditions. In order to achieve this, two different types of control strategies are disclosed based on co-rotating and counter-rotating mass injection and suction from the wall surface on which the vortex resides. The control strategy is employed on the wall where the vortex core is pinned and the mass injection/suction device is placed underneath the surface. The control input is adjusted with its frequency, amplitude, and direction of mass injection/suction.</p>
A Method of Producing Extracellular Metal or Metalloid Nanoparticles Using a Bioreactor Youneng Tang 18-031 Michael Tentnowski <p>Metals and metal ions are essential trace elements for humans and animals. However, when presenting in water at high concentrations, they are often toxic and can cause diseases such as hair loss and reproductive failure. Consequently, metal and metal ion contamination represent a potential health hazard. A major cause of contamination in water is the disposal of agricultural drainage. Selenium (Se) is one such element, and can be used to exemplify the hazards of metal and metal ion contamination. The maximum contaminant level set by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for Se in drinking water is 50 μg Se/L.</p> <p>Thus, this technology is directed to bio-electrochemical reactors, methods of reducing metal ions in contaminated medium to extracellular metal or metalloid nanoparticles, and methods and devices for separating the extracellular metal or metalloid nanoparticles from the bacteria. For example, the bio-electrochemical reactor is used as a selector to select only bacteria that<br />produce extracellular metal or metalloid nanoparticles from an electrode inoculum comprising a highly diverse mixed culture. As a result, the bio-electrochemical reactors described serve as an effective means for removing and separating metal ions from contaminated water.</p>
Metal Halide Nanotubes, Devices, and Methods Biwu Ma 18-009 Garrett Edmunds <p>Since the discovery of carbon nanotubes, materials with tubular structures have attracted scientific interest because of their  intriguing physical and/or chemical properties. Besides carbon nanotubes, a number of synthetic tubular structures such as metal oxides, polymers, metal organic frameworks (MOFs) etc. have been developed over the last decades, which show promising applications in various areas, ranging from gas separation and storage, to catalysts, and drug delivery.</p> <p>Organic-inorganic metal halide hybrids have received research attention for their exceptional optical and/or electronic properties with useful applications in a variety of optoelectronic devices, including photovoltaic cells, light emitting diodes, photodetectors, and lasers. The structural tunability of this class of materials can enable the formation of various types of crystal structures by using appropriate organic and inorganic components, ranging from three- (3D), to two- (2D), one- (1D), and zero-dimensional (0D) structures on the molecular level.</p> <p>This technology comprises organic metal halide hybrids having a 1D tubular structure, and facile solution processing methods for preparing the metal halide hybrids. For example, the metal halide crystals provided herein may include an array of 1D nanotube structures. In some embodiments, the methods provided herein including simple bottom up solution self-assembly processes.</p> <h2 class="lead">Applications</h2> <ul> <li>Gas storage</li> <li>Ion selection</li> <li>Catalysts</li> <li>Sensors</li> <li>Molecular machines</li> </ul> <h2 class="lead">Advantages</h2> <ul> <li>They have optical response and relatively good quantum yield.</li> <li>The solution-based preparation of these phosphors at room temperature is easy and cost effective.</li> <li>Their crystals are bulk-assembly of the nano-structures therefore exhibit the intrinsic properties of an individual nanotube.</li> <li>They have multiple potential applications such as gas storage, ion selection, catalyze, sensing, molecular machines, and so on.</li> <li>They have relatively good thermal and photostability.</li> </ul> <p class="lead"> </p>
Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Bulk Quantum Materials and Methods Biwu Ma 17-036 Garrett Edmunds <p>Various types of light emitting materials have been developed, including organic and polymeric emitters, transition metal complexes, rare-earth doped phosphors, nanocrystals, and organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites.</p> <p>Organic-inorganic metal halide hybrids are a class of crystalline materials that may have unique structures and/or permit the tenability of one or more properties. Metal halide polyhedra can form three- (3D), two- (2D), one- (1D), and zero-dimensional (0D) structures surrounded by organic moieties. The decreased dimensionality of the inorganic structures can lead to the emergence of unique properties. For example, unlike narrow emissions with a small Stokes shift that has been observed in typical 3D metal halide hybrids, broadband photoluminescence with a large Stokes shifts has been realized in corrugated-2D, 1D, and 0D metal halide hybrids, likely due to exciton self-trapping or excited state structural deformation.</p> <p>This invention comprises a bulk quantum material. In some embodiments, the bulk quantum material includes two or more photo- and/or electro-active species; and a wide band gap organic network comprising a plurality of organic cations; wherein each of the two or more photo- and/or electro-active species are (i) disposed in the wide band gap organic network, and (ii) isolated from each other. In some embodiments, the two or more photo- and/or electro-active species comprise two or more metal halide species.</p>
Perovskite Based Charge Transport Layers for Thin Film Optoelectronic Devices Biwu Ma 16-097 Garrett Edmunds <p>Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) are used widely in solid state lighting, electronic displays, bio-imaging, and photovoltaic (PV) applications.  A cheaper, more efficient LED device can impact multiple markets.  Some of the primary applications include television displays, mobile device displays, medical applications, solid state lighting, and energy applications.</p> <p>This LED technology comprises two components—an LED device and the process of manufacturing that device.  The LED device comprises earth-abundant materials. The manufacturing process takes place at room temperature using simple starting materials and common organic solvents in a single container. The color of the LEDs can be tuned.</p> <p>Typically, thin film optoelectronic devices, such as LEDs and PVs, are configured with a layered structure. This includes a photoactive (either light emitting or light harvesting) layer sandwiched between charge transport layers that contact with electrodes.  These charge transport layers play a crucial role in efficiency of the entire device.</p> <p>This technology uses perovskite materials to create cost effective, efficient charge transport layers.</p>
Metal Halide Perovskite Phosphors in LEDs for Full Color Display and Solid State Lighting Biwu Ma 17-009, 16-109 Garrett Edmunds <p>Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) are used widely in solid state lighting, electronic displays, bio-imaging, and photovoltaic applications.  A cheaper, more efficient LED device can impact multiple markets.  Some of the primary applications include television displays, mobile device displays, medical applications, solid state lighting, and energy applications.</p> <p>This LED technology comprises two components—an LED device and the process of manufacturing that device.  The LED device comprises earth-abundant materials. The manufacturing process takes place at room temperature using simple starting materials and common organic solvents in a single container. The color of the LEDs can be tuned. </p> <p>In addition, this technology focuses on using phosphors to get the desired color and intensity of light. Organic/inorganic perovskite materials are abundant, non-toxic, and inexpensive.  Thus, by using these materials to create phosphors, the cost of the LED device is reduced significantly. This is especially true as our technology approaches 100% conversion of the base LED energy to the phosphor.</p>
Voltage Profile Based Fault Detection Michael (Mischa) Steurer 13-147 Michael Tentnowski <p>Fault location in a traditional power system is a challenging task. Electric power flows only in one direction: from the substation to the various loads. Therefore, when a severe short circuit fault occurs, there is a current rise with voltage sag near the faulted node or line and everything else that is downstream. If the fault protection system responds adequately it isolates the assumed faulted areas which are all the nearby and downstream customers of the actual faulted area.</p> <p>In a system containing distributed resources (DRs), most fault location technologies ignore the presence of DRs by assuming either low DRs penetration or no power injection from DRs during a fault. The few technologies that consider the presence of DRs have not considered a current limited system when a fault occurs.</p> <p>As the amount of local generation (PV, microturbines ... ) is increasing, the existing distribution systems fault location methods do not always apply because of various reasons including cost, complexity of the system due to mesh-like system topology, and bidirectional power flow. This FSU invention takes advantage of the system topology, the presence of the controllable voltage source convertors (VSCs), and the change of the voltage profile with the presence of the fault. Using the VSCs to help locate the fault will help overcome the issue of relying on the measured value of voltage when the voltage has completely collapsed in a section because of a fault in the distribution system. Instead of hindering the fault location process, the VSCs are used to help support the voltage, locate the fault, and provide fast restoration.</p>
Space Efficient Photobioreactor System Jose Vargas 10-090 Michael Tentnowski <p>The continued use of petroleum-derived fuels is now widely seen as unsustainable. Presently available biofuels can be substituted for petroleum-derived fuels without the need for extensively modifying existing internal combustion engines.</p> <p>The present invention describes a microalgae-based bio-fuels production system in a space efficient photo-bioreactor. The bioreactor grows microalgae in a tall array of transparent flooded tubes. A nutrient media is circulated through the tubes. The array is configured to maximize the amount of sunlight falling upon each tube so that growth of the microalgae is as uniform as possible. Gassing/degassing systems are attached to the array of tubes at appropriate locations. These introduce carbon dioxide and remove oxygen. Cooling systems are preferably also provided so that the circulating media can be maintained at a desired temperature. Microalgae are harvested from the photo-bioreactor. The microalgae are filtered and dried. Lipids are then extracted from the microalgae. These lipids are made into biodiesel through a trans-esterification process and can be used to make other products as well.</p> <h2>Advantages:</h2> <ul> <li>Compact microalgae cultivation in a high productive manner</li> <li>Reduces the need for land since it has the potential to provide higher biomass production density than traditional systems of microalgae biomass production</li> <li>The modular conception allows for the gradual implementation of the system for in situ biofuel production wherever it is needed</li> </ul>
Sharing Cyrogenic Cooling Systems Between Large and Auxiliary Devices Sastry Pamidi 13-040 Michael Tentnowski <p>Cryo-cooled or super-cooled power applications are increasing in popularity because they are typically lower in weight and volume, and more efficient than traditional power applications. Cryocooling is well suited to superconducting technologies (e.g., high-speed accelerators, wind power and flywheel applications) that need to be kept at cryogenic temperatures in order to function.</p> <p>Currently, the cost of cryocoolers is prohibitively high for small applications, in part, because cryocoolers are primarily designed for large devices. Additionally, cryocooling systems are suboptimum in their design because they 1) are based on a “use-or-lose” model that wastes cooling power that is not fully utilized and 2) cannot be shared between critical devices.</p> <p>A potential solution to these two issues involves a new design by Dr. Sastry Pamidi that enables cryogenic sharing of “waste” cooling between a large superconducting device and smaller devices in close proximity that also benefit from cryocooling. In it basic form, the invention is an add-on heat exchanger that is attached to an existing cryocooler through which a controllable flow of helium gas is circulated to “steal” excess cooling power from the device. The helium circulation system enables the productive use of excess cooling power and also eliminates the need for resistive heaters that are typically used to maintain required operating temperatures in cryocooled devices. Importantly, this exchanger will make it easier to run auxiliary devices under cryogenic environments without the need for each device to have its own dedicated cryocooler, thus reducing costs and improving the efficiency of operation as well as creating new opportunities for using cryogenics.</p> <h2>Applications:</h2> <ul> <li>Aerospace</li> <li>Cryogenic equipment manufacturing</li> <li>Military</li> <li>Power grid</li> <li>Transportation</li> <li>Research laboratories</li> <li>Universities, national labs, and hospitals</li> </ul> <h2>Advantages:</h2> <ul> <li>Enables sharing of cryocooling between a large device and smaller devices to minimize or eliminate the cooling waste produced by “use-or-lose” cryogenic methods</li> <li>Multiple devices can be cooled by a single cryocooler, rather than each device requiring its own cooler</li> <li>Improves energy efficiency and reduced cost of operation</li> <li>Creates new opportunities for using cryogenics in smaller devices and applications</li> <li>May be designed into new cryocoolers or added on to existing cryocoolers</li> <li>Compact design</li> <li>Vacuum tight</li> <li>Low pressure drop</li> <li>Highly efficient due to maximum heat transfer</li> <li>Simple design and manufacturing</li> <li>Optimal for a gas having low viscosity</li> </ul>
Organic Chemical Synthesis using Plasma Reactors with Liquid Organic and Liquid Water Bruce Locke 13-153 Garrett Edmunds <p>Electrical discharge plasma contacting liquid phases has been studied for a wide range of chemical, biomedical, environmental, and Materials synthesis applications.  The present invention utilizes a gas-water-organic plasma reactor for the conversion of alkanes into functionalized products (alcohols, aldehydes, etc.) using a pulsed plasma reactor with liquid water and flowing carrier gas. Hydrogen peroxide is also generated conjunction with the functionalized products.</p> <h1>Applications</h1> <ul> <li>Agriculture</li> <li>Healthcare</li> <li>Sanitization</li> <li>Waste water degradation</li> </ul>
Methods for Implementing Stochastic Anti-Windup PI Controllers Emmanuel Collins 08-019 Michael Tentnowski <p>In the present invention, different circuit-based implementations of stochastic anti-windup PI controllers are provided for a motor drive controller system. The designs can be implemented in a Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA) device. The anti-windup PI controllers are implemented stochastically so as to enhance the computational capability of FPGA. The invention encompasses different circuit arrangements that implement distinct anti-windup algorithms for a digital PI speed controller. The anti-windup algorithms implemented by the circuit arrangements can significantly improve the control performance of variable-speed motor drives.</p> <p>Compared with the existing technologies, the stochastic PI controller provides an efficient implementation approach that uses straightforward digital logic circuits but has the advantage of significantly reducing the circuit complexity. Therefore, the present invention notably improves the performance of the stochastic PI controller and saves digital resources in a motor drive control system. The immediate and/or future applications are motor drive controllers for induction motor systems, and more particularly, proportional-integral (PI) controllers. The use of the invention will increase the market of FPGA since the capability will be largely increased and the cost will be relatively reduced.</p>
Method for Locating Phase to Ground Faults in DC Distribution Systems Michael (Mischa) Steurer 08-040 Michael Tentnowski <p>Electrical direct current (DC) distribution systems are operated without any of the phases grounded in order to prevent a phase-to-ground fault, the most common type of faults, to cause interruption of service. While theoretically such an ungrounded DC system can be operated with one phase grounded through a fault for an extended period of time, it is essential to find the fault location quickly in order to prevent any secondary phase to ground fault on the other phase to cause a disruptive phase-to-phase fault.</p> <p>The present invention describes a method for locating ground faults in an ungrounded or high-resistance grounded power distribution system having a power supply including high-speed switched power electronics (PE). The method includes utilizing wavelet analysis using Multi-Resolution Analysis (MRA) as a signal processing tool for recognition of characteristic features in the voltage signal. The voltage signal contains characteristic information in the high frequency range above the switching frequencies of the PE converters which allows for localization of the fault.</p> <p>In the future, the Invention can potentially simplify and speed up the phase-to-ground protection on converter dominated ungrounded DC and AC systems significantly. The Invention can be implemented as a computational component within a new version of a digital ground fault protection relay.</p>
Inflatable Solar Energy Collector Apparatus Ian Winger 09-128 Garrett Edmunds <p>Solar energy collector design composed of various mirror and lens combinations have been proposed, with significant attention being paid to the concentrating power of the lens or mirror. These solutions typically involve expensive coated glass surfaces and the weight of the components requires substantial mechanical actuators to move them so that they can accurately track the sun's motion across the sky. While functional, the prior art systems are expensive and complex.</p> <p>The present invention is an inflatable solar energy collector using two elongated and pressure-stabilized air chambers with a trough-shaped reflecting surface in between. The curvature of the reflecting surface is created by adjusting the differential pressure between the two air chambers and the device can be configured to provide a focal point outside the air chambers or inside the air chambers. For the version using the external focal point an external energy receiver is appropriately positioned. For the version using the internal focal point, the receiver is mounted inside one of the air chambers. The collector is preferably adjustable in azimuth to accurately track the sun's motion across the sky and is able to operate efficiently without the need for altitude adjustment, although altitude adjustment may also be optionally provided. The invention preferably incorporates a novel energy receiver in which stagnant air is entrapped and used as an insulator.</p> <p>This light-weight solar concentrator is of interest as the infrastructure required to support and rotate it is reduced compared to more massive concentrators. Parabolic troughs need to be rotated about only one axis to track the sun throughout the year and concentration power of troughs is sufficient to reach reasonable temperatures. This invention would therefore provide a solar concentrating device made of inexpensive materials and is relatively light and simple.</p>
A Single-Phase Single-Stage Grid-Interactive Inverter with Wide Range Reactive Power Compensation Dr. Liu and Dr. Li 11-131 Michael Tentnowski <p>In this invention, a novel single-phase single-stage grid-interactive inverter based on a discrete Fourier Transform Phase Locked Loop technique is developed to separate the real and reactive power between different energy sources/storages. The hybrid modulation technique and sophisticated power allocation strategy are developed for the power generation system to achieve wide range reactive power compensation and enhance energy conversion efficiency. One distributed energy source and two energy storages are interfaced to the inverter with three cascaded H -bridge cells used to investigate the performance of the proposed system. Different energy source/storages with wide voltage change range can be directly connected in the invention and the single-stage energy conversion can be implemented. The present invention can integrate distributed energy sources/storages in one cascaded inverter. Due to the absence of DC-DC converter, single-stage energy conversion can be achieved. The hybrid modulation technique and power allocation strategy corresponding to the proposed system are developed to achieve the wide range reactive power compensation, voltage boost function, and the optimized power management.</p> <p>The proposed single-phase single-stage grid-interactive inverter is particularly suitable to meeting the increasing distributed power generation needs. It can facilitate to interface different distributed renewable energy sources or storages such as wind power, solar power, battery, fuel cell, Ultra-capacitor and so on. The switching loss will be decreased due to the cascaded structure and hybrid modulation technique.</p> <h2>Advantages</h2> <ul> <li>The multilevel AC output voltage will reduce the AC filter size, improve power quality and enhance the system reliability</li> <li>The transformerless structure will lead to lower cost and lighter weight, in addition to facilitating high power application</li> </ul>
A Self-Balanced Modulation and Magnetic Rebalancing Method for Parallel Multi-level Inverters Hui (Helen) Li 16-098 Michael Tentnowski <p>A power inverter which can provide sinusoidal voltage or current is the key apparatus in the field of electrical machine drive and utility interface, such as in renewable energy generation systems and energy storage power conditioning systems. In order to achieve a higher power rating, each phase of the inverter may be constructed of paralleled phase legs. If two paralleled legs are connected to an output terminal by a magnetic coupling device, such as an "inter-phase transformer", or a "multi-winding autotransformer", or an "inter phase inductor", the output terminal of each phase will have a multilevel staircase waveform, which is closer to the desired sinusoidal waveform. Therefore, the inverter will require smaller magnetic components while still providing the benefit of higher dynamic response.</p> <p>The technology developed provides a finite state machine (FSM) based modulation method for parallel multi-level inverters. Within this invention, a modulation waveform is fed into a comparator to compare with carrier waveforms. Then, a digitized ideal waveform is generated, and the digitized ideal waveform is fed into a finite state machine (FSM) module to generate a switching pattern for each switch of the parallel multi-level inverter.</p>
1MHz Scalable Cascaded Z-Source Inverter Using Gallium Nitride (GaN) Device Dr. Hui (Helen) Li 11-127 Michael Tentnowski <p>Currently, implementation of photo-voltaic (PV) systems into power grids is limited.  The reason for the limited use of PV systems in power grids is that the interface between the grid and the PV source very inefficient.  These inefficiencies are caused by module mismatch, orientation mismatch, partial shading, and maximum power point (MPPT) inefficiencies.  This technology provides a scalable cascaded Z-source inverter which can integrate distributed renewable energy sources and/or storages having a wide voltage range. The inverter uses a low voltage Gallium Nitride (GaN) device, which can be used to facilitate modular structure.  The GaN transistor is able to facilitate this structure due to ultra-high frequency, a small AC filter, and a DC electrolyte capacitor.  A comprehensive Z-source network design has been developed based on an innovative equivalent AC circuit model for the single phase photovoltaic system.  The invention is also suitable for hybrid renewable energy sources/storages application in wide system operation range.  A flexible and reliable control system is developed to improve the photovoltaic energy harvesting capability.</p> <h2><strong>Advantages</strong></h2> <ul> <li>Single energy conversion and boost function can be achieved simultaneously</li> <li>Independent maximum power point tracking for each Z-source inverter module can implement an efficient photovoltaic energy conversion</li> <li>This inverter is immune to shoot-through faults especially operating at high switching frequency and enhance the system reliability</li> <li>The scalable cascaded Z-source inverter is able to interface flexibly with different distributed renewable energy sources or storages in a wide voltage range, including: <ul> <li>wind power</li> <li>solar power</li> <li>battery</li> <li>fuel cell</li> <li>ultra-capacitor</li> </ul> </li> </ul> <h2><strong>Applications</strong></h2> <ul> <li>Photo-voltaic systems</li> <li>Plug-in electric hybrid vehicle</li> <li>Motor drives</li> <li>Uninterruptible power supply</li> </ul> <p> </p>
Removing Water Solubility Problems in Petroleum Crude Oils/Organic Matrices Ryan Rodgers 12-205 Michael Tentnowski <p>The technology creates a new stationary phase that separates compounds based upon their interaction with water. Water-active species are "problem" species in organic matrices because they are often responsible for emulsion formation/stabilization in chromatography. This technology provides an easy and quick way to isolate water-active species that currently does not exist.</p> <p>The technology has already been applied to separate interfacially active species from petroleum crude oils/organic matrices.</p> <p>Most stationary phases in chromatography are based upon silica, alumina, or polymers to allow for the retention of compounds. However, no current commercially available stationary phase is based upon the interaction of compounds with water, because water has not been immobilized as a stationary phase.</p> <p>Immobilized water on silica gel creates a consistent product that can be reproduced. Since the stationary phase is created at room temperature (22-25°C), there are no difficulties with creation, storage, and usage of the stationary phase. The stationary phase has a long shelf-life (4+ years) and could be produced in bulk and stored until use, thus making it desirable for commercialization.</p>
Antifouling Coatings for Ion Exchange Resins Professor Joseph Schlenoff 17-053 Garrett Edmunds <p>Ion exchange resins are widely used for water polishing and purification (e.g. removal of heavy metals). This FSU invention provides a way to rapidly add a coating of nontoxic polymer to an existing anion exchange resin. This coating reduces fouling by algae, other microorganisms, and more, extending the life of the resin and making it easier to clean the resin bed by backflushing.</p> <p>The coating is produced by negative polyelectrolytes, which interacts with the positively charged resin and forms a thin film on the surface of the resin bead. Because the positive charge at the surface of the bead is substantially reduced, or even switched to negative, potential fouling materials interact less strongly with the resin surface.</p> <p>The molecular weight of the negative polyelectrolyte is selected to be sufficiently high such that it does not absorb into the resin bead. Thus, an ultrathin film of complex is limited to the surface of the bead. The bead capacity is not diminished and the amount of material consumed is on the order of a few mg per square meter of resin surface.</p> <p>The polyelectrolyte is water soluble and of low toxicity. Beads can be treated in situ or they can be pretreated in a batch during a typical washing step.</p> water,filter,water purification,potable water,ion exchange resin,antifouling
Self-Assembled Multilayers to Enhance Photon Upconversion and Solar Cell Efficiency Dr. Kenneth Hanson 15-035 Garrett Edmunds <p>Photon upconversion (UC), combining two lower energy photons to generate a higher energy excited state, can be used to harness "sub-band gap photons" and reach maximum theoretical solar cell efficiencies of &gt;40%. Molecular photon upconversion, by way of triplet-triplet annihilation (TTA-UC), is particularly appealing because UC is achievable even under low intensity, non-coherent, solar irradiation. Current efforts to harness TTA-UC in solar energy conversion are predominantly based on using UC solution or polymer film as a filter or reflector working in conjunction with a conventional solar cell but increase the cost and complexity of the device.</p> <p>Our technology is capable of facilitating photon upconversion in films of self-assembled bilayers, presented in Tech ID 15-001. The films can be prepared by a step-wise soaking/loading procedure that is amenable to roll-to-roll printing for large scale manufacturing of devices. The self-assembled bilayer strategy is effective at facilitating photocurrent generation from the upconverted state. This technology offers a new class of self-assembled UC solar cells that show promise as a means of passing the maximum theoretical limit for single junction solar cells.</p>
Systems and Methods for Improving Processor Efficiency Dr. David Whalley 13-101 Michael Tentnowski <p>Dr. Whalley's team has created  a data cache systems designed to enhance energy efficiency and performance of computing systems. A data filter cache herein may be designed to store a portion of data stored in a level one (L1) data cache. The data filter cache may reside between the L1 data cache and a register file in the primary compute unit. The data filter cache may therefore be accessed before the L1 data cache when a request for data is received and processed. Upon a data filter cache hit, access to the L1 data cache may be avoided. The smaller data filter cache may therefore be accessed earlier in the pipeline than the larger L1 data cache to promote improved energy utilization and performance. The data filter cache may also be accessed speculatively based on various conditions to increase the chances of having a data filter cache hit.</p> <p>Furthermore,  tagless access buffers (TABs) can optimize energy efficiency in various computing systems. Candidate memory references in an L1 data cache may be identified and stored in the TAB. Various techniques may be implemented for identifying the candidate references and allocating the references into the TAB. Groups of memory references may also be allocate to a single TAB entry or may be allocated to an extra TAB entry (such that two lines in the TAB may be used to store L1 data cache lines), for example, when a strided access pattern spans two consecutive L1 data cache lines. Certain other embodiments are related to data filter cache and multi-issue tagless hit instruction cache (TH-IC) techniques.</p>
Precision Polystyrene-sulfonate (PSS) Dr. Justin G. Kennemur 17-034 Garrett Edmunds <p>Recent research in the Kennemur Group has discovered a methodology for making a polystyrene-polyethylene-type copolymer analog .The reduction in phenyl branch periodicity for our system dramatically reduces the glass transition temperature (<em>T</em>­<sub>g</sub>) from 110 °C (PS) to ~17 °C (H<sub>2</sub>-P4PCP) and remains amorphous; this makes our system prone to improved softening and flexibility at ambient temperatures. Furthermore, due to the precise and diluted spacing of the phenyl branches, we envisioned that the full sulfonation (i.e. one sulfonate functionality per phenyl branch) of this polymer would create a new materials that rivals PSS due to the enhanced flexibility of the native polymer. Here it should be noted that ethylene and styrene monomers can be copolymerized to form ethylene-styrene copolymers (for example Dow INDEX ESI Interpolymers), however, the catalysts used are complex, styrene incorporation is not precise, and it is very difficult to achieve high styrene content due to the differences in reactivity between ethylene and styrene. </p>
Photodynamic Resolution of Racemic Compounds having Axial Chirality Dr. Kenneth Hanson 17-025 Garrett Edmunds <p><span>Enantioselective synthesis is the cornerstone of modern synthetic chemistry and a crucial step in the production of fine chemicals like food additives, fragrances, natural products, and pharmaceuticals. </span></p> <p><span>One of the most utilized ligands/ catalysts for these enantioselective reactions is 1,1' - bi-2-napthol ("BINOL"). The most common methods to synthesize these complexes, however, result in the formation of a racemic mixture of R and S isomers. Unfortunately, since only a single isomer of BINOL is needed, the racemic mixture is typically purified through chromatography or recrystallization to achieve the desired isomer, while the other half of the reaction mass is discarded. </span></p> <p><span>The present invention proposes the use of photoisomerization as an alternative strategy to generate enantiomerically pure BINOL. Due to excited state proton transfer (ESPT) BINOL can planarize and isomerize upon photoexcitation. We have invented the use of bulky chiral auxialiary groups to increase the rotational barrier of relaztion selectively for one BINOL atropisomer as a means of preferentially generating one of the BINOL isomers. The identity of the auxiliary group determined both the direction of rotation and the extent of enantiomeric excess observed. </span></p> <h2><span>Advantages:</span></h2> <ul> <li><span>Photoisomerization can generate a racemic mixture and then preferentially photoconvert to only one of the isomers</span></li> <li><span>This strategy does not waste 50 percent of the product</span></li> <li><span>Can be done on large scale with minimal solvent</span></li> </ul> <h2><span>Applications:</span></h2> <ul> <li><span>Chemical companies that sell or use BINOL (Sigma, VWR, Merck, etc.)</span></li> </ul>
Photodynamic Resolution of Racemic Compounds having Axial Chirality Dr. Kenneth Hanson 17-025 Garrett Edmunds <p>Enantioselective synthesis is important in modern synthetic chemistry, and can be an important step in the production of certain chemicals, such as food additives, fragrances, natural products, and pharmaceuticals.</p> <p>One of the most utilized ligands/catalysts for enantioselective reactions is 1,1’-bi-2-napthol (“BINOL”).  The most common methods to synthesize BINOL and its derivatives, however, result in the formation of a racemic mixture of (R) and (S) isomers.  Due to the fact that only a single isomer of BINOL is required for enantioselective reactions, the racemic mixture typically is purified through chromatography or recrystallization to achieve the desired isomer, while the other isomer is discarded.</p> <p>Dr Hanson has developed a methods of forming a product having an enantiomeric excess from BINOL, BINOL derivatives,  and other atropisomers, including the racemic mixtures thereof.</p> <p> </p>
Modulating Electron Transfer Dynamics at Hybrid Interfaces via Self-Assembled Multilayers Dr. Kenneth Hanson 15-001 Garrett Edmunds <p>Electron transfer at organic-inorganic hybrid interfaces is a critical event in bio/organic electronics, solar energy conversion, electrocatalysis, sensing and other applications. At the interfaces in these devices, the goal is to maximize the rate of electron transfer in one direction (forward electron transfer, FET). Equally important is the inhibition of the back electron transfer (BET). We have introduced the use of a molecular bridge in self-assembled bilayer films as an effective strategy for modulating electron transfer dynamics at the semiconductor-molecule interface. The bilayer films of the general form MO-(X)-Zr-moelcule are composed of a metal oxide electrode (MO; TiO2 or SnO2 for example), a bridging molecule (X), linking ions (Zr, Zn, etc.) and a molecule. One example bilayer with TiO2, a bridging molecules 1, 2 or 3, Zr4+ ions and RuC ([Ru(bpy)2(4,4'-(COOH)2bpy)]2+) is depicted in Figure. This approach offers a simple and modular method for slowing BET between any dye molecule and the semiconductor interface. Additionally, as opposed to other methods of slowing BET, like atomic layer deposition or synthetic modification, the step-wise soaking/loading procedure is amenable to roll-to-roll printing for large scale manufacturing of devices. Controlling electron transfer rates will help to decrease photocurrent leakage and improve device performances.</p>
Facile Conversion of Red Phosphorous to Soluble Polyphosphide Anions by Reaction with Potassium Ethoxide Dr. Michael Shatruk 16-087 Garrett Edmunds <p><span>Activation of phosphorus is an important process for the preparation of semiconductors and low-dimensional electronic materials. The industry, in general, uses white phosphorus, which is hazardous and should be stored under water due to its spontaneous flammability in air. Activation of red phosphorus, which is a more stable polymorph of the element, is usually done by high-temperature reactions with metals in sealed evacuated tubes. However, this process is expensive and difficult to scale up.</span></p> <p><span>We have discovered a methodology to activated red phosphorus using inexpensive potassium ethoxide in ethanol. The reaction can be performed with mild heating and provides access to soluble polyphosphide species, which can be used to explore further chemistry of phosphorus in solution, without the need to use white phosphorus. Moreover, we showed that this process can be easily scaled up using flow chemistry approaches.</span></p> <p><span>For more information: </span><a href="">Chemists Discover a Safe, Green Method to Process Red Phosphorus</a></p> <p><a rel="noopener" href="" target="_blank">red-wonder FSU chemists pave the way of phosphorus revolution</a></p> <p><i>Angew. Chem. Int. Ed.</i> 2016, DOI: <a href="" title="Facile Conversion of Red Phosphorus into Soluble Polyphosphide Anions">10.1002/anie.201511186</a></p> phosphorene,black phosphorus
Flexible Electrochemical Cell with Fiber-like Geometry and Coaxially Structured Electrodes Jesse Smithyman 14-015 Michael Tentnowski <p>The proposed technology is a flexible electrochemical cell with cylindrical, fiber-like geometry. As opposed to the sandwich-like structure of planar cells, the cell has coaxial electrodes with the separator in between such that all components are concentric cylinders.</p> <p>A flexible electrochemical cell consists of a carbon nanotube yarn as the inner electrode and supportive material. A polymer electrolyte is coated on the yarn followed by the application of an outer carbon nanotube network electrode. Chemical modification of the electrodes is possible to enhance or tailor the electrochemical properties.</p> <p>The inclusion of these carbon nanotube electrodes enables the integration of an electronic conductor and active material of each electrode in a single component. The features of the flexible electrical devices described herein beneficially enable the device to maintain high volumetric energy and power densities during device deformations. Without being limited to a single theory, a coaxial design of the flexible electrical device permits uniform primary current distribution because of the radial ion transport between electrodes.</p> <p>The initial prototypes fabricated had diameters - 500 micron and future size reductions are very feasible. Tailoring the materials used in the cell design allows for a number of different applications. Prototype super capacitor fibers and humidity sensing fibers have been developed.</p> <p>The high aspect ratio fiber geometry also provides a cell design able to undergo flexural deformation with minimal impact on the electrochemical properties, and &gt; 95% of the energy density and &gt; 99% of the power density was retained when wound around an I l cm diameter cylinder.</p>
Single Layer Emitting Diodes Using Organometal Halide Perovskite/Ionic- Conducting Polymer Composite Zhibin Yu 15-231 Michael Tentnowski <p>Organometal halide perovskite (Pero) materials have been recently intensively explored. They are ideal in forming optoelectronic devices due to their optical and electronic properties. For example, solar cells with a thin layer of methyl ammonium lead iodide have achieved about 20% power conversion efficiency, approaching the state-of-the-art performance of polycrystalline thin film solar cells. Pero materials also exhibit high photoluminescence yield and can be tuned to cover the visible spectrum, thus they are potentially valuable in light-emitting diodes (LEDs) for information displays and lighting luminaires.</p> <p>We have created single-layer LEDs using a composite thin film of Pero and poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO). In contrast to the multi-layer strategy, a simplified device structure is certainly advantageous in terms of processing flexibility and fabrication cost at the manufacturing stage. Our single-layer thin films are synthesized by a one-step spin coating process and have a device structure that resembles “bottom electrode (ITO)/Pero-PEO/top electrode (In/Ga or Au)”. In spite of the simple device structure, the green emission LEDs with methylammonium lead bromide (bromide-Pero) and PEO composite thin films exhibit a low turn-on voltage of ~2.8-3.1V (defined at 1 cd m<sup>-2 </sup>luminance), a maximum luminance of 4064 cd m<sup>-2</sup>  and a moderate maximum current efficiency of ~0.24-0.74 cd A<sup>-1</sup>. Such performance is on par with reported results in literature involving a more complex multi-layer device structure. Blue and red emissions LEDs have also been fabricated.</p>
Improved Thermoelectric Materials and Devices Dr. Theo Siegrist 18-057 Michael Tentnowski <p>Thermoelectric refrigeration requires no moving parts nor circulating liquid. Thus, it is the most stable form of refrigeration as it is invulnerable to leaks and can be designed to fit applications of various shapes and sizes. Compared with current refrigeration methods, thermoelectric refrigeration is much more economically efficient and environmentally friendly. Ultra-low temperature cooling, in particular, requires critical conditions and is costly due to the price of liquid Helium. Therefore, companies, universities, research institutes would benefit from thermoelectric refrigeration.</p> <p>Florida State University has synthesized heavy-fermion compounds with power values that are orders of magnitude larger than that of most competitive and well known thermoelectric materials. Thus, a new generation of thermoelectric devices are now possible for use in satellites and spacecraft or cryogenic cooling at temperatures below liquid nitrogen.</p>
Variable Inductor DC-HCB Mischa Steurer 20-053 Michael Tentnowski <p>The application of a variable inductor to the design of a Direct Current (DC) circuit breaker (CB) designed to break the fault current during short circuit or over-current event in medium-voltage and high voltage DC grids.  This includes an ultra-fast CB consisting of a fast-mechanical switch branch and a solid-state branch. The solid-state branch consists of a fault current commutation converter and a solid-state circuit breaker in serial connection and adds a variable inductor into the switch branch for a "safe-to-open" signal.</p>
Integrated Thermal-Electrical Component for Power Converters Yanjun Shi 20-014 Michael Tentnowski <p>An invention that increases power density and significantly reduces the Common-Mode (CM) Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) of power electronics converters. A new design integrates two capacitors into the heatsink of a power converter and uses the heatsink as the de-link capacitor, whereby bulky de-link capacitors are eliminated.  Power semiconductors are directly soldered onto the heatsink/ capacitor, as opposed to being attached through the thermal interface material. Heat transfer is enhanced, heatsink size is reduced, and parasitic capacitors between the electronical circuit and the heatsink are eliminated.</p>
Localized Voltage Unbalance and Harmonics Correcting Circuit Thomas Lipo 19-046 Michael Tentnowski <p>Squirrel cage induction motors are used in machines that are sensitive to voltage fundamental component unbalances and voltage harmonics. This invention uses a Voltage Unbalance Compensator (VUC) inserted in the motor neutral to correct for these disturbances. This compensator is a low cost means of maintaining 100% motor load capability even in the presence of a 5% unbalance and can stop harmonic current flow within the machine. By using the VUC, the motor can be controlled to present itself as a unity power factor load to the utility regardless of the loading condition of the motor.</p>
Active Wave Canceler Hui Li 19-031 Michael Tentnowski <p>A device to solve over voltage issues caused by the reflected wave phenomenon (RWP). A motor drive connected to a motor through long cables can cause the reflection of the electromagnetic wave, resulting a voltage spikes at the motor side that is twice as high as the voltage at the drive side.  This transient over voltage can damage the insulation of the motor or reduce its useful life. The canceler detects rising/following edge of the motor drive and generates a short pulse that breaks the voltage slope so that over voltage at motor side is suppressed.</p>
Continuously Tunable Nanoscale Phase Modulator Based on Ambipolar Field-Effect Transistor Stephen McGill 19-014 Michael Tentnowski <p>An ambipolar field-effect transistors (FETs) of multi-layered triclinic ReSe2, mechanically exfoliated onto a Si02 layer grown on p-doped Si. These FETs show ambipolar response with near zero threshold voltage. Used to fabricate a simple, gate-voltage-controlled continuously tunable phase modulator with the ability to shift the phase of the input signal from zero to nearly 180 degrees. The nanoscale architecture permits high-density fabrication for miniaturized circuits and operates in the kilohertz to megahertz frequency range.</p>
Radio-Frequency Isolated Gate Driver for Power Semiconductors Hui Li 18-040 Michael Tentnowski <p>A gate driver for power semiconductors including metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) and insulated-gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs) that does not require isolated power supplies.  The use of a circuit to transfer signal and power at the same time by a radio frequency (RF) transformer which works at several hundreds of a Megahertz and provides galvanic isolation. The frequency band is designed to be much larger than conducted electromagnetic interference (EM) frequency ranges, which are less than 30 Megahertz.  The driver is free of standby power loss and has a built-in active gating function.</p>
Real-Time Simulators for Power Converters Mischa Steurer 18-026 Michael Tentnowski <p>A method for integrating interfaces into power electronic converters (PEC) for Controller Hardware-in-the-Loop (CHIL) environments. The interface consists of software and hardware that allows redirecting signal flow including modulation signals and measurements in the PEC from their traditional path to and from power converter stage models executed in a digital real-time simulator (ORTS). It allows performing CHIL simulations with the actual PEC at the installation location of the PEC, avoiding the need for dedicated and error prone signal conditioning circuitry externally to the native PEC controller hardware.</p>
A Modular Multilevel Duel-Active-Bridge DC-DC Converter Hui Li 16-095 Michael Tentnowski <p>A battery energy storage system (BESS) for medium voltage direct current (MVDC) or high voltage direct current (HVDC) grids or systems. The BESS comprises split-battery units and an isolated DC-DC converter interface connecting the battery units to the MVDC or HVDC system. The isolated BESS converter is a soft-switched modular multilevel dual-active-bridge (DAB) converter which has DC fault rid-through capability. The converters can be single-phase or poly-phase configurations and can be controlled to maintain a desired DC output under normal and DC grid fault conditions.</p>
Isolated Battery Energy System for DC Grid Applications Hui Li 15-221 Michael Tentnowski <p>This invention presents a family of isolated battery energy storage system (BESS) topologies with multiple functions, which are suitable for high voltage and high-power DC grid application, including Medium Voltage Direct Current (MVDC) or High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) applications. The modulation and control strategies of these topologies are also presented.</p>
Integrated Three-Port Bidirectional DC-DC Converter for Photovoltaics Zhan Wang 15-148 Michael Tentnowski <p>An integrated three-port bidirectional DC-DC converter to interface with PV panels and batteries. With no additional components added, the cost and complexity of the system does not increase. Photovoltaic (PV) with battery backup system is not only expected to tackle the PV market with the Feed-in Tariff (FiT) rates set to decline and conventional electricity prices projected to rise, but also helps to mitigate the high penetration issue into the grid.</p>
Single-Phase Fuel Cell Power Conditioning System Xiaohu Liu 13-045 Michael Tentnowski <p>A single-phase fuel cell power conditioning system with minimized DC capacitor that achieves low-frequency ripple-free input current using a control-oriented power pulsation power decoupling strategy when an inverter load is connected. Without extra circuit components, the fuel cell system uses a smaller de bus capacitor (film capacitor) that replaces the bulky electrolytic capacitor.  The result is a reduced cost for fuel cell residential applications and distributed stationary fuel cell power generation systems.</p>
Predictive Control of Distributed Energy Resources Richard Meeker 17-047 Michael Tentnowski <p>Devices and methods of allocating distributed energy resources (DERs) to loads connected to a microgrid based on the cost of the DERs. The devices and methods may determine one or more real-time electricity prices associated with utility generation sources, determine one or more forecasts, and costs associated with one or more renewable energy sources within the microgrid. They may also determine an allocation of the renewable sources to one or more loads in the microgrid.</p> <p> </p> <p>Exclusive license: NhuEnergy <a href=""></a></p>
Method for Assessing the Remaining Life of Electrical Insulation Yaw Nyanteh 13-253 Michael Tentnowski <p>A system and method for electrical tree simulation based on a modification of a discharge avalanche model with an application of a charge simulation method to determine partial discharge data during the growth of electrical trees in an insulation system and a method of using the model to determine the remaining useful life of an insulation system.</p>
Leadless Power Coupler for Cryogenic Environment Mischa Steurer 20-026 Michael Tentnowski <p>A coupler consisting of a primary winding at room temperature and a secondary winding at cryogenic temperature, which may or may not be superconducting. The coupler is designed for power line frequencies (e.g. 50 or 60 Hz) or much higher frequencies and overcomes challenges with the transition of power from room temperature to the cryogenic environment.  By coupling the power via magnetic fields using the power transformer principle, this coupling mechanism can achieve voltage transformation which galvanic feedthroughs cannot. The method can also be applied as a brushless exciter for superconducting motors and generators.</p>
A Method for Making Ultralow Platinum Loading and High Durability Membrane Electrode Assembly for PEMFCS Dr. Jim Zheng 18-032 Garrett Edmunds <p>FSU researchers have created a method of making membrane electrode assembly (MEA) which has following characteristics:</p> <p>(1) the unique microstructure and well-connected nanotubes network ensures a high electron conductivity</p> <p>(2) the platinum group metal (PGM) nanoparticles are de posited electrochemically in a liquid solution on the outermost surface area of an established porous CNT/CNF buckypaper network such that the locations of these nanoparticles are accessible by both electrons and gas</p> <p>(3) the surfaces of deposited PGM nanoparticles and buckypaper network are coated in a layer of Nafion electrolyte using electrophoretic deposition (EPD) in a Nafion monomer solution and combined with  the liquid dropping method, in order for the PGM nanoparticles to be accessible by protons.</p> <p>This method provides a novel approach to fabrication of the “ideal” membrane electrode assembly (MEA) in which most of the platinum group metal (PGM) catalytic particles are located at sites that satisfy the triple-phrase boundary (THB) condition and maximize the PGM usage.</p>
Electro-Coating Method for Uniform Layer Thickness of Perovskite Material on Carbon Wire-Shaped Substrates Dr. Okenwa Okoli 18-035 Michael Tentnowski <p>This novel method allows the individual to predictably and repeatably coat semi-conductive wire shaped materials (such as carbon nano-tube yarn (CNY)) with perovskite solution (CH3NH3Pb13). Perovskite is a rising star in the photo-voltaic community. With the research community rushing to bring 2D planar perovskite solar cells to market, coating/manufacturing methods for 3D structures have been left behind. Controllable and uniform heating of the substrate is necessary for a high-quality perovskite layer. Due to the complex 3D geometry of wires, the repeatable control and uniform heating of CNYs has not been possible until this method was created. Here we use Joule Heating to accurately and stably control the temperature of the wire in order achieve a uniform perovskite layer. Not only does this method add control and repeatability to the process, but it is also more energy efficient than any other published method. This makes this process ideal for scalable research applications and eventually industrial fabrication of wire-shaped perovskite LEDs, photo-detectors, and solar cells.</p> <p>Advantages:</p> <p>- Uses less energy than other methods, making it a strong candidate for scalable manufacturing as perovskite solar cells continue to rise in efficiency and performance.</p> <p>- Provides instant heating and cooling to the substrate using Joule heating.</p> <p>- Allows for the instantaneous control over heating of the substrate by merely adjusting the power source.</p>
Solid-state Upconversion for Photovalics and Infrared Sensing Dr. Lea Neinhaus 20-003 Garrett Edmunds <p>This is a novel bulk-semiconuctor material that provides a new approach to photon upconversion. Infrared light is neither visible to the eye nor to silicon-based optoelectronic devices such as solar cells or cameras. Upconversion describes the process of converting low-energy infrared light into high-energy visible light, which can then be detected or used by optoelectronic devices. Upconversion in organic molecules stores energy in long-lived spin-triplet states which cannot be excited by incident light. Current, state-of-the-art upconversion devices involve metal-organic complexes and/or nanocrystals as sensitizers to absorb and funnel energy for collection. These devices are limited by poor exciton diffusion or large exchange energies between the singlet and triplet states.</p> <p>To overcome these limitations, the current technology uses bulk-semiconductor thin films as sensitizers for the triplet state to achieve efficient upconversion based on triplet-triplet annihilation. The thickness of the film can be varies, which enables the shift of the threshold of efficient upconversion to subsolar incident powers. This approach foregoes the requirement of efficient singlet-to-triplet conversion in the sensitizer, enabling more efficient triplet sensitization.</p> <p>This technology bears potential to overcome the Shockley-Queisser limit efficiency limit of solar cells. It additionally can find use in infrared sensing and photocatalysis.</p>
Efficient and Stable Pigment-Coated Perovskite Solar Cells Dr. Biwu Ma 21-002 & 21-038 Garrett Edmunds <p>Low-cost, nontoxic, highly stable industrial organic pigments are utilized as surface passivation agents for perovskite solar cells (PSCs).</p> <p>Next-generation thin-film perovskite solar cells have been shown to have major advantages over their silicon-based counterparts. They are low-cost, highly efficient, and are simple to synthesize from earth-abundant materials. However, to become truly competitive with current on-the-market solar cells, PSCs need to overcome the challenge of long-term stability while maintaining their ability to be mass-produced.</p> <p>Dr. Biwu Ma of Florida State University has developed a method to apply a layer of organic pigments to PSCs as a passivation agent, increasing the useable lifespan of these solar cells. The pigments are well-known, low-cost, and have been shown to improve the efficiency PSCs; in one experiment, the efficiency of a solar cell was increased from 18.9% to 21.1% with the application of the pigment.</p> <p>The pigments are applied via solution processing of soluble pigment derivatives followed by thermal annealing to convert them into insoluble coating. This enables effective passivation through strong interactions organic pigments and the metal halides of the solar cell. Together with the hydrophobicity of the coating, this enables highly efficient PSCs with remarkable stability.</p> <p>News article: <a href=""></a></p>
Contactless Power Converter Age Detector Yanjun Shi 20-045 Michael Tentnowski <p>A measurement method/device that measures the acoustic noise near an operating power converter and predicts the remaining useful life of the converter. The acoustic noise is generated by the switching events of power semiconductors. Compared with the state-of-the-art aging detection or failure detection methods, this method does not require inserting a special-designed detection circuit near the power switches.</p>
Oxygen-substituted, Solid-state, Lithium-ion Batteries Yan-yan Hu 21-033 Garrett Edmunds <p>Lithium-ion batteries have quickly become an integral part of everyday life with their use in laptops, smartphones, electric vehicles, etc. However, a major safety concern of commercial Lithium Ion Batteries stems from the use of flammable organic electrolytes. To overcome this, solid electrolytes have been extensively studied, especially Li<sub>3</sub>PS<sub>4</sub> because of its stability against lithium and low cost. Li<sub>3</sub>PS<sub>4</sub> does have the draw back of having a staggering decrease in ionic conductivity due to a lack of stability in its highly conductive β-phase; stabilizing this phase promises to provide access to a range of next-generation batteries that are stable and highly efficient.</p> <p>Dr. Yan-yan Hu and her team at FSU have developed a range of oxygen-substituted materials with the structure Li<sub>3</sub>PS<sub>4-x</sub>O<sub>x</sub> (0 &lt; x &lt; 1) that are more stable and provides up to a seven-fold increase in ionic conductivity and a lower activation energy compared to experimental β-Li<sub>3</sub>PS<sub>4</sub>. Additionally, they have developed a method to synthesize the material through high-energy ball-milling.</p> <p>The result is a high-performance battery with fast Li-ion transport and decreased activation energy. Coupled with a facile synthetic method, the enhanced electrochemical performance of this material makes it a great candidate for next generation solid-sate batteries.</p> Battery,Lithium-ion,Solid-state
Single Transformer-Based Gate Driver Fang Peng 20-025 Michael Tentnowski <p><span>A gate driver for power switching devices using a GHz band input. There is only one isolation point, so gate signals and power can be transmitted at the same time through one isolation point. An edge detector and pulse generating circuit on the primary side can detect each rising and falling edge of the original gate signal and generate a certain pulse width for these edges separately. A rectifier circuit on the secondary side rectifies the voltage transmitted from the primary side. The rectified voltage is used for the secondary side logic circuit and drive circuit. At the same time, a signal recovery circuit can recover original gate signals' rising edge and falling edge separately. The new gate driver circuit has a much simpler design and exchanges more information than existing solutions.</span></p>
Hybrid Circuit Breaker Using Fast Mechanical and Semiconductor Switches Yuan Li 21-030 Michael Tentnowski <p>A new circuit and corresponding operating principle for direct current hybrid circuit breaker (DC HCB). The new circuit exclusively applies a capacitor directly in the path of main semiconductor switch, making the circuit more simplified with less components. This DC HCB can be used to clear faults in bidirectional DC or AC power systems and enables the mechanical switch to operate during no-load conditions.  A branch consisting of capacitor in series with semiconductor switch(es) is connected in parallel with a branch consisting of a mechanical switch. The principle consists of four stages: Standby, Commuting, Regulating and Tailing.</p>
Active Adaptive Low-Pass Filter Control for Power Electronic Converters Yanjun Shi 21-057 Michael Tentnowski <p><span>A digital control method that builds on the principle of active damping using a virtual memristor low pass filter which adjusts the cutoff frequency based on the output voltage in a way such that adaptive response to transient features is achieved.  Implementation is done by linearizing the equations governing the behavior of a memristor and directly programming the control algorithm onto a digital signal processor.  Greater stable operation area is covered by the controller, as opposed to conventional active damping control.</span></p>
Efficient, Earth-abundant Electrocatalytic Material for Water Oxidation Dr. Michael Shatruk 19-009 Garrett Edmunds <p>AlFe<sub>2</sub>B<sub>2</sub> exhibits excellent electrocatalytic performance in oxygen-evolution reactions, and is inexpensive, facilely synthesized, and comprised of earth-abundant elements.</p> <p>Key Benefits</p> <ul> <li>AlFe<sub>2</sub>B<sub>2 ­</sub>serves as an excellent oxygen-evolution reaction (OER) pre-catalyst and has long-term stability under alkaline conditions.</li> <li>This material outperforms well-known platinum group metal catalysts, including IrO<sub>2</sub> and RuO<sub>2</sub>, as well as Co- and Ni- containing noble-metal-free catalysts</li> <li>The material is made of readily available and inexpensive materials and is synthesized simply by arc-melting followed by ball-milling.</li> </ul> <p>Technical Summary</p> <p>Fast depletion of fossil fuels drives extensive research efforts aimed at the development of renewable energy sources, including water electrolysis to produce fuel cells. The state-of-the-art electrocatalysts are Pt, IrO<sub>2</sub>, and RuO<sub>2</sub>, which are expensive and limited in their reserves. AlFe<sub>2</sub>B<sub>2</sub> is a promising alternative due to its low-cost and lack of noble-metal elements. AlFe<sub>2</sub>B<sub>2</sub> acts as a scaffold for the <em>in situ</em> formation of catalytically active Fe<sub>3</sub>O<sub>4</sub> nanoclusters. The material is exceptionally efficient and exhibits substantially lower overpotentials at all current densities when compared to commonly used electrocatalysts. The material is also remarkably stable and an overpotential value of 240 mV was observed at a constant current density of 10 mA cm<sup>-2</sup> for more than ten days. These outcomes establish AlFe<sub>2</sub>B<sub>2</sub> as a highly active and inexpensive OER electrocatalyst with remarkable long-term stability.</p> <p>Development Stage</p> <p>AlFe<sub>2</sub>B<sub>2</sub> has been thoroughly tested and evaluated in a laboratory setting and is currently undergoing further testing and refinement in industry-scale environments. Further research into improved variations are also ongoing.</p> <p> </p>
Data-Driven Recirculating Aquaculture System Moses Anubi 21-055 Michael Tentnowski <p>A recirculating aquaculture system with a data-driven control strategy that improves the growth rate of cultured species (ex: shrimp, tilapia), minimizes required feed, reduces water consumption by improving waste removal from recirculating water, and provides robustness against uncertainty and disturbances. The system uses low-cost and readily available sensors to obtain estimates of concentrations of hard to measure target parameters such as ammonia, nitrate, nitrite, chemical oxygen demand, and phosphate).  It is controlled in real-time using data-driven (including machine learning) algorithms.</p> <p>In addition to the main culture tank, the system houses bioreactors for nitrification and denitrification in the waste removal process. The type of reactor varies but may include a mixed bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) and an anaerobic suspend growth reactor or sequencing batch reactor (SBR). These reactors are equipped with sensors and dosing pumps to cultivate a monitored biomass (biofloc). An intelligent control strategy is constructed from measurement data to optimize the waste removal ability of the biomass and to track reference setpoints which can be sized appropriately to feed plants in an aquaponics or hydroponics operation. The purpose of this design is to create a semi-automated method to continuously monitor and control aquaculture systems for maximum food production.</p>
Three-Pronged Approach to Optimize Electrical Insulation Systems Giancarlo Montanari 22-008 Michael Tentnowski <p>To maximize power density and dynamics, the supply of electrical and electronics components in electrical assets can go from sinusoidal AC to modulated AC and DC, including voltage and load transients.  Hybrid power supply can be a viable option that includes supplying the same component, such as cables by different types of voltage waveforms, and modulated AC and DC. This determines electrical, thermal and mechanical stress profiles that can change significantly with supply voltage and time. This can increase electrothermal and mechanical aging rates (intrinsic and extrinsic aging). As an example, the electric field in defects can incept partial discharges (PD) for one or the other stress conditions, with different PD amplitude and repetition rate. This impacts their harmfulness and the extrinsic aging rate. Life reduction can be dramatic, even if PD activity is discontinuous. The three-pronged approach allows a design that drives the optimized design of insulation systems to maximize their reliability, life, and dimensions/weight, while considering the risk of generating extrinsic aging phenomena.</p>
Non-Intrusive, In-Situ Power Measurement Method Jinyeong Moon 21-031 Michael Tentnowski <p>Power measurements generally entail measuring voltage and current waveforms and creating a product of the two with a perfectly aligned time axis. Misaligned timing axes in voltage and current will distort the actual power value, severely undermining the credibility of it.  Voltage and current waveforms are sampled through different probes with different sampling circuits, different amplifiers, different cable lengths, and using different processing algorithms inside the oscilloscope. Their timing axes are independent and the effect of the timing misalignment (skew), generally overwhelms the real, physical power being</p> <p>measured.</p> <p>The In-Situ method non-intrusively performs the precise power measurement during when the target circuit (e.g., a power converter) is in operation and while completely free from the effects of the timing skew between the voltage and current. Aside from precisely extracted voltage and current waveforms, information about the timing alignment of the voltage and current is extracted with this method and is based on the circuit topology and expected operation waveforms. This method enables In-Situ power measurements in general power converters, which has been never practiced before, and can be applied to power converters with non-sinusoidal waveforms, DC-bias, and multiple, local, minor B-H loops. This direct power measurement method accurately accounts for all nonlinear loss mechanisms of a component.</p>
Multilevel Inverter with a Reduced Switch Count and DC-Link Capacitor Jinyeong Moon 21-036 Michael Tentnowski <p>A multilevel inverter topology providing multilevel operation without a neutral point connection. With no split dc-link capacitors, the neutral point balancing issue in conventional multilevel operation is eliminated. The neutral points of the phase-legs are interconnected through a single bidirectional switch. The topology reduces the required number of switches for dual inverter operations, while providing all the critical benefits of multilevel operation (low current total harmonic distortion, low switching loss, low common-mode electromagnetic interference noise, and low motor iron loss).  The topology also offers a reduction in the dc-link capacitance up to 90%. Compared to a dual 2-level inverter, this invention with the same capacitance produces 50% less stress in the capacitor current and 50% less ripple in the capacitor voltage. It also enables the same level of ripple performance with only 46% of the capacitance required in the dual 2-level topology, leading significant cost and volume reductions.</p>
Single-Ion Conductor for Li-ion Batteries Dr. Justin Kennemur and Dr. Daniel Hallinan 22-003 Garrett Edmunds <p><span>The present invention is a blend of a low molecular weight polymer with polyelectrolyte polymer having a precisely fixed anionic motif. This material can be used as to create efficient, highly conductive solid-state batteries with low internal resistance. Solid Polymer Electrolytes (SPEs) are materials that can be used to replace the reactive organic solvents used in lithium-ion batteries. SPEs have drawbacks which prevent its wide adoption, such as low comparative conductivities and propensity to develop shorts. Single Ion Conductors (SICs) can overcome these issues by anchoring the negatively charge ion and allowing only the positively charged ion – typically Lithium ions – the mobility to carry the charge. The present material precisely controls the spacing of the negative ions on the polymer background. This material shows excellent ionic conductivity and has transference near unity.</span></p> <p> </p> <p><span>Key Words : Polymers, Energy Storage, Li-ion battery, solid-state conductor, single-ion </span>conductor</p>
Photochemical Synthesis of Polyaromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) for Modern Next-gen Electronic Display Dr. Igor Alabugin 22-007 Garrett Edmunds <p><span>Pyrene and its derivatives are Polyaromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) that found uses in organic electronic devices such as OLEDs, OFETs, and OPVs due to their high fluorescence quantum yields and inherent deep-blue emission. New synthetic strategies are essential for selective functionalization of the pyrene core and modular control of its physical properties. In this work, we have developed a new strategy for the synthesis of unsymmetrical pyrenes and higher order PAHs via a one-pot double photocyclization sequence of simple and readily available starting materials. In the first part, we describe the development and optimization of this one-pot process to synthesize different unsymmetrical pyrenes containing functional groups of different donor and acceptor ability. The second part expands this new approach to the synthesis of higher order PAHs.</span></p> <p> </p> <p><span>Key Words : LEDs, Chemical Synthesis, Flexible Displays</span></p>
LEDs from Metal Halide Perovskites Dr. Biwu Ma 18-034 Garrett Edmunds <p><span>Metal halide perovskites have emerged as a new class of low-cost solution processable semiconductor materials with applications in a variety of optoelectronic devices, from photovoltaics, to photodetectors, lasers, and light emitting diodes (LEDs). Efficient electrically driven LEDs with green light emission based on lead bromide perovskites, such as MAPbBr3 and CsPbBr3 have been achieved. While electrically driven perovskite LEDs have shown great promise with the device efficiency approaching to those of organic and quantum dot LEDs, a number of challenges, such as long-term stability and color tunability, remain to be addressed before the consideration of commercialization. For full-color display and solid-state lighting applications, highly efficient blue and red LEDs are required in addition to green ones, which however have yet achieved comparable device performance for perovskites-based devices. To implement red perovskite LEDs, two major strategies have been attempted to date, one relying on mixing halide, and the other involving the control of quantum well structures. Mixing halide has been shown to enable precise color tuning of photoluminescence and electroluminescence of perovskite LEDs. However, mixed halide perovskites show relatively low photoluminescence quantum efficiency. More critically, mixed-halide perovskites suffer from low spectral stability due to ion migration and phase separation under illumination and electric field. the change of electroluminescence color during the device operation has been observed in all LEDs based on mixed-halide perovskites. In this invention disclosure, we report bright and efficient red perovskites LEDs with great spectral stability by using quasi-2D halide perovskites/polymer (i.e. PEO, PVK, PIP, etc.) composite thin films as the light-emitting layer. By controlling the molar ratios of large organic salt (i.e. benzyl ammonium iodide, phenethylammonium iodide, butylammonium iodie, etc.) and inorganic salts (Csl and Pbl2), FSU researchers have been able to obtain luminescent quasi-2D perovskite thin films with tunable colors from red peaked at 615 nm to deep red peaked at 676 nm. The perovskites/polymer composite approach enables quasi-2D perovskite/PEO composite thin films to possess much higher photoluminescence quantum efficiencies and smoothness than their neat quasi-2D perovskite counterparts. Advantages include: 1. These quasi-2D halide perovskites/polymer composite thin films have high photoluminescence quantum efficiency and superior thin film morpology. 2. Electrically driven LEDs with tunable emissions based on quasi-2D halide perovskites/polymer composite thin films have been achieved with superior device performance. 3. These devices show exceptional EL spectra stability and device performance stability.</span></p> <p> </p> <p><span>Key Words : Chemical Synthesis, LEDs, Perovskites</span></p>
Hybrid Lithium-Ion Capacitors Jian-ping Zheng 15-080 Garrett Edmunds <p>Lithium-ion batteries and electrochemistry capacitors are the most widely used energy storage systems for electric vehicles used today. Traditionally they produce high energy density OR high power density, but not both. Based on the chemical properties of lithium-boron and lithium-carbon, a new hybrid electrochemical device combines the advantages of high energy and high power densities, while avoiding inherent defects. Voltage profiles for cells shows that at low current, the new device has a higher energy density than lithium-carbon alone, and at high current the device has a higher energy density than lithium-boron alone. A Ragone plot proves that this novel device has the advantages of the electrode of Li-ion battery and Li-ion capacitor, balances between energy density and power density, and can satisfy the demand of energy storage systems.</p>
Evaluation of Surface Sub-Component of Insulation Systems Gian Carlo Montanari 22-029 Michael Tentnowski <p>An insulation system with connectors/electrodes in a way that the surface partial discharge inception voltage is not exceeded under any operation condition and for any level of surface contamination. The new approach chooses the distances between electrodes and ground connection, and the shape of electrodes/connectors in a way that the operating voltage is lower than SPDIV. </p>
Autonomously controlled Hybrid Parcel Water/Air Delivery Vehicle with Buoyancy-Assisted Cable-Dragged Payloads Christian Hubicki 22-033 Michael Tentnowski <p>The invention comprises a parcel delivery/transportation system that employs an aerial vehicle that drags, via a cable, a suspended parcel in the water, above water, and on the surface. The system exploits buoyant forces to reduce energy consumption, conceal, and transport heavier parcels. Thanks to the maneuverability of the system, the parcel can be manipulated to avoid collisions with natural and man-made structures, interconnect separated bodies of water, and perform individualized delivery.</p> <p>Advantages</p> <ul> <li>Greater stability</li> <li>Reduced Energy Consumption</li> </ul>
Method for Algorithmic Optimization of Active Flow Control Actuator Placement and Parameters Farrukh Alvi 22-005 Michael Tentnowski <p>This invention is a system and a method for experimentally finding the best combinations and locations of active flow control actuators for optimization of a desired cost function (i.e., drag; lift; noise; or others). The system implements an automated test bench that enables a computing platform running an optimization algorithm to individually toggle and parameterize active flow control actuators on-the-fly, without requiring prior knowledge of the details of the flow to be optimized. This platform can be deployed to any engineering problem of external or internal aerodynamics (i.e., cars, trucks, trains, aircraft, ducts, etc.) where active flow control is a desirable technology but finding the best configuration of actuators is currently an intractable problem. The proposed system makes such a problem tractable, with many potential applications in the industry.</p> <p>Advantages</p> <ul> <li>Wide range of applicability</li> <li>Prior knowledge of flow details not necessary</li> </ul>
Thermoelectric Polymer Composites, Method of Improving the Thermodynamic Performance Mei Zhang 21-054 Michael Tentnowski <p>Thermoelectric technology has been treated as a candidate to convert heat into electricity to reuse the waste heat. By using body heat, thermoelectric generators are promising when applied to wearable devices as the power source. Organic thermoelectric materials have drawn more and more attention in such applications due to their good flexibility, low density, low toxicity, low cost, low thermal conductivity, and good processability. In contrast to conductive polymers, the thermoelectric performance of insulating polymers, with better processability and lower cost, is limited by the low electrical conductivity. In this patent, polymer pyrolysis, which was reported to improve the electrical conductivity of some insulting polymers, was used to improve the thermoelectric properties of insulting polymer composites. The studies show that the structure conjugation during pyrolysis is beneficial to both the Seebeck coefficient and electric conductivity of polymer composites. The partially conjugated polymer composite obtained a comparable power factor to that of the conductive polymer composites. With the contribution of this method, more options are provided for the studies of flexible thermoelectric materials with better processability and lower cost.</p> <p>Advantages</p> <ul> <li>Improved electrical conductivity of insulting polymer composites.</li> <li>Improved processability at a lower cost.</li> </ul>
Self-Mated Ultralow Wear Perfluoropolymer Composites Brandon Krick 21-042 Michael Tentnowski <p>An ultralow wear material pairing for dry/unlubricated sliding and bearing.  Ultralow wear perfluoropolymer-based composites have been realized in the form of a perfluoropolymers filled with organic and inorganic fillers. These systems are typically reported for sliding against steel and other metal countersamples. The present invention considers a paired system in which a low wear perfluoropolymer composite is slid against another perfluoropolymer composite.  This  resulted in a lower wear rate than either system against the traditional steel countersample. This is the first time these systems have been proposed, tested and measured. </p> <p>Advantages</p> <ul> <li>Significantly improves the wear rate and/or friction coefficient of already ultralow wear perfluoropolymer composite systems.</li> <li>the steady state wear rate after 1 million sliding cycles in a standard experiment is significantly reduced</li> </ul>
Battery-Based Authentication for Distributed Energy Resources Charalambos Konstantinou 21-028 Garrett Edmunds <p>A battery-based authentication methodology for distributed energy resources ("DERs&amp;rdquo;) such as rooftop solar panels and storage systems is described. The methodology leverages the inherent entropy of the DER battery energy storage system (BESS) as a root-of-trust. The DER authentication is achieved using a challenge-reply mechanism that relies on the corresponding DER’s BESS state-of-charge (SoC) and voltage measurements. A dynamically updating process ensures that the BESS state is up-to-date. The parties involved in the authentication are the DER plant communicating with operators or aggregators who manage the DER unit as source of energy and/or other ancillary services. Accordingly, the methodology can be applied to existing communication protocols employed for DER management and control to overcome their existing authentication-related security protocol issues.</p> <p>Advantages</p> <ul> <li>The methodology can be applied to existing communication protocols employed for DER management and control.</li> <li>Ability to overcome existing authentication-related security protocol issues.</li> </ul>
Microwave-Mediated Biochar-Hydrogel Composite Synthesis Gang Chen 21-025 Michael Tentnowski <p>Microwave-mediated biochar and biochar-hydrogel composite production can provide an energy-efficient, timesaving, and environmentally friendly way for the synthesis of biochar and biochar-hydrogel composite. Microwave-mediated pyrolysis and polymerization are creating an alternative to the current methods of biochar and biochar-hydrogel composite synthesis. This invention includes microwave-mediated pyrolysis, polymerization and polymer modification. The rapid dipole rotation prompted by microwave irradiation introduces energy to the involved chemical reactions more efficiently.  This significantly speeds up these chemical processes. Unlike conventional thermal heating, microwave irradiation can be performed at deliberately chosen temperatures in shifts.  The reaction equilibrium and kinetics of the absorption of radiation is temperature independent. This process can also achieve stable thermodynamic properties of polymers with no further influence on other reactions.  This helps to avoid the deformation of these polymers. </p> <p>Advantages</p> <ul> <li>Microwave-mediated biochar and biochar-hydrogel composite synthesis reactions are simple to operate with limited additives.</li> <li>It is also space efficient and can largely reduce processing costs.</li> <li>The produced biochar and biochar-hydrogel composite are popularly used in agricultural to conserve water and nutrients in response to climate change.</li> <li>The waste can be used as feedstocks for the biochar and biochar-hydrogel composite synthesis.</li> <li>This invention can be useful in various agricultural applications.</li> </ul>
Biaxial Loadcell Actuator for Vacuum Tribometer Joseph Lupton 23-036 Garrett Edmunds <p>Atribometer,an instrument which measuresvalues such ascoefficient of friction, friction force, andwearvolume, between two surfaces in contact makes use of a load head and the use of motors. This technology makes use of a custom biaxial load cell that provides a specific force resolution compatible with the sample selection. The primary advantage is that this system is compact and capable of operating in space environments, because it does not use fluids or rotating parts.</p>