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Bright Light-Emitting Diodes Based on Organometal Halide Perovskite Nanoplatelets Dr. Hanwei Gao 16-021 Garrett Edmunds <p>As LED technology advances, there is a need for cost effective materials with incredible performance. Solution-processable electronic materials have attracted great attention for the low-cost, scalable fabrication of lightweight, flexible devices. Recently, earth-abundant organometal halide perovskites that can be solution processed have emerged as a new class of semiconductors for photovoltaic devices. However, the performance of perovskite-based LEDs (PeLEDs) reported to date has not reached the level of performance typically associated with organic or quantum dot based LEDs that share similar device architecture and operating mechanisms. </p> <p>FSU researchers have fabricated bright light-emitting diodes (LEDs) based on solution-processable organometal halide perovskite nanoplatelets. These ligand-capped nanoplates are stable in moisture which allows the perovskite-based LEDs to be fabricated without an inert-gas glovebox. This novel technology demonstrates a new pathway toward optoelectronic devices based on solution-processable materials. Nanoscale organic-inorganic halide perovskites are a new class of semiconductors with desirable characteristics for optoelectronic devices.</p> <h2><strong>Advantages</strong></h2> <ul> <li>Low-cost</li> <li>High-performance</li> <li>Low temperature processing</li> <li>Tunable optical band gap</li> <li>Easily fabricated</li> </ul>
Solution-Processed, Bright Light-Emitting Diodes Based on CsPbBr3 Perovskite Dr. Hanwei Gao 16-113 Garrett Edmunds <p>Optoelectronics is the combined used of electronics and light. Solution-processed halide perovskites have shown great potential as the building blocks for the next generation of low-cost, high-performance optoelectronics and the next generation of LEDs. LED technology is rapidly advancing and there is a need for new materials with remarkable performance. </p> <p>One novel solution is LEDs that use MAPbBr3 as the emitter. These LEDs are high performing but are inherently unstable. Dr. Gao and his team have created all inorganic perovskites which are more stable both thermally and chemcially. This new material does not limit the performance of LEDs and shows the highest brightness among all perovskite LEDs demonstrated thus far. Furthermore, the synthesis creates films with incredibly small grain sizes which improves the smoothness of the films. This new material has the potential to revolutionize LEDs.</p> <h2 id="advantages"><strong>Advantages</strong></h2> <ul> <li>Excellent performance including brightness and efficiency</li> <li>Low-cost</li> <li>High-stability</li> </ul>
Stimulus Sensitive Multi-functional Biomedical Adhesives Dr. Hoyong Chung 17-042 Garrett Edmunds <p>Functional polymers can be synthesized to have different useful properties through the designed placement of various organic functional groups. Bottlebrush polymers are a type of functional polymer with multiple applications such as replacements for hydrogels, templates for carbon nanotubes, and medical applications.</p> <p>Currently biocompatible polymers are used as coatings on biomedical devices, as micro- and nanoparticles, and even for targeted drug delivery. These polymers can respond to different stimuli but even with various polymers available, it can be difficult to find one polymer that meets multiple requirements in a cost effective manner.</p> <p>An FSU inventor synthesized novel biocompatible polymers. These materials are highly functional and hydrophilic and have tunable properties. They are strong adhesives on multiple surfaces but can also be easily detached. The biomedical adhesives have the potential to greatly improve the medical industry.</p> <h2><strong>Advantages and Applications</strong></h2> <ul> <li>Tunable properties such as stiffness</li> <li>Enhanced adhesion properties on universal surfaces</li> <li>Easily cleaved to decrease adhesion</li> <li>Highly hydrophilic</li> <li>Biocompatible</li> <li>Can be used for</li> <ul> <li>localized drug delivery</li> <li>coatings on biomedical devices</li> <li>biomedical adhesive</li> </ul> </ul>
Lignin-Based Nanoparticles and Smart Polymers Dr. Hoyong Chung 15-122 Garrett Edmunds <p>Smart polymers are materials that are designed to have advanced functionality, enabling a host of new applications. The next challenge in this field is to develop classes of smart polymers that possess multiple complementary functions. Examples include stimulus-responsive materials that are self-healing and pressure-sensitive adhesives that form the basis for nanolithography.</p> <p>Dr. Chung created numerous approaches to developing these materials while incorporating natural, renewable resources, such as lignin, and leveraging advances in polymer chemistry, such as ruthenium metathesis catalysts. These novel materials can offer significant improvements over current production methods of smart polymers and the application of lignin-based materials.  Applications are nearly limitless with properties such as self-healing, shape-memory functionality, and responsiveness to external stimuli while taking advantage of biodegradable, readily available resources.</p>
Tensile Test Fixture Dr. Raphael Kampmann 18-010 Garrett Edmunds <p>Concrete reinforced with steel bars is one of the most common materials used in construction. While steel bars provide increased structural integrity to accommodate the tensile stresses in concrete, steel reinforcement is susceptible to corrosion and this deterioration is often not visible and can lead to structural failure.</p> <p>Various fiber reinforced polymer bars, such as carbon, glass, and basalt fiber reinforced polymer bars are increasingly being used instead of steel bars to reinforce concrete. These fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) materials have a high tensile strength in the direction of the fibers, but are weak in the transverse direction. These materials must be tested for tensile strength via fundamental materials science tests in which a specimen is subjected to a controlled tensile load until failure. This tensile strength test is necessary to quantitatively measure important engineering properties. It is difficult to test FRP materials in tension because the material cannot be clamped directly as this would crush the fibers.</p> <p>Currently, FRP materials are encased by anchors to be tested with traditional grips (clamping mechanism). Aligning the anchors can be difficult and time consuming, and each specimen requires a dedicated setup procedure for each test run. In addition, the anchors at the specimen end require a large grip opening, often beyond the standard capabilities in certifying laboratories.</p> <p>An FSU inventor created a tensile test fixture for quick testing of materials with low traverse strength. The novel tensile test fixture can be mounted in any universal testing machine, such as a two-part load frame, and quickly aligned for repeated testing and reliable tensile test results. Alignment of the first test specimen ensures that all consecutive test specimens are identically aligned within the tensile test fixture and no further alignment is required. This novel tensile test fixture greatly improves testing of materials with low strength in the transverse direction.</p> <h2><strong>Advantages</strong></h2> <ul> <li>Works with universal testing machines</li> <li>Requires one alignment only</li> <li>Does not require each test material to be anchored</li> </ul>
High Frequency Pulsed Microjet Actuation William Oates 10-045 Michael Tentnowski <p>Flow control theory and actuator development have been the subject of intense research for more than a decade for applications on various aircraft structures including fixed wings, cavity flow, rotor blades, and impinging jets.</p> <p>The present invention comprises a piezoelectric actuator for varying the throat geometry of a microjet nozzle, thereby varying the characteristics of the microjet produced by the microjet nozzle. The inventive device is capable of producing pulsed flow and also rapidly variable flow in order to provide active control. To our knowledge, most of the actuators that are presently available suffer from a limited dynamic range, insufficient control authority, very high mass flow, complexity, size/weight and/or robustness. Piezoelectric materials, in particular, are used in stack actuator configurations for high bandwidth nanoprecision control applications which makes it ideal for actively throttling an array of microjets. The direct conversion of electrical energy to mechanical energy provides unique capabilities when coupled to an actively deforming supersonic nozzle.</p> <h2>Applications:</h2> <ul> <li>The proposed actuator can be incorporated into a wide variety of known flow control systems and because it is so responsive in the frequency domain, an active control system (using feed-back and/or feed-forward control loops) can be used. The control system can even vary the frequency in real time in order to disrupt unwanted isolations in the flow.</li> <li>This invention should be of interest to a whole array of aerospace and aviation stakeholders who are actively pursuing Active Flow Control for the current and Next Generation of air and space vehicles. These include commercial aircraft manufacturers, e.g. Boeing, Airbus and Gulfstream, the US Dept of Defense (DARPA, Air Force, Navy and the Army) Military and NASA.</li> </ul>
Methods of Constructing Polyolefins having Reduced Crystallinity Dr. Alamo 09-166 Garrett Edmunds <p>The invention describes a family of polyolefins characterized by chain-walking defects of the type that add extra backbone carbons per monomer.</p> <p>These polyolefins display a large decrease in crystallinity relative to polyolefins known in the art. Specifically, the reduction in crystallinity is much greater than for earlier polypropylenes with a matched content of stereo or 1-alkene type defects. The claimed polyolefins can be an alkene-based homopolymer, or an alkene-based copolymer and can be made by a diimine-based catalyst or by a late metal catalyst. The defects in the polyolefin backbone are generated by a chain walking mechanism in which three or more carbons per monomer are added to the polymer backbone instead of two, as in conventional polymerization or copolymerization methods of alpha olefins.</p> <h1>Applications and Advantages:</h1> <ul> <li>Plastic wrapping</li> <li>Thin films</li> <li>Co-extrusion layers or molded parts in the absence of polymer blending or copolymerization</li> <li>The cost of materials production can be reduced</li> </ul>
Portable Sterilization System Bruce Locke and Radu Burlica 06-142 Garrett Edmunds <p>This sterilization system offers a portable, faster, more effective way to sterilize almost anything. A plasma reactor converts water into hydrogen peroxide and other oxidative/reductive species through a high voltage electrical discharge in the plasma region. The reactor utilizes water and an AC power supply to make it suitable for small and medium scale use.</p> <p><a data-id="6106" href="/media/3828/locke2.pdf" title="Locke2.pdf">Download PDF Version</a> </p> <h2>Applications:</h2> <ul> <li>Sterilization of food, hospital equipment, and other items</li> <li>Destruction of harmful pollutants in gases and water</li> </ul> <h2>Advantages:</h2> <ul> <li>Fast and effective on-site sterilization</li> <li>Self-contained unit allows for portability</li> <li>Requires only electricity and water and gas supply</li> </ul>
Pulsed Gliding Arc Electrical Discharge Reactors Dr. Bruce Locke 06-142 Garrett Edmunds <p>Gliding arc discharges have been investigated as a potential technology for gas phase pollution treatment and for liquid phase pollution treatment. Ultimately, the practical use of gliding arc technology to promote chemical transformations, such as the removal of organic pollutants in water or the generation of hydrogen peroxide, other reactive oxygen species, or reactive nitrogen species for treatment of potentially contaminated foods, depends on the efficiency that can be achieved.</p> <p>The present invention describes a plasma gliding arc discharge reactor that is useful for chemical transformations in liquids and gases. The reactor may include a housing having a plurality of divergent electrodes, a power supply connected to the electrodes delivering pulsed power to the reactor, and a nozzle that directs a mixture of a carrier gas and a liquid to a region between the divergent electrodes, thereby generating plasma in the region. The nozzle can include a first inlet for receiving the carrier gas, a second inlet for receiving the liquid and a mixing chamber that is configured to mix the carrier gas and the liquid prior to being directed to the region.</p>
Wireless Temperature Sensor for High-Temperature Environments Cheryl Xu 18-043 Garrett Edmunds <p>Existing temperature sensors such as thermocouples, optical-based non-contact sensors, and piezoelectric sensors have their own advantages, but they cannot operate wirelessly. Functional electronics such as batteries, chips, and wires cannot operate at high temperatures furthering the problem. There is a need for high temperature sensors that can wirelessly transmit data to monitor dynamic systems.</p> <p>FSU researchers created a wireless temperature sensor which can measure temperatures of at least 1000 °C. This novel sensor can collect measurements in harsh conditions such as high temperatures (e.g., 700 °C to 1,800 °C), elevated pressures (e.g., 200 psi to 50,000 psi), corrosive environments, and environments including radiation. The novel device is generally made up of a conductive material, a dielectric material, and a ground plane and can be manufactured in any shape. This wireless sensor has the potential to revolutionize the space industry, defense industry, and engineering.</p> <p><strong>Advantages</strong></p> <ul> <li>Wireless sensing in high temperatures, elevated pressure, corrosive environments, and radiation environments</li> <li>The ability to provide real-time, in-flight monitoring of systems that operate in ultra-harsh conditions</li> <li>Small profile</li> <li>Easy manufacturing and rapid prototyping</li> </ul>
The Soret Effect in Polymer-Electrolyte-Based Electrochemical Cells Daniel Hallinan 16-088 Garrett Edmunds <p>The Soret effect arises when a temperature gradient is imposed on a multi-component system, inducing a concentration gradient. There is no comprehensive theory of the Soret effect that applies to all the systems that have been studied. Polymer electrolytes are a novel and interesting system in which to study the Soret effect due to the dissimilar properties of polymers and salts.</p> <p>Polymer electrolytes provide a system in which the mobility of the components are dramatically different and in which the species solvating the ions (polymer segments) cannot transfer with the ion. This can lead to large partial molal free energy of transfer for ions in polymer electrolyte. In addition, the solid nature of polymer electrolytes precludes convection, which is a vexing source of error in thermal diffusion studies. Studies on polymer blends have found unexpectedly large Soret coefficients near a phase transition. With complex phase diagrams, polymer electrolytes provide an avenue to study this phenomena. In addition, the Soret effect in dry polymer electrolytes could potentially be used to convert waste heat into electricity and improve the efficiency of electrochemical cells.</p> <p>This technology describes measuring the Soret coefficient in a dry polymer electrolyte by determining the concentration gradient that develops in an imposed temperature gradient. The concentration gradient may be determined using various methods including an electrochemical approach and by magnetic resonance imaging. Transient studies may be used to determine the thermal diffusion coefficient, providing another way to calculate the Soret coefficient. Consideration is given to higher order effects such as non-constant transport parameters by determining the temperature dependence of both thermal mass diffusion and thermal energy diffusion.</p>
Phase-Shifted Square Wave Modulation Method for Isolated Modular Multilevel DC/DC Converter Hui (Helen) Li 18-008 Michael Tentnowski <p>This invention provides a phase-shifted square wave modulation method for isolated modular multi-level DC/DC (IM2DC) converters. In the present invention, one square wave based modulation waveform with the same frequency and magnitude is applied to each cell of an isolated modular multi-level DC/DC converter and compared with a triangular carrier waveform to generate the gate signals. With the phase-shifted angle of the carrier waves, higher equivalent switching frequency can be achieved. Both full-bridge (FB) and half-bridge (HB) cells are allowed as the single cell.</p> <p>This technology can be implemented to reduce the DC inductor size due to higher equivalent switching frequency. In addition, the required capacitor energy can be reduced, which decreases the capacitor size since they are dedicated to smooth the high switching frequency ripples only. Moreover, a high efficient power transfer capability can be achieved with the square wave compared to conventional sinusoidal waveforms.</p> <p>In addition, this invention proposes a novel phase-shifted square wave modulation technique aiming at reducing passive components and devices sizes for single-phase and three-phase IM2DC applications in HVDC/MVDC systems. In various embodiments a square wave based modulation waveform is applied to each cell of IM2DC and compared to the phase-shifted carrier waveforms to generate device gate signals. Thus, higher equivalent switching frequency will be achieved and square wave based arm and AC link waveforms will be generated. The power flow of IM2DC is controlled by a phase shift angle of the square modulation waveforms between HVS and LVS. Compared to the conventional phase-shift sinusoidal method, the converter cell capacitors can be reduced significantly since they are required to smooth out the high switching frequency ripple components only. In addition, lower TDR can be achieved due to the higher power transferring capability of square waves. Both proposed method and quasi-two-level modulation can achieve low TDR and small cell capacitor size, however, the present invention can allow smaller DC inductors due to the multi-cell phase-shifted characteristics.</p>
MultiSense: A Highly Reliable Wearable-Free Fall Detection System Dr. Zhenghao Zhang 18-015 Michael Tentnowski <p class="lead"><span class="small">Professor Zhang and his team have developed A reliable fall detection system has tremendous value to the well-being of seniors living alone. We design and implement MultiSense, a novel fall detection system, which has the following desirable features. First, it does not require the human to wear any device, therefore convenient to seniors. Second, it has been tested in typical settings including living rooms and bathrooms, and has shown very good accuracy. Third, it is built with inexpensive components, with expected hardware cost around $150 to cover a typical room. Therefore, it has a key advantage over the current commercial fall detection systems which all require the human to wear some device, as well as over academic research prototypes which have various limitations such as lower accuracy. The high accuracy is achieved mainly by combining senses from multiple types of sensors that complement each other, which includes a motion sensor, a heat sensor, and a floor vibration sensor. Roughly speaking, the activities confusing to some sensors are often not confusing to others, and vice versa; therefore, combining multiple types of sensors can bring the performance to a level that can meet the requirements in practice.</span></p>
Method for Producing Composite Powder for Dry Process Electrode for Electrochemical Devices Jian-ping (Jim) Zheng 15-235 Garrett Edmunds <p>This novel technology is directed to a low cost and high performance electrode for an energy storage device or an energy storage system and the method for making that device. The types of energy storage devices that can incorporate such electrode include ultracapacitors, lithium ion capacitors, batteries, fuel cells and hybrid cells which are the combination of the above devices. The types of energy storage systems that can incorporate such a low cost and high performance electrode are the energy storage system that uses at least one of the above devices.</p> <p>This technology comprises a binder composition and a method of making a composite powder for a dry process electrode and a method of producing an electrode. Both of these methods can be used for electro-chemical devices. The binder composition includes bulk polymer, polymer solution, and polymer suspension. The method comprises: 1) making electrode composites including an active material, a carbonaceous conductor and binder wherein the working ranges for each include, by weight, about 70-97% for the active materials, about 0-10% for the conductive material additives, and about 2-20% binder material through solvent-free or solvent assistant process; 2) making uniformly mixed, ready-for-press electrode composite powders comprising of an active material, a carbonaceous conductor and binder using a high speed mixer; 3) form a free-standing continuous electrode film by pressing the uniform mixed powder together through the gap between two roller of a roll-mill, and 4) calendering the electrode film onto a substrate, such as a collector.</p>
Leakage Current Suppression Solutions for Photovoltaic Cascaded Multilevel Inverter Application Hui (Helen) Li 13-176 Michael Tentnowski <p>The cascaded multilevel inverter is considered to be a promising alternative for the low-cost and high-efficiency photovoltaic (PV) systems. However, the current leakage issue, resulting from the stray capacitances between the PV panels and the earth, needs to be solved for the cascaded inverter to be reliably applied in PV application.</p> <p>The proposed technologies solve the leakage current issue in PV cascaded multilevel inverter by using passive filters. It can retain the simple structure of the inverter and does not complicate the associated control system.  The system is a photovoltaic cascaded inverter, including inverter modules, which have both an AC and a DC side.  In addition, the system includes a common DC-side choke coupled to the DC-side of each of the inverter modules and a common mode AC-side choke coupled to the AC-side of each of the inverter modules.</p> <p> </p>
Fast Electromechanical Disconnect Switching Chamber with Integrated Drive Mechanism Michael (Mischa) Steurer 14-117 Michael Tentnowski <p>The technology developed is a fast electromechanical switch with the drive mechanism integrated into the switching chamber. The integration of the drive mechanism allows for much faster contact travel and therefore faster switching operation.</p> <p>The proposed invention uses a vacuum or pressurized gas chamber with internal piezoelectric-actuator driven contacts for an electrical switch that can provide ultra-fast voltage. It fills a need for use in hybrid breaker applications.</p> <h2>Advantages:</h2> <ul> <li>Compact</li> <li>Low loss</li> <li>Does not need high current pulses</li> <li>Can be automatically reset</li> <li>Simple and fast</li> </ul>
Derivative Reference-Based Method for Detection of Instability in Power Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulation James Langston 16-084 Michael Tentnowski <p>Hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) is a form of simulation wherein a hardware device is interfaced to a digital real-time simulator (DRTS), which models the system that the hardware is intended to be connected to in the real world. HIL simulations offer a method to test physical devices under real time operating conditions. Various scenarios can be tested in a controlled environment to evaluate the performance of the device under test (DUT) before it is connected to the actual physical system.</p> <p>Most HIL simulations are closed-loop meaning that the response of the device is fed back to the DRTS. One type of closed-loop HIL is a Power HIL (PHIL). PHIL simulations involve interfacing the DRTS with a power device such as a motor, generator, transformer, inverter, etc. (DUT). The DRTS and the DUT exchange power over the PHIL interface. In some instances, a digital to analog (D/A) converter, which is included as part of the DRTS provide analog signals scaled down to electronic levels within ±10Vpk, ±10mA. In other instances, digital signals may be exchanged. These voltage levels are well below the operating voltage/current range of the DUT, therefore amplifiers and/or actuators are required in PHIL simulations to scale the signals sent from the DRTS to the DUT.</p> <p>Due to the closed-loop nature of PHIL simulations and the natural delays in the feedback loops, instability is often a problem, and can lead to damage and/or destruction of the equipment involved in the tests. Very little has been published regarding protection methods designed to detect instabilities in PHIL systems. Some of the proposed methods to detect these oscillations include over/under frequency protection and harmonic distortion-based protection.</p> <p>The invention provides a method for detecting instability in a PHIL simulation. The PHIL includes a RTS, a DUT, and an amplifier electrically connected between the RTS and the DUT. The method includes computing in a RTS a magnitude of a time-derivative of reference quantities and applying a low pass filter thereto. The method also includes comparing an output from the low pass filter to a threshold for detection of oscillations of the reference quantities. When oscillations are detected a mitigating step is applied to the DUT. The invention includes other variations of a similar concept.</p>
Combined Gas-Liquid Plasma and Bioreactor Remediation of Liquids and Gases Bruce Locke and Youneng Tang 17-018 Garrett Edmunds <p>An increasing number of types and vast amounts of different complex organic compounds into the natural environment. Of these compounds, the emerging contaminants, those typically not regulated or routinely monitored by government agencies, include a wide range of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), and other compounds that cannot be degraded or removed in conventional drinking water and wastewater treatment processes. Many of these compounds can have adverse effects on the environment, animal, and human health (e.g., endocrine disruption), even at low concentrations. For example, widespread release of antibiotics has led to the evolution of antibiotic resistant bacteria which reduce our capability to manage infectious diseases. Such compounds are released into drinking water, ground water, and wastewater from hospitals, water treatment plants, and distributed sources such as septic field and edge agricultural runoff. Many of these compounds are not readily biodegradable, some are highly persistent in the environment, some may accumulate in the food chain, and some may degrade into more hazardous compounds causing further environmental and health issues. Approximately 700 emerging pollutants, including their metabolic and degradation products, are listed in Europe.</p> <p>Biological reactors offer significant energy efficiency, but require significant residence times, on the order of days or weeks, in order to fully degrade some contaminants. Also, biological reactors are incapable of degrading some toxic organic compounds, or are incapable of completely degrading some organic contaminants to mineralized products. Plasma reactors that only treat liquid contaminants combined with biological reactors are incapable of degrading gas phase contaminants. Such combined systems also are not readily adaptable to changing contaminant composition streams.</p> <p>In order to solve these issues, this novel technology uses a mixture comprising liquid water, a gas and organic compounds, which are injected into a non-thermal gas-liquid plasma discharge reactor to generate a flowing liquid film region with a gas stream flowing alongside. A plasma discharge is propagated along the flowing liquid film region. During this process, water is<br />dissociated and reactive species such as hydroxyl radicals, hydrogen peroxide, and nitrogen oxides are formed. The organic compound reacts with the reactive species such as hydroxyl radicals and hydrogen peroxide present in the flowing liquid film region and in the flowing gas stream to produce organic compound dissociation products. Some of the organic compound dissociation products and nitrogen oxides are transferred to a bioreactor for further degradation. The nitrogen oxides are used as nutrients for bacteria in the bioreactor. The combination of the two reactors saves energy and time on the process of degrading the compounds, thereby cutting costs. Additionally, the increased efficiency of the system is far greater than the addition of the two individual reactors.</p>
Alkylamine-Gold Nanoparticle Monolayers having Tunable Electrical and Optical Properties Daniel Hallinan 16-068 Garrett Edmunds <p>The unique physical and chemical properties of most traditional materials are largely determined by the spatial arrangement of the constituent building blocks (i.e. atoms) relative to one another.  When the scale of the building blocks extend to the range outside that of atomic elements (e.g. nanoparticles), the 'artificial solids' composed of such nanoparticles exhibit unique properties different from their bulk counterparts. In particular, monolayer two-dimensional (2D) artificial solids, serving as the structural basis for more complicated nanostructures, display distinct collective optical, electrical, and catalytic properties, thus finding vast prospective applications in high-performance solar cells, electrogenerated chemilumines, chemical sensors, transistors, integrated microcircuitry, batteries, capacitors, and thermolectrics. Akin to traditional materials, the physical and chemical properties of artificial solids are not only dependent on the elementary nanoparticle size and shape, but as importantly on the interparticle separation and the periodic arrangement of the constituents.</p> <p>FSU researchers have successfully prepared monolayer gold nanoparticle (Au NP) films using a water/organic solvent self-assembly strategy. A new approach, “drain to deposit”, is demonstrated most effective to transfer the Au NP films from a liquid/liquid interface to various solid substrates while maintaining their integrity. The interparticle spacing was tuned from 1.4 nm to 3.1 nm using different length alkylamine ligands. The ordering of the films increased with increasing ligand length. The surface plasmon resonance and the in-plane conductivity of the Au NP films both exhibit an exponential dependence on the particle spacing. These findings show great potential in scaling up the fabrication of high-performance optical and electronic devices based on metallic nanoparticle superlattices.</p> <p>In addition, these FSU researchers have developed a three phase system for depositing monolayer gold nanoparticle films. Using this three-phase system, centimeter-scale monolayer gold nanoparticle (Au NP) films have been prepared that have long-range order and hydrophobic ligands. The system contains an interface between an aqueous phase containing Au NPs and an oil phase containing one of various types of amine ligands, and a water/air interface. As the Au NPs diffuse to the water/oil interface, ligand exchange takes place which temporarily traps them at the water/oil interface. The ligand exchanged particles then spontaneously migrate to the air/water interface, where they self-assemble, forming a monolayer under certain conditions. The spontaneous formation of the NP film at the air/water interface was due to the minimization of the system Helmholtz free energy. However, the extent of surface functionalization was dictated by kinetics. This decouples interfacial ligand exchange  from interfacial self-assembly, while maintaining the simplicity of a single system. The interparticle center-to-center distance was dictated by the amine ligand length. The Au NP monolayers exhibit tunable surface plasma resonance and excellent spatial homogeneity, which is useful for surface-enhanced Raman scattering. The “air/water/oil” self-assembly method developed here not only benefits the fundamental understanding of NP ligand conformations, but is also applicable to the manufacture of plasmonic nanoparticle devices with precisely designed optical properties.</p> <h1>Applications and Advantages</h1> <ul> <li>Batteries <ul> <li>Electric car</li> <li>Laptop</li> <li>Mobile device</li> <li>Other electric vehicles and locomotion devices</li> </ul> </li> <li>Extremely precise detection of compounds</li> <li>Increases reliability of batteries</li> <li>Increases the performances of batteries</li> <li>Reduces the possibility of catastrophic failure of devices due to battery failure</li> </ul> <p> </p> <p> </p>
Additive Manufacturing of a Wireless Ceramic High Temperature and Pressure Sensor Cheryl Xu 17-004 Garrett Edmunds <p>Maintaining situational awareness of the weapon environment is desirable for developing the next generation of robust missile and munition (M&amp;M) systems that can withstand the extreme acceleration, temperature, and pressure conditions that are presented by traditional fighter and hypersonic aircraft. In addition, tracking the temperature and pressure of high temperature turbines used in turbojets both for aircraft and energy production is highly desirable. Conventional techniques for remotely monitoring munition assets are primarily performed by proximate environmental monitoring by fuel sensors, accelerometers, surface acoustic wave sensors, chemical resistors, and temperature sensors. These are limited to storage and transportation purposes and typically have a limited temperature range, e.g., -55 °C to 125 °C.</p> <p>Conventional temperature sensors used in the evaluation of M&amp;M systems and turbine systems include thermocouples, thermistors, resistance thermometers, quartz thermometers, which all include a metallic coil inductor. Due to the oxidation of the metallic coil inductor, these temperature sensors cannot be used in high temperature environments for prolonged periods of time and can only be used under wired measurement conditions.</p> <p>Conventional pressure sensors used in these applications include passive pressure sensors based on resistive or capacitive sensing mechanisms. These sensors also require a wire interconnection and they cannot operate effectively in high temperature environments. Moreover, pressure sensors that utilize a patch antenna operate within a limited temperature range, e.g., -55 °C to 125 °C, because of the metallic wire used with the patch antenna.</p> <p>The technology developed at FSU comprises a wireless temperature and pressure sensor which includes a ceramic coil inductor having ceramic material and a relatively high volume fraction of carbon nanotubes. The combination leverages the remarkable electrical and mechanical properties (stiff and strong) of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and the thermal properties (temperature sensitivity) of ceramic materials. </p> <p>Generally, the temperature sensors comprise a ceramic coil inductor that is formed of a ceramic composite and a thin film polymer-derived ceramic (PDC) nanocomposite having a dielectric constant that increases monotonically with temperature and the pressure sensors comprise a ceramic coil inductor formed of a ceramic composite, which includes carbon nanotubes and/or carbon nanofibers.<span> This novel technology has the potential to revolutionize the space industry, defense industry, and engineering.</span></p> <h2>Advantages</h2> <ul> <li> <p class="lead"><span class="small">The ability to provide real-time, in-flight monitoring of systems that operate in high temperature and pressure environments</span></p> </li> <li> <p class="lead"><span class="small">The ability to maintain safety and effectiveness of critical parts and materials without the need for extensive nondestructive evaluation (NDE) (for temperature sensors), thereby reducing cost and time</span></p> </li> <li> <p class="lead"><span class="small">On-demand tracking and assessing of the status of systems over extended periods, based upon changing conditions</span></p> </li> </ul> <p> </p>
Active Flow Control for Wall-Normal Columnar Vortex Kunihiko Taira 18-004 Michael Tentnowski <p>Flow control is often employed to diminish the appearance of vortices or alter the characteristics of vortices in a liquid. For example, in a sump pump, the emergence of submerged vortices may degrade pump performance. If the submerged vortices are sufficiently strong, these vortices can include strong low pressure cores, which can entrain air/vapor along their vortex cores. If such hollow-core vortices are engulfed by the pump, they can cause unbalanced loading and vibration, leading to undesirable noise and possible structural failure. Strong wall-normal vortices appear inside and outside of many fluid-based machines as well as in natural settings, including tornadoes and hurricanes.</p> <p>There have been numerous attempts to introduce passive vortex control techniques to prevent the generation of the aforementioned vortices or alter their pressure distributions. Yet passive control techniques do not offer the ability to adaptively adjust the control efforts to unsteady flow conditions (beyond design conditions). Moreover, some passive control devices are difficult to manufacture. Thus, these past efforts have shortcomings in offering reliable techniques to modify the pressure distribution of these vortices. Designing a more efficient and flexible vortex control strategy remains a challenge.</p> <p>This invention is directed to spreading the core region of a coherent wall-normal vortex and alleviating the low-pressure in the core in a flow field. Such vortices are ubiquitous in nature and engineering systems, ranging from hydrodynamic/aerospace applications to nature, such as hurricanes and subsurface vortices. Many passive control techniques exist for wall-normal vortices, but none include active flow control methods that can be applied in an adaptive manner. In order to solve this problem, this technology introduces forcing input (e.g., fluid jet and suction) near the core region of the vortex to destabilize the local<br />flow and spread the core region. This in turn lowers the local angular velocity and increase the core pressure of the vortex. The increase of the pressure has engineering benefits because low pressure at the core can create detrimental engineering effects for vortices in air and liquids. In some instances, the forced input follows a sinusoidal form in time and in a co-rotating/counter-rotating direction for effective breakup of the vortex.</p> <p>The invention provides a more adaptive technique than passive controls for alleviating the low-pressure effect of the vortex core using active flow control techniques. That is, the method of control provides a vortex control technique and device for vortices in different flow conditions. In order to achieve this, two different types of control strategies are disclosed based on co-rotating and counter-rotating mass injection and suction from the wall surface on which the vortex resides. The control strategy is employed on the wall where the vortex core is pinned and the mass injection/suction device is placed underneath the surface. The control input is adjusted with its frequency, amplitude, and direction of mass injection/suction.</p>
A Method of Producing Extracellular Metal or Metalloid Nanoparticles Using a Bioreactor Youneng Tang 18-031 Michael Tentnowski <p>Metals and metal ions are essential trace elements for humans and animals. However, when presenting in water at high concentrations, they are often toxic and can cause diseases such as hair loss and reproductive failure. Consequently, metal and metal ion contamination represent a potential health hazard. A major cause of contamination in water is the disposal of agricultural drainage. Selenium (Se) is one such element, and can be used to exemplify the hazards of metal and metal ion contamination. The maximum contaminant level set by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for Se in drinking water is 50 μg Se/L.</p> <p>Thus, this technology is directed to bio-electrochemical reactors, methods of reducing metal ions in contaminated medium to extracellular metal or metalloid nanoparticles, and methods and devices for separating the extracellular metal or metalloid nanoparticles from the bacteria. For example, the bio-electrochemical reactor is used as a selector to select only bacteria that<br />produce extracellular metal or metalloid nanoparticles from an electrode inoculum comprising a highly diverse mixed culture. As a result, the bio-electrochemical reactors described serve as an effective means for removing and separating metal ions from contaminated water.</p>
Metal Halide Nanotubes, Devices, and Methods Biwu Ma 18-009 Garrett Edmunds <p>Since the discovery of carbon nanotubes, materials with tubular structures have attracted scientific interest because of their  intriguing physical and/or chemical properties. Besides carbon nanotubes, a number of synthetic tubular structures such as metal oxides, polymers, metal organic frameworks (MOFs) etc. have been developed over the last decades, which show promising applications in various areas, ranging from gas separation and storage, to catalysts, and drug delivery.</p> <p>Organic-inorganic metal halide hybrids have received research attention for their exceptional optical and/or electronic properties with useful applications in a variety of optoelectronic devices, including photovoltaic cells, light emitting diodes, photodetectors, and lasers. The structural tunability of this class of materials can enable the formation of various types of crystal structures by using appropriate organic and inorganic components, ranging from three- (3D), to two- (2D), one- (1D), and zero-dimensional (0D) structures on the molecular level.</p> <p>This technology comprises organic metal halide hybrids having a 1D tubular structure, and facile solution processing methods for preparing the metal halide hybrids. For example, the metal halide crystals provided herein may include an array of 1D nanotube structures. In some embodiments, the methods provided herein including simple bottom up solution self-assembly processes.</p> <h2 class="lead">Applications</h2> <ul> <li>Gas storage</li> <li>Ion selection</li> <li>Catalysts</li> <li>Sensors</li> <li>Molecular machines</li> </ul> <h2 class="lead">Advantages</h2> <ul> <li>They have optical response and relatively good quantum yield.</li> <li>The solution-based preparation of these phosphors at room temperature is easy and cost effective.</li> <li>Their crystals are bulk-assembly of the nano-structures therefore exhibit the intrinsic properties of an individual nanotube.</li> <li>They have multiple potential applications such as gas storage, ion selection, catalyze, sensing, molecular machines, and so on.</li> <li>They have relatively good thermal and photostability.</li> </ul> <p class="lead"> </p>
Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Bulk Quantum Materials and Methods Biwu Ma 17-036 Garrett Edmunds <p>Various types of light emitting materials have been developed, including organic and polymeric emitters, transition metal complexes, rare-earth doped phosphors, nanocrystals, and organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites.</p> <p>Organic-inorganic metal halide hybrids are a class of crystalline materials that may have unique structures and/or permit the tenability of one or more properties. Metal halide polyhedra can form three- (3D), two- (2D), one- (1D), and zero-dimensional (0D) structures surrounded by organic moieties. The decreased dimensionality of the inorganic structures can lead to the emergence of unique properties. For example, unlike narrow emissions with a small Stokes shift that has been observed in typical 3D metal halide hybrids, broadband photoluminescence with a large Stokes shifts has been realized in corrugated-2D, 1D, and 0D metal halide hybrids, likely due to exciton self-trapping or excited state structural deformation.</p> <p>This invention comprises a bulk quantum material. In some embodiments, the bulk quantum material includes two or more photo- and/or electro-active species; and a wide band gap organic network comprising a plurality of organic cations; wherein each of the two or more photo- and/or electro-active species are (i) disposed in the wide band gap organic network, and (ii) isolated from each other. In some embodiments, the two or more photo- and/or electro-active species comprise two or more metal halide species.</p>
Perovskite Based Charge Transport Layers for Thin Film Optoelectronic Devices Biwu Ma 16-097 Garrett Edmunds <p>Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) are used widely in solid state lighting, electronic displays, bio-imaging, and photovoltaic (PV) applications.  A cheaper, more efficient LED device can impact multiple markets.  Some of the primary applications include television displays, mobile device displays, medical applications, solid state lighting, and energy applications.</p> <p>This LED technology comprises two components—an LED device and the process of manufacturing that device.  The LED device comprises earth-abundant materials. The manufacturing process takes place at room temperature using simple starting materials and common organic solvents in a single container. The color of the LEDs can be tuned.</p> <p>Typically, thin film optoelectronic devices, such as LEDs and PVs, are configured with a layered structure. This includes a photoactive (either light emitting or light harvesting) layer sandwiched between charge transport layers that contact with electrodes.  These charge transport layers play a crucial role in efficiency of the entire device.</p> <p>This technology uses perovskite materials to create cost effective, efficient charge transport layers.</p>
Metal Halide Perovskite Phosphors in LEDs for Full Color Display and Solid State Lighting Biwu Ma 17-009, 16-109 Garrett Edmunds <p>Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) are used widely in solid state lighting, electronic displays, bio-imaging, and photovoltaic applications.  A cheaper, more efficient LED device can impact multiple markets.  Some of the primary applications include television displays, mobile device displays, medical applications, solid state lighting, and energy applications.</p> <p>This LED technology comprises two components—an LED device and the process of manufacturing that device.  The LED device comprises earth-abundant materials. The manufacturing process takes place at room temperature using simple starting materials and common organic solvents in a single container. The color of the LEDs can be tuned. </p> <p>In addition, this technology focuses on using phosphors to get the desired color and intensity of light. Organic/inorganic perovskite materials are abundant, non-toxic, and inexpensive.  Thus, by using these materials to create phosphors, the cost of the LED device is reduced significantly. This is especially true as our technology approaches 100% conversion of the base LED energy to the phosphor.</p>
Materials Genome Software to Accelerate Discovery of New Materials Jose Mendoza-Cortes 18-012 Garrett Edmunds <p>The creation of a material genome can accelerate the discovery of new materials in much the same way the human genome is accelerating advances in gene therapy. It often takes 15-20 years to transfer advanced materials from the laboratory to the marketplace. Our predictive software utilizes unique databases of predicted materials to drastically accelerate the discovery of new materials by allowing users in research and industry to synthesize and characterize only the most promising compounds for the desired application in lieu of experimental trial and error on thousands candidates or even more. Genomes and predictive algorithms for energy storage and light capture materials have been developed. This technology is primed to be commercialized as a software as a service (SaaS).</p>
Voltage Profile Based Fault Detection Michael (Mischa) Steurer 13-147 Michael Tentnowski <p>Fault location in a traditional power system is a challenging task. Electric power flows only in one direction: from the substation to the various loads. Therefore, when a severe short circuit fault occurs, there is a current rise with voltage sag near the faulted node or line and everything else that is downstream. If the fault protection system responds adequately it isolates the assumed faulted areas which are all the nearby and downstream customers of the actual faulted area.</p> <p>In a system containing distributed resources (DRs), most fault location technologies ignore the presence of DRs by assuming either low DRs penetration or no power injection from DRs during a fault. The few technologies that consider the presence of DRs have not considered a current limited system when a fault occurs.</p> <p>As the amount of local generation (PV, microturbines ... ) is increasing, the existing distribution systems fault location methods do not always apply because of various reasons including cost, complexity of the system due to mesh-like system topology, and bidirectional power flow. This FSU invention takes advantage of the system topology, the presence of the controllable voltage source convertors (VSCs), and the change of the voltage profile with the presence of the fault. Using the VSCs to help locate the fault will help overcome the issue of relying on the measured value of voltage when the voltage has completely collapsed in a section because of a fault in the distribution system. Instead of hindering the fault location process, the VSCs are used to help support the voltage, locate the fault, and provide fast restoration.</p>
Space Efficient Photobioreactor System Jose Vargas 10-090 Michael Tentnowski <p>The continued use of petroleum-derived fuels is now widely seen as unsustainable. Presently available biofuels can be substituted for petroleum-derived fuels without the need for extensively modifying existing internal combustion engines.</p> <p>The present invention describes a microalgae-based bio-fuels production system in a space efficient photo-bioreactor. The bioreactor grows microalgae in a tall array of transparent flooded tubes. A nutrient media is circulated through the tubes. The array is configured to maximize the amount of sunlight falling upon each tube so that growth of the microalgae is as uniform as possible. Gassing/degassing systems are attached to the array of tubes at appropriate locations. These introduce carbon dioxide and remove oxygen. Cooling systems are preferably also provided so that the circulating media can be maintained at a desired temperature. Microalgae are harvested from the photo-bioreactor. The microalgae are filtered and dried. Lipids are then extracted from the microalgae. These lipids are made into biodiesel through a trans-esterification process and can be used to make other products as well.</p> <h2>Advantages:</h2> <ul> <li>Compact microalgae cultivation in a high productive manner</li> <li>Reduces the need for land since it has the potential to provide higher biomass production density than traditional systems of microalgae biomass production</li> <li>The modular conception allows for the gradual implementation of the system for in situ biofuel production wherever it is needed</li> </ul>
Sharing Cyrogenic Cooling Systems Between Large and Auxiliary Devices Sastry Pamidi 13-040 Michael Tentnowski <p>Cryo-cooled or super-cooled power applications are increasing in popularity because they are typically lower in weight and volume, and more efficient than traditional power applications. Cryocooling is well suited to superconducting technologies (e.g., high-speed accelerators, wind power and flywheel applications) that need to be kept at cryogenic temperatures in order to function.</p> <p>Currently, the cost of cryocoolers is prohibitively high for small applications, in part, because cryocoolers are primarily designed for large devices. Additionally, cryocooling systems are suboptimum in their design because they 1) are based on a “use-or-lose” model that wastes cooling power that is not fully utilized and 2) cannot be shared between critical devices.</p> <p>A potential solution to these two issues involves a new design by Dr. Sastry Pamidi that enables cryogenic sharing of “waste” cooling between a large superconducting device and smaller devices in close proximity that also benefit from cryocooling. In it basic form, the invention is an add-on heat exchanger that is attached to an existing cryocooler through which a controllable flow of helium gas is circulated to “steal” excess cooling power from the device. The helium circulation system enables the productive use of excess cooling power and also eliminates the need for resistive heaters that are typically used to maintain required operating temperatures in cryocooled devices. Importantly, this exchanger will make it easier to run auxiliary devices under cryogenic environments without the need for each device to have its own dedicated cryocooler, thus reducing costs and improving the efficiency of operation as well as creating new opportunities for using cryogenics.</p> <h2>Applications:</h2> <ul> <li>Aerospace</li> <li>Cryogenic equipment manufacturing</li> <li>Military</li> <li>Power grid</li> <li>Transportation</li> <li>Research laboratories</li> <li>Universities, national labs, and hospitals</li> </ul> <h2>Advantages:</h2> <ul> <li>Enables sharing of cryocooling between a large device and smaller devices to minimize or eliminate the cooling waste produced by “use-or-lose” cryogenic methods</li> <li>Multiple devices can be cooled by a single cryocooler, rather than each device requiring its own cooler</li> <li>Improves energy efficiency and reduced cost of operation</li> <li>Creates new opportunities for using cryogenics in smaller devices and applications</li> <li>May be designed into new cryocoolers or added on to existing cryocoolers</li> <li>Compact design</li> <li>Vacuum tight</li> <li>Low pressure drop</li> <li>Highly efficient due to maximum heat transfer</li> <li>Simple design and manufacturing</li> <li>Optimal for a gas having low viscosity</li> </ul>
Organic Chemical Synthesis using Plasma Reactors with Liquid Organic and Liquid Water Bruce Locke 13-153 Garrett Edmunds <p>Electrical discharge plasma contacting liquid phases has been studied for a wide range of chemical, biomedical, environmental, and Materials synthesis applications.  The present invention utilizes a gas-water-organic plasma reactor for the conversion of alkanes into functionalized products (alcohols, aldehydes, etc.) using a pulsed plasma reactor with liquid water and flowing carrier gas. Hydrogen peroxide is also generated conjunction with the functionalized products.</p> <h1>Applications</h1> <ul> <li>Agriculture</li> <li>Healthcare</li> <li>Sanitization</li> <li>Waste water degradation</li> </ul>
Methods for Implementing Stochastic Anti-Windup PI Controllers Emmanuel Collins 08-019 Michael Tentnowski <p>In the present invention, different circuit-based implementations of stochastic anti-windup PI controllers are provided for a motor drive controller system. The designs can be implemented in a Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA) device. The anti-windup PI controllers are implemented stochastically so as to enhance the computational capability of FPGA. The invention encompasses different circuit arrangements that implement distinct anti-windup algorithms for a digital PI speed controller. The anti-windup algorithms implemented by the circuit arrangements can significantly improve the control performance of variable-speed motor drives.</p> <p>Compared with the existing technologies, the stochastic PI controller provides an efficient implementation approach that uses straightforward digital logic circuits but has the advantage of significantly reducing the circuit complexity. Therefore, the present invention notably improves the performance of the stochastic PI controller and saves digital resources in a motor drive control system. The immediate and/or future applications are motor drive controllers for induction motor systems, and more particularly, proportional-integral (PI) controllers. The use of the invention will increase the market of FPGA since the capability will be largely increased and the cost will be relatively reduced.</p>
Method of Mitigating Backlash of Mechanical Gear Systems Using a Damper Motor Michael "Mischa" Steurer 08-018 Michael Tentnowski <p>The technology developed comprises a torque damper motor connected to the output side of a mechanical gear system. The damper motor, along with its associated control system, mitigates backlash problems, reduced torsional resonance, and provides improved output torque control. In the preferred embodiment, the damper motor is powered by a power electronics-based variable speed drive. The damper motor can be significantly less powerful than the overall rating of the gear system (typically 5-10% of the overall rating) while still providing the enhanced performance.</p> <p>The invention can be applied to any rotating system having a gear train. The invention eliminates or at least mitigates many of the problems inherent in rotating gear systems. As one example, the invention could be used with many types of torque creating devices other than steam turbines, electric motors, and compressors. Likewise, although a was described in detail, the invention is equally applicable to speed-decreasing gear trains as well as speed-increasing gear train.</p>
Method for Locating Phase to Ground Faults in DC Distribution Systems Michael (Mischa) Steurer 08-040 Michael Tentnowski <p>Electrical direct current (DC) distribution systems are operated without any of the phases grounded in order to prevent a phase-to-ground fault, the most common type of faults, to cause interruption of service. While theoretically such an ungrounded DC system can be operated with one phase grounded through a fault for an extended period of time, it is essential to find the fault location quickly in order to prevent any secondary phase to ground fault on the other phase to cause a disruptive phase-to-phase fault.</p> <p>The present invention describes a method for locating ground faults in an ungrounded or high-resistance grounded power distribution system having a power supply including high-speed switched power electronics (PE). The method includes utilizing wavelet analysis using Multi-Resolution Analysis (MRA) as a signal processing tool for recognition of characteristic features in the voltage signal. The voltage signal contains characteristic information in the high frequency range above the switching frequencies of the PE converters which allows for localization of the fault.</p> <p>In the future, the Invention can potentially simplify and speed up the phase-to-ground protection on converter dominated ungrounded DC and AC systems significantly. The Invention can be implemented as a computational component within a new version of a digital ground fault protection relay.</p>
Inflatable Solar Energy Collector Apparatus Ian Winger 09-128 Garrett Edmunds <p>Solar energy collector design composed of various mirror and lens combinations have been proposed, with significant attention being paid to the concentrating power of the lens or mirror. These solutions typically involve expensive coated glass surfaces and the weight of the components requires substantial mechanical actuators to move them so that they can accurately track the sun's motion across the sky. While functional, the prior art systems are expensive and complex.</p> <p>The present invention is an inflatable solar energy collector using two elongated and pressure-stabilized air chambers with a trough-shaped reflecting surface in between. The curvature of the reflecting surface is created by adjusting the differential pressure between the two air chambers and the device can be configured to provide a focal point outside the air chambers or inside the air chambers. For the version using the external focal point an external energy receiver is appropriately positioned. For the version using the internal focal point, the receiver is mounted inside one of the air chambers. The collector is preferably adjustable in azimuth to accurately track the sun's motion across the sky and is able to operate efficiently without the need for altitude adjustment, although altitude adjustment may also be optionally provided. The invention preferably incorporates a novel energy receiver in which stagnant air is entrapped and used as an insulator.</p> <p>This light-weight solar concentrator is of interest as the infrastructure required to support and rotate it is reduced compared to more massive concentrators. Parabolic troughs need to be rotated about only one axis to track the sun throughout the year and concentration power of troughs is sufficient to reach reasonable temperatures. This invention would therefore provide a solar concentrating device made of inexpensive materials and is relatively light and simple.</p>
Dendritic Cooling Layer Generator for Printed Circuit Boards (PCB's) Juan Ordonez 12-088 Michael Tentnowski <p>Managing the heat generated in electronics continues to be challenge. This is especially true as electronic devices are getting smaller and smaller while becoming more and more powerful. This is true for almost all electronic components, including printed circuit boards (PCBs).</p> <p>The current technology includes a dendritic cooling layer that has non-intuitive dendritic structures that minimize peak temperature. Another embodiment of the invention includes a dendritic cooling layer that is compatible with current PCB fabrication techniques. In some instances, the dendritic cooling layer that has an adjustable tolerance to meet fabrication limits.</p> <p>The innovative technology generates a dendritic high conductivity path suitable for PCBs and identifies a process to manufacture the high conductivity layer compatible to those used in PCB construction. The methodology produces the geometry of a cooling layer for a multilayer PCBs following constructal theory principles.</p> <h2>Advantages:</h2> <ul> <li>Compatible with current PCB fabrication techniques and methods</li> <li>Unintuitive dendritic structures </li> <li>Adjustable tolerance to meet fabrication limits</li> </ul>
Adaptive Control of Air Flow Using a Piezoelectric Controlled Pulsed Micro-jet Actuator William Oates 10-045 Michael Tentnowski <p>Traditionally, structures and systems used to influence air flow include mechanical and/or servo-hydraulic actuators that rotate an aileron or rotor blade to mitigate the loss of lift from separated flow. More recently, active flow control systems in the form of bench-top demonstrations have been successful alternatives to controlling air flow; however, these applications are limited in their effectiveness because their designs are unable to effectively handle the performance variations that occur across different aircraft structures and operating conditions. Namely, these active flow systems are limited to a narrow frequency band and subsonic flow applications.</p> <p>A solution to the limitations mentioned above involves the design of a piezoelectric microjet actuator that integrates smart materials into a microjet to produce broadband pulsed flow with high actuation forces that can be adjusted in real-time.  This pulsed flow is able to better prevent stall scenarios and reduce noise on a case-by-case and as-needed basis for a wide variety of aircraft types. The actuator operates effectively under subsonic and supersonic conditions.  IN addition, the adaptive structures inherent in the actuator’s design reduce the parasitic load on the jet engine to ½% or less of the main flow field. The result of this design is a lighter, smaller, more efficient, and less complex air flow actuator that improves aircraft agility and efficiency while reducing noise.</p> <h2>Applications:</h2> <ul> <li>Aerospace</li> <li>Automotive</li> <li>Military</li> </ul> <h2>Advantages:</h2> <ul> <li>Improves agility and efficiency, reduces noise</li> <li>Can adjust air pulsations in real-time to prevent/reduce stall scenarios</li> <li>Has a built-in feedback loop that enables air to be pulsed at different frequencies</li> <li>Produces high actuation forces (kN) and broad bandwidth (quasi-static to approximately 10kHz) at small displacements</li> <li>Capable of pulsing subsonic and supersonic flows</li> <li>Actuator is less complex in design and smaller in size and weight</li> <li>Can work in compact aerodynamic structures, such as rotor blades and rockets</li> </ul>
A Single-Phase Single-Stage Grid-Interactive Inverter with Wide Range Reactive Power Compensation Dr. Liu and Dr. Li 11-131 Michael Tentnowski <p>In this invention, a novel single-phase single-stage grid-interactive inverter based on a discrete Fourier Transform Phase Locked Loop technique is developed to separate the real and reactive power between different energy sources/storages. The hybrid modulation technique and sophisticated power allocation strategy are developed for the power generation system to achieve wide range reactive power compensation and enhance energy conversion efficiency. One distributed energy source and two energy storages are interfaced to the inverter with three cascaded H -bridge cells used to investigate the performance of the proposed system. Different energy source/storages with wide voltage change range can be directly connected in the invention and the single-stage energy conversion can be implemented. The present invention can integrate distributed energy sources/storages in one cascaded inverter. Due to the absence of DC-DC converter, single-stage energy conversion can be achieved. The hybrid modulation technique and power allocation strategy corresponding to the proposed system are developed to achieve the wide range reactive power compensation, voltage boost function, and the optimized power management.</p> <p>The proposed single-phase single-stage grid-interactive inverter is particularly suitable to meeting the increasing distributed power generation needs. It can facilitate to interface different distributed renewable energy sources or storages such as wind power, solar power, battery, fuel cell, Ultra-capacitor and so on. The switching loss will be decreased due to the cascaded structure and hybrid modulation technique.</p> <h2>Advantages</h2> <ul> <li>The multilevel AC output voltage will reduce the AC filter size, improve power quality and enhance the system reliability</li> <li>The transformerless structure will lead to lower cost and lighter weight, in addition to facilitating high power application</li> </ul>
A Self-Balanced Modulation and Magnetic Rebalancing Method for Parallel Multi-level Inverters Hui (Helen) Li 16-098 Michael Tentnowski <p>A power inverter which can provide sinusoidal voltage or current is the key apparatus in the field of electrical machine drive and utility interface, such as in renewable energy generation systems and energy storage power conditioning systems. In order to achieve a higher power rating, each phase of the inverter may be constructed of paralleled phase legs. If two paralleled legs are connected to an output terminal by a magnetic coupling device, such as an "inter-phase transformer", or a "multi-winding autotransformer", or an "inter phase inductor", the output terminal of each phase will have a multilevel staircase waveform, which is closer to the desired sinusoidal waveform. Therefore, the inverter will require smaller magnetic components while still providing the benefit of higher dynamic response.</p> <p>The technology developed provides a finite state machine (FSM) based modulation method for parallel multi-level inverters. Within this invention, a modulation waveform is fed into a comparator to compare with carrier waveforms. Then, a digitized ideal waveform is generated, and the digitized ideal waveform is fed into a finite state machine (FSM) module to generate a switching pattern for each switch of the parallel multi-level inverter.</p>
1MHz Scalable Cascaded Z-Source Inverter Using Gallium Nitride (GaN) Device Dr. Hui (Helen) Li 11-127 Michael Tentnowski <p>Currently, implementation of photo-voltaic (PV) systems into power grids is limited.  The reason for the limited use of PV systems in power grids is that the interface between the grid and the PV source very inefficient.  These inefficiencies are caused by module mismatch, orientation mismatch, partial shading, and maximum power point (MPPT) inefficiencies.  This technology provides a scalable cascaded Z-source inverter which can integrate distributed renewable energy sources and/or storages having a wide voltage range. The inverter uses a low voltage Gallium Nitride (GaN) device, which can be used to facilitate modular structure.  The GaN transistor is able to facilitate this structure due to ultra-high frequency, a small AC filter, and a DC electrolyte capacitor.  A comprehensive Z-source network design has been developed based on an innovative equivalent AC circuit model for the single phase photovoltaic system.  The invention is also suitable for hybrid renewable energy sources/storages application in wide system operation range.  A flexible and reliable control system is developed to improve the photovoltaic energy harvesting capability.</p> <h2><strong>Advantages</strong></h2> <ul> <li>Single energy conversion and boost function can be achieved simultaneously</li> <li>Independent maximum power point tracking for each Z-source inverter module can implement an efficient photovoltaic energy conversion</li> <li>This inverter is immune to shoot-through faults especially operating at high switching frequency and enhance the system reliability</li> <li>The scalable cascaded Z-source inverter is able to interface flexibly with different distributed renewable energy sources or storages in a wide voltage range, including: <ul> <li>wind power</li> <li>solar power</li> <li>battery</li> <li>fuel cell</li> <li>ultra-capacitor</li> </ul> </li> </ul> <h2><strong>Applications</strong></h2> <ul> <li>Photo-voltaic systems</li> <li>Plug-in electric hybrid vehicle</li> <li>Motor drives</li> <li>Uninterruptible power supply</li> </ul> <p> </p>
Nuclear waste recycling technology Professors Kenneth Hanson and Thomas Albrecht-Schmitt 17-054 Garrett Edmunds <p> </p> <p>Professor's Hanson's team has developed a Wavelength Selective Separation of Metal Ions Using Electroactive Ligands</p> <p>Given the similarity in atomic radius and binding affinities, separating lanthanides and actinides using chelating agents or ion exchange resins can sometimes be challenging. In contrast, lanthanide and actinide atoms/complexes have unique and narrow absorption features that may be useful for photochemical separations. With this in mind, we have recently introduced an entirely new photochemical separation strategy that relies on chemical transformations of the coordinating ligand, rather than the metal ion. Briefly, a ligand functionalized with an electroactive moiety is bound to metal ions in solution. Then, upon wavelength selective excitation of one of the coordination complexes, photoinduced electron transfer to/from the redox active group causes an irreversible reaction that chemically transforms the ligand. The differences in solubility, size, reactivity, etc. between the initial and reacted complexes, and not the properties of the metal ions, can then be used for separations.</p> <p> </p> <p>Learn more:</p> <p><a href=";d=DwMFaQ&amp;c=HPMtquzZjKY31rtkyGRFnQ&amp;r=WPBE5mf0vyLaRUqjuwH1sg&amp;m=MQjoWzcpnez0b0aZ3YIlyJ7Uz1TbxLBMySloV6JInok&amp;s=u0YgoTniS-4wPurrN-ptl6Dhkr6PjtRPfxURJVfDefw&amp;e=">!divAbstract</a></p> <p><a href=""></a></p>
A Method for Coating REBCO Superconductor Tape with a Thin Resistive Layer Dr. Jun Lu 18-042 Michael Tentnowski <p>Available for licensing is a simple, scalable oxidation process that improves industrial magnet design and performance.</p> <p>Rare earth barium copper oxide (REBCO) is a high temperature superconductor. REBCO wire holds the promise of making very high field magnets which find commercial applications in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), the food and drug industry, as well as applications in large international research facilities such as particle accelerators.</p> <p>Usually, magnet coils are made by winding insulated conductor wires. Due to the unique properties of REBCO wire, a coil made by insulated REBCO is prone to damage in magnet operation. Therefore, a no-insulation coil technology has been developed recently taking advantage of the fact that the resistive short circuit does not interfere the superconducting current path. Removing insulation results in very high efficiency and allows scientists and engineers to design extremely high field magnets that are exceptionally compact.</p> <p>However, a coil with no insulation has the drawbacks of longer magnet charging times and a higher consumption rate of expensive cryogen, such as liquid helium. This is directly related to its low contact resistance (Rc) between adjacent turns in the coil made by commercial REBCO conductors. In order to mitigate the issues of no-insulation magnets, it is critically important to control turn-to-turn contact resistance.</p> <p>Dr. Jun Lu at the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory has developed a process for oxidizing REBCO wire surface to achieve a controllable turn-to-turn contact resistance. With this technology, magnets can be charged quickly, and have low cryogen consumption. Meanwhile, it retains the advantage of the no-insulation coil technology which leads to very high magnetic field, coil self-protection and a very compact magnet design.</p>
A System for Remotely Removing Magnets from Metal Plates Jeff Whalen 17-035 Michael Tentnowski <p>Available for licensing is a system for the remote detachment of magnets from metal plates by applying a modulated magnetic field. No physical contact, heat, or any other applied force is necessary to remove magnets other than the produced magnetic field. The user maintains control of this novel electromagnet system by switching the power supply on and off.</p>
Twisted chiral cycloalkynes and remote activation of click reactivity Dr. Igor Alabugin 17-043 Garrett Edmunds <p>Professor Alabugin's team has developped cycloalkynes with a twisted polyaromatic backbone to add axial chirality to the click chemistry toolbox. The “twisted and bent” cyclodecyne structural motif can be intertwined with dormant electronic effects to open a conceptually new way to control click reactivity. Although endocyclic heteroatoms can provide dual stabilization to the cycloalkyne via hyperconjugative (direct) and conjugative (remote) effects, these effects are weakened by the geometric constraints imposed by the twisted backbone. Structural reorganization in the transition state (TS) removes these constraints and unlocks the power of remote electronic effects for selective TS stabilization.</p> <p>The chiral cyclodecynes can be prepared <strong>on gram scale in an enantiopure form</strong> and purified by recrystallization. Experimental kinetics confirm that these twisted cyclodecynes can be more reactive towards azides than activated cyclononynes and approach the reactivity of cyclooctynes.</p> <p> </p> <p><a rel="noopener noreferrer" href="" target="_blank" title="Read the article">Read the article</a></p>
Thiol-ene polymer metal oxide nanoparticle high refractive index composites Dr. Albert Stiegman 12-228 Garrett Edmunds <p>For optical applications in general and eyewear in particular, the synthesis of new polymers with refractive indices &gt;1.65 and acceptable Abbe numbers is of considerable importance. Higher refractive index materials will permit smaller, lighter weight lenses to be used and provide a much broader graded index for progressive lenses. The material modification that leads to higher refractive indices is the incorporation of highly polarizable atoms and ions. Incorporating such polarizable groups has been the standard protocol used to develop new high R.I. polymers. The electronic polarizability is a tensor property of an atom or molecule that measures the distortion of the electron cloud in the presence of an applied electric field (which can be an optical field). The more the electron cloud can be distorted, the higher the refractive index. The characteristics of atomic and molecular electronic structure that yield large polarizabilities are well understood and can be predicted from basic chemical principles. In particular, the more electronegative an atom is the less polarizable it will be, hence late first-row elements such as F, O and N tend to yield lower refractive index materials. Better choices are 2<sup class="style-scope patent-text">nd</sup>, 3<sup class="style-scope patent-text">rd </sup>or 4<sup class="style-scope patent-text">th </sup>row main group elements such as S (which is currently used in order to increase the refractive index in many polymeric materials), P, and Sn. From a molecular standpoint, the higher electronegativity of the first row can be overcome by delocalization of the electrons across several atoms. Aromatics are more polarizable than saturated hydrocarbons and compounds such as propylene carbonate and dimethylformamide have high dielectric constants.</p> <p>the present invention comprises a bulk polymer composite comprising a thiol-ene polymer matrix, or a matrix comprising a corresponding polymer derived from a phosphinyl, selenol, or arsinyl monomer, and metal oxide nanoparticles dispersed within the matrix, said nanoparticles being bonded to polymer molecules contained in the matrix. In certain preferred embodiments, the polymer matrix comprises a matrix corresponding to the structure.</p>
Antifouling Coatings for Ion Exchange Resins Professor Joseph Schlenoff 17-053 Garrett Edmunds <p>Ion exchange resins are widely used for water polishing and purification (e.g. removal of heavy metals). This FSU invention provides a way to rapidly add a coating of nontoxic polymer to an existing anion exchange resin. This coating reduces fouling by algae, other microorganisms, and more, extending the life of the resin and making it easier to clean the resin bed by backflushing.</p> <p>The coating is produced by negative polyelectrolytes, which interacts with the positively charged resin and forms a thin film on the surface of the resin bead. Because the positive charge at the surface of the bead is substantially reduced, or even switched to negative, potential fouling materials interact less strongly with the resin surface.</p> <p>The molecular weight of the negative polyelectrolyte is selected to be sufficiently high such that it does not absorb into the resin bead. Thus, an ultrathin film of complex is limited to the surface of the bead. The bead capacity is not diminished and the amount of material consumed is on the order of a few mg per square meter of resin surface.</p> <p>The polyelectrolyte is water soluble and of low toxicity. Beads can be treated in situ or they can be pretreated in a batch during a typical washing step.</p> water,filter,water purification,potable water,ion exchange resin,antifouling
Microfluidic Sample Preparation Device for Electron Microscopy Dr. Michael Roper and Dr. Scott Stagg 15-230 Garrett Edmunds <p>Cryogenic electron microscopy (cryoEM) is quickly becoming a routine method in the determination of high-resolution structures of biological molecules. However, for most samples before cryoEM data can be collected, the sample quality and heterogeneity must first be characterized using negative staining. Conventionally, EM grids are prepared by hand and, as such, variability is introduced due to user-to-user differences. The variability of the staining can have large effects on the final stained sample, ultimately hindering the resolution, image processing, and data analysis.</p> <p>A microfluidic platform is presented for preparing negatively stained grids for use in transmission electron microscopy (EM). The microfluidic device is composed of glass etched with readily fabricated features that facilitate the extraction of the grid post staining and maintains the integrity of the sample. The device allows for sealing of an electron microscopy grid, facile and reproducible delivery of a sample, followed by delivery of subsequent solutions that could be negative stains or other biological samples. The device houses the EM grid in an outlined chamber with an access point below the grid for gentle and easy recovery of the EM grid. The fluid is directed to the grid using the integrated channels of the microfluidic system.</p> <p>Utilization of this device simultaneously reduced environmental contamination on the grids and improved the homogeneity of the heavy metal stain needed to enhance visualization of biological specimens as compared to conventionally prepared EM grids.</p> <p>High-magnification images from grids prepared by the microfluidic system showed similar image qualities as those prepared by hand. With this methodology for housing the grid, opportunities are abound for more integrated systems using elastomeric materials for incorporation of valving and other microfluidic features. For example, this system can subsequently be complemented with gradient generators or multianalyte perfusion and reaction timers to study both multivariable interactions as well as reaction kinetics. This proof of principle paves the way for future added layers of complexity that can be used to uniquely investigate structural biology dynamics.</p> <p>Results have been published in Analytical Chemistry (Roper, 2016, American Chemical Society Publications) and led to multiple requests by research groups offering to beta test the prototype.</p> <h2>Advantages:</h2> <ul> <li>User friendly</li> <li>Reproducibility</li> <li>Parallel/high throughput</li> <li>Straightforward manufacturing</li> </ul> <p>For further reading, please visit:</p> <p><a href=""><strong></strong></a><strong> <br /></strong></p> <p><a href=""><strong></strong></a></p> <p><video alt="" width="400" controls="controls"> <source src="/media/4180/rs4-fin.mp4" type="video/mp4" /> Your browser does not support HTML5 video. </video></p>
3-D Printed Flexible Electronics and Sensors Using Carbon Nanotube Ink Changchun (Chad) Zeng 18-011 Michael Tentnowski <p>At FSU, we have developed a breakthrough process for scalable and low-cost functionalization of carbon nanotubes with tailored functionality. A provisional patent application was filed in October 2017. This technology enables the preparation of highly concentrated CNT ink for 3-D printing and printed electronics and sensors. As an example, while typical CNT ink has a CNT content &lt; 0.5 wt%, our ink concentration can be tuned at will and can reach as high as 10 wt%. Such flexibility allows for our high quality printing process and superior device performance. This superior performance is characterized by a gauge factor (GR) that can reach ~3000; one to two orders of magnitude higher than any printed strain sensor from any other inks in the world. We have further demonstrated that our devices can be used as sensors to detect human motion. We strongly believe this technology will revolutionize printed electronics and sensors.</p>
Frequency-Modulated Continuous Flow Analysis Dr. Michael Roper 18-002 Garrett Edmunds <p>Professor Roper and collaborators have developped a new method to multiplex mass spectrometric sample analysis. The purpose of this invention is to be able to analyze multiple samples simultaneously using mass spectrometry. The operation of this method is to pulse the flow of individual samples to the mass spectrometer at unique frequencies. The flow from the individual samples are combined together with a make-up flow that is used to ensure the total flow rate to the mass spectrometer is constant. After mixing of all the streams from the samples and the make-up flow, pulses of each sample are delivered to the mass spectrometer with the pulse frequencies being unique to that particular sample. The mass spectrometer collects the m/z data vs. time. At each m/z there is a time-dependent signal that is the sum of all the pulses from the different samples. For any one particular m/z, a Fourier transform is used to convert the time-based mass spectrometry signal intensity to the frequency domain resulting in a series of peaks at particular frequencies. Each of these frequency peaks corresponding to the different samples. The height of the peaks in the frequency domain is proportional to the concentrations of the samples in the syringes.</p> <p>The benefit of this new method over the labeling strategy is that the frequency modulated approach allows multiplexing of a theoretically wide number of samples without the need for chemical labeling. Therefore, any problems with chemical labeling (inefficiencies, side products, etc.) are avoided. Also, more than 4-5 samples can be used simultaneously as Jong as their frequencies can be resolved in the frequency domain and the analytes are within the dynamic range of the mass spectrometer. A final advantage is that since all the samples are combined together, any samples that may have different levels of salts (detrimental to mass spectrometry) experience the same salt concentration. This means that they are all affected in the same manner and are much less susceptible to salt effects which hurt mass spectrometry experiments.</p> <p>This technology was developed in collaboration with Jim Edwards at Saint Louis University</p>
Solid-State Fabrication of Graphene Nanoribbons and Their Networks Mei Zhang 13-244 Michael Tentnowski <p>This invention is for fabricating freestanding graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) and GNR networks by unzipping carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in a freestanding CNT film using laser irradiation. It provides a novel solid-state process to fabricate freestanding GNRs and GNR networks.</p> <p>Since CNTs are cylindrical shells made, in concept, by rolling graphene sheets into a seamless cylinder, the unzipping of CNTs is a new and very promising approach for controlled and large-scale GNR production. In this process, CNTs are unzipped (opened or fractured) along their longitudinal axes in such a way that the obtained structures are the desired GNRs. Another advantage of using CNTs as starting materials to produce GNRs resides in the fact that the vast existing knowledge on CNT synthesis and purification methods can be used to control and to optimize GNR fabrication.</p> <p>Unzipping CNTs has been practiced in many different ways. However, these chemical and physical methods use strong acids, oxidizing agents, or other solvents. The wet-processes alter the properties of GNRs because of a high proportion of oxygen functionalities or particles and cause problems in device fabrication process because of wrinkles and folding of GNRs as well as positioning issues.</p> <p>Our invention uses freestanding CNT sheets as the starting material and uses controlled laser irradiation in a preferred environment to convert (unzip) CNTs to GNRs and weld (joint) GNRs together to form GNR network. This is a solid-state fabrication process, which does not use any acids or solvents. Only this process is capable of fabricating large, freestanding GNRs and GNR networks and creating controllable CNT-graphene intramolecular junctions. Freestanding GNR networks are transparent conductive layers, which can be transferred easily onto any kind of substrates as a transparent electrode for various electronic and photonic applications. This solid state process is fast, clean, and scalable, and can be developed to a large-scale nanomanufacturing process.                         </p>
Stereo Controlled Synthesis of (E,Z)-Dienals via Tandem Rh(i) Catalyzed Propargyl Claisen Rearrangement Dr. Igor Alabugin 14-160 Garrett Edmunds <p>A novel Rh(I)-catalyzed approach to synthesizing functionalized (E,Z) dienal compounds has been developed via tandem transformation where a stereoselective hydrogen transfer follows a propargyl Claisen rearrangement. Z-Stereochemistry of the first double bond suggests the involvement of a six-membered cyclic intermediate whereas the E-stereochemistry of the second double bond stems from the subsequent protodemetallation step giving an (E,Z)-dienal.</p>
Polyethylene Glycol Based Oligomers for Coating Nanoparticles Dr. Hedi Mattoussi 12-026 Garrett Edmunds <p id="p-0013" class="style-scope patent-text">We have developed nanoparticle coatings that are water dispersible, have a strong affinity for binding to magnetic nanoparticles, and can be easily modified for attaching the coating to biological materials. The nanoparticle coatings comprise a polyacrylic acid based backbone onto which PEG-based oligomers are appended by modifying the native carboxyl groups of the PAA backbone. The PEG-based oligomers include functional groups on their terminal ends, which are chosen to provide a certain function. Some of the terminal functional groups bind the coatings to the nanoparticle's surface, while others provide reactive sites for binding other compounds to the coating. The method we developed for making these coatings allows one to tune the number and type of PEG-based oligomers appended to the PAA backbone based on the desired properties of the coating.</p> <p id="p-0014" class="style-scope patent-text">In accordance with a composition aspect of the invention, the nanoparticle coatings comprise repeating polyacrylic acid monomers covalently bound together in an aliphatic chain having a plurality of carboxylic acid functional groups and modified carboxylic acid functional groups extending there from. A first portion of the modified carboxylic acid functional groups are modified by a PEG oligomer having a terminal methoxy functional group and a second portion of the modified carboxylic acid functional groups are modified by a PEG oligomer having at least one terminal catechol group.</p>
Self-Assembled Multilayers to Enhance Photon Upconversion and Solar Cell Efficiency Dr. Kenneth Hanson 15-035 Garrett Edmunds <p>Photon upconversion (UC), combining two lower energy photons to generate a higher energy excited state, can be used to harness "sub-band gap photons" and reach maximum theoretical solar cell efficiencies of &gt;40%. Molecular photon upconversion, by way of triplet-triplet annihilation (TTA-UC), is particularly appealing because UC is achievable even under low intensity, non-coherent, solar irradiation. Current efforts to harness TTA-UC in solar energy conversion are predominantly based on using UC solution or polymer film as a filter or reflector working in conjunction with a conventional solar cell but increase the cost and complexity of the device.</p> <p>Our technology is capable of facilitating photon upconversion in films of self-assembled bilayers, presented in Tech ID 15-001. The films can be prepared by a step-wise soaking/loading procedure that is amenable to roll-to-roll printing for large scale manufacturing of devices. The self-assembled bilayer strategy is effective at facilitating photocurrent generation from the upconverted state. This technology offers a new class of self-assembled UC solar cells that show promise as a means of passing the maximum theoretical limit for single junction solar cells.</p>
Preparation of Expanded Polyaromatics Dr. Igor Alabugin 15-220 Garrett Edmunds <p>Current methods utilized to synthesize crowded polyaromatic architecture often use strategies that demand stringent design to achieve control over the size and substitution of the product. The proposed technique addresses this challenge by using a robust and flexible cyclization method in which a functional handle is installed during the reaction sequence to offer means for further extensions and functionalization.</p> <p>The present invention is an efficient process to prepare synthetically challenging large distorted aromatics. The new approach developed at Florida State University efficiently transforms enynes into polyaromatic structures of precise dimensions and tunable electronic properties, solving the problem of selectivity in cascades aimed at the preparation of polyaromatic structures from conjugated enynes.</p> <p>The overall process incorporates an unprecedented sequence in which chemo-and regioselective interaction of the triple bond with Bu<sub>3</sub>Sn radicals originates from a conceptually novel source and propagates in such a way that renders alkenes synthetic equivalents of alkyns. By coupling the cyclization/rearrangement cascade with an aromatizing C-C bond fragmentation, the net result is a convenient transformation of readily available enyne reactants to a-Sn substituted naphthalenes that can serve as a lauching platform for the preparation of extended distorted polyaromatics.</p> <p>The key challenge that had remained in the design of radical cascades was achieving control over chemoselectivity of initial radical attack and the subsequent cyclization mode. We resolved these problems by using the first radical enyne cascade in which chemo- and regioselective interaction of the triple bond with Bu<sub>3</sub>Sn radicals originates from a novel 1,2 metallotropic shift.</p> <p>The use of alkenes assists in the elimination of a radical leaving group via scission at the end of the cascade, aromatizing the final product without the need for external oxidants. This selective radical transformation opens a new approach for the controlled transformation of enynes into polycyclic distorted aromatics of tunable dimensions.</p> <h2>Advantages:</h2> <ul> <li>The feasibility with which the scission of strong C-C bonds is accomplished under mild conditions.</li> <li>Provides a convenient and efficient method to synthesize large distorted aromatics and polycyclic ribbons of tunable dimensions.</li> <li>Installation of Bu<sub>3</sub>Sn at a specific position and conversion of readily available enynes into highly valuable a-Sn naphthalene derivatives in high yields in a single cascade step</li> </ul>
Traceless directing groups in radical cascades: from oligoalkynes to fused helicenes without tethered initators Dr. Igor Alabugin 15-081 Garrett Edmunds <p>Dr. Alabugin and his team have developed a traceless directing group in a radical cascade. The chemo- and regioselectivity of the initial attack in skipped oligoalkynes is controlled by a propargyl alkoxy moiety. Radical translocations lead to the boomerang return of radical center to the site of initial attack where it assists to the elimination of the directing functionality via β-scission in the last step of the cascade. In some aspects, the reaction of the present invention is catalyzed by a stannane moiety, which allows further via facile reactions with electrophiles as well as Stille and Suzuki cross-coupling reactions. This selective radical transformation opens a new approach for the controlled transformation of skipped oligoalkynes into polycyclic ribbons of tunable dimensions.</p>
Polymer Foam Based Piezoelectric Materials Manufactured in an Environmentally Benign Novel Process Dr. Changchun (Chad) Zeng 13-161 Michael Tentnowski <p>FSU researchers have developed thermally stable piezoelectric polymer foams (ferroelectrets) with high piezoelectric activity for sensing and actuation, with tailored morphology, cell structure and mechanical and electro-mechanical properties. These piezoelectric foams have extremely high piezoelectric coefficients and very high thermal stability up to two orders of magnitude higher than other published results.</p> <p>Thermoelectric (TE) materials generate energy in the presence of temperature differential by virtue of converting thermal energy to electrical energy. Combination of different semiconductors are the dominant thermoelectric materials. Currently all research on TE materials focus on inorganic substance and the applications of most TE materials are limited to high temperature regime (&gt; 200 oC) to achieve meaningful figure of merit, which restricts application area. In this technology, COC ferroelectrets can harvest thermal energy operated at low temperature with high figure of merit.</p> <p>Commercially available ferroelectrets are based on porous polypropylene films which has been applied in various devices, i.e., audio devices as microphones, force sensors, actuators and respiration detectors. However, these devices lack sufficient thermal and UV stability. Our foams overcome these limitations.</p>
Carbon Nanotube Foam with Controllable Architectures: Fabrication Method and Applications Dr. Mei Zhang 14-030 Michael Tentnowski <p>Dr. Zhang created a method for fabricating carbon nanotube (CNT) foam, and all carbon prous structures, with controllable cell shape and distribution and therefore tunable properties including density, porosity, elasticity, conductivity, and strength.</p> <p>Compared with conventional foams, CNT solid foams offer additional advantages such as mechanical flexibility and robustness, electrical conductivity, thermal stability and resistance to harsh environment, and can impact a broad range of applications such as multifunctional structural media, sensors, high strength to weight ratio composites, membranes and electrodes.</p>
Reusable Colorimetric Fluoride Sensors Dr. Sourav Saha 10-186 Garrett Edmunds <p>Fluoridation of drinking water has been effective in preventing tooth decay and improving overall den-tal health; however, overexposure to fluoride poses numerous serious health risks including brittle bone disease and increases in bone cancers. Thus, accurate detection of fluoride levels in water and food sources as well as in body fluids is essential. </p> <p><a rel="noopener" data-id="7056" href="/media/4156/marketing-document-10-186-saha.pdf" target="_blank" title="Marketing document 10-186 Saha.pdf">Download PDF Version</a> </p> <h2>Applications:</h2> <ul> <li>Medicine and health applications, both commercial and consumer-oriented, to test for the presence of fluoride in tap water, foods, blood and urine</li> <li>Food industry applications, such as testing toothpaste, bottled water, and food products</li> <li>Commercial product to enable water purifier manufacturers to test the effectiveness of their products more easily and at a reduced cost</li> <li>Municipal water-testing applications, particularly field testing</li> <li>Humanitarian application for use in developing countries with few or non-existent fluoride testing tools or standards</li> </ul> <h2>Advantages:</h2> <ul> <li>Offers both colorimetric and fluorimetric detection</li> <li>Can detect fluoride presence and quantity in a variety of environments including water, food, gas/air, and body fluids</li> <li>The sensors are easy to synthesize, environmentally benign, and can detect a range of fluoride concentration levels, with high sensitivity at extremely low nanomolar concentrations</li> <li>Dip-stick and spot-test forms are easy to use, effective, and comparatively inexpensive to produce</li> <li>Tests are reversible, reusable (with power source), and recyclable (disposable), thus reducing waste and costs</li> </ul>
Lightweight Sensor Material Systems and Their Method of Manufacturing Changchun (Chad) Zeng 15-162 Michael Tentnowski <p>Flexible, stretchable, highly sensitive and low-cost pressure sensors are key elements in advancing wearable or implantable measuring devices.</p> <p>The present invention provides a flexible piezoresistive sensor that exhibits improved piezoresistive sensitivity over other conventional flexible sensors currently available. The sensor is based on 3D porous auxetic materials and conductive materials coating layers. The sensing mechanism is the piezoresistivity of the conductive coating. The auxetic materials provide the overall sensing environment, and the unique auxetic properties enable high sensor sensitivity and larger sensing range.</p> <h2>Advantages:</h2> <ul> <li>The auxetic structure improves sensor performance compared to regular substrate.</li> <li>The unique auxetic properties, such as synclastic curvature, enable the fabrication of large area sensors of complicated contours and ensure accurate detection of signals.</li> </ul> <h2>Applications:</h2> <ul> <li>Wearable sensors</li> <li>Sports protection equipment</li> <li>Medical devices</li> <li>Underwater ultrasonic transducer</li> </ul>
Precision Polystyrene-sulfonate (PSS) Dr. Justin G. Kennemur 17-034 Garrett Edmunds <p>Recent research in the Kennemur Group has discovered a methodology for making a polystyrene-polyethylene-type copolymer analog .The reduction in phenyl branch periodicity for our system dramatically reduces the glass transition temperature (<em>T</em>­<sub>g</sub>) from 110 °C (PS) to ~17 °C (H<sub>2</sub>-P4PCP) and remains amorphous; this makes our system prone to improved softening and flexibility at ambient temperatures. Furthermore, due to the precise and diluted spacing of the phenyl branches, we envisioned that the full sulfonation (i.e. one sulfonate functionality per phenyl branch) of this polymer would create a new materials that rivals PSS due to the enhanced flexibility of the native polymer. Here it should be noted that ethylene and styrene monomers can be copolymerized to form ethylene-styrene copolymers (for example Dow INDEX ESI Interpolymers), however, the catalysts used are complex, styrene incorporation is not precise, and it is very difficult to achieve high styrene content due to the differences in reactivity between ethylene and styrene. </p>
Dual-Fluid Jet Nozzle for Generating Sharp Boundaries between Jets of Fluids Dr. Markus Huettel 16-107 Michael Tentnowski <p>Dr. Markus Huettel and Alireza Merikhi have developed a device and method for rapid assessment of sensor response times as the sensor is switched rapidly between two or more testing fluids discharged from a multi-fluid jet nozzle. An embodiment of the novel device is a dual-fluid jet nozzle that ejects two distinct jets of testing fluid at the same velocity through a single nozzle discharge aperture divided by a sharp edged boundary wall, which effectively create a single jet stream containing two fluids separated by a sharp boundary. An embodiment of the novel device may be configured to discharge more than two jets of fluid to create a jet stream containing multiple fluids separated by sharp boundaries. A sensor tip is first exposed to a first testing fluid and then rapidly exposed to a second testing fluid. The sensor’s output may then be assessed to determine its response time.</p>
Polymer Ligands for Nanoparticles Conjugation with Biomolecules Dr. Hedi Mattoussi 14-152 Garrett Edmunds <p>Professor Mattoussi developed polymer ligands that are optimally suited for surface-functionalizing magnetic nanoparticles. The amphiphilic polymers are prepared by coupling several amine-terminated anchoring groups, polyethylene glycol moieties, and reactive groups onto a poly(isobutylene-alt-maleic anhydride) (PIMA) chain. The reaction of maleic anhydride groups with amine-containing molecules is highly-efficient and occurs in one-step. The availability of several dopamine groups in the same ligand greatly enhances the ligand affinity, via multiple-coordination, to the magnetic NPs, while the hydrophilic and reactive groups promote colloidal stability in buffer media and allow subsequent conjugation with target biomolecules. Nanoparticles ligated with terminally reactive polymers have been easily coupled to target dyes and tested in live cell imaging with no measurable cytotoxicity.</p> dopamine,polymer,nanoparticle,ligand
Stokes Drifters: Very Thin Drifters to Study Ocean Surface Circulation Dr. Nicolas Wienders 17-022 Michael Tentnowski <p>Florida State University has designed a new instrument which can for the first time measure and monitor the ocean surface circulation within an inch of the surface where specific processes occur (the Stokes Drift). These important processes have never been measured, yet they are responsible for the movement of oil spills and other pollutants (plastic patches, river outflows, and radioactive leaks), the transport of fish eggs and larvae vital to fish life cycles, and the prediction of the movement of red tides to the coast. Existing drifters measure at least 50cm long/deep and are incapable of isolating the circulation at the ocean surface or the effect of the Stokes Drift.</p> <p>The proposed instrument will help calibrate new numerical models including Stokes Drift parameterization and recently designed radars and satellites by providing a very new and unique sampling of ocean surface circulation.</p> <p>The drifters are disks about 6 inches in diameter and small enough to measure the effect of the smallest gravity waves. They are also very thin to isolate the effect of the Stokes Drift at the ocean surface. Powered by batteries and/or solar panels, an accelerometer activates the antennas in clear sight of the satellites at any time.</p> <p>The drifters are about 20 percent buoyant so they are only partially immersed to allow for GPS reception and satellite data transmission while minimizing the wind drag. The drifters will transmit time, position and optional data stream via satellite at user programmable intervals.To ensure the drifters will not be affected by flipping from waves, they have GPS and satellite antennas on both sides.</p> <p><a rel="noopener" href="" target="_blank">An educational video about surface currents featuring Dr. Wienders</a></p> <p><a rel="noopener" href="" target="_blank" title=""></a></p> <p class="lead"><a rel="noopener" href="" target="_blank">View the real time drifter trajectories from our first experiment. </a></p> <p class="lead"><a href="">Experiment testing new drifter design underway in the Gulf of Mexico</a></p> <h2>Applications:</h2> <ul> <li>Federal agencies such as NSF, NOAA, and NASA.</li> <li>State and local agencies such as FWC and DEP</li> <li>Environmental groups</li> <li>Oil companies</li> <li>Fisheries</li> <li>Water management Districts</li> <li>Universities and independent scientists and researchers</li> </ul> <h2>Advantages:</h2> <ul> <li>Small size can mimic the behavior of pollutants or the evolution of river plumes at the ocean surface</li> <li>Minimizes wind drag</li> <li>Solves problem of potential flips with internal antennas on both sides of drifter</li> <li>Cost efficient</li> </ul> <p>Exclusive license: MetOcean <a href=""></a></p>
Photodynamic Resolution of Racemic Compounds having Axial Chirality Dr. Kenneth Hanson 17-025 Garrett Edmunds <p><span>Enantioselective synthesis is the cornerstone of modern synthetic chemistry and a crucial step in the production of fine chemicals like food additives, fragrances, natural products, and pharmaceuticals. </span></p> <p><span>One of the most utilized ligands/ catalysts for these enantioselective reactions is 1,1' - bi-2-napthol ("BINOL"). The most common methods to synthesize these complexes, however, result in the formation of a racemic mixture of R and S isomers. Unfortunately, since only a single isomer of BINOL is needed, the racemic mixture is typically purified through chromatography or recrystallization to achieve the desired isomer, while the other half of the reaction mass is discarded. </span></p> <p><span>The present invention proposes the use of photoisomerization as an alternative strategy to generate enantiomerically pure BINOL. Due to excited state proton transfer (ESPT) BINOL can planarize and isomerize upon photoexcitation. We have invented the use of bulky chiral auxialiary groups to increase the rotational barrier of relaztion selectively for one BINOL atropisomer as a means of preferentially generating one of the BINOL isomers. The identity of the auxiliary group determined both the direction of rotation and the extent of enantiomeric excess observed. </span></p> <h2><span>Advantages:</span></h2> <ul> <li><span>Photoisomerization can generate a racemic mixture and then preferentially photoconvert to only one of the isomers</span></li> <li><span>This strategy does not waste 50 percent of the product</span></li> <li><span>Can be done on large scale with minimal solvent</span></li> </ul> <h2><span>Applications:</span></h2> <ul> <li><span>Chemical companies that sell or use BINOL (Sigma, VWR, Merck, etc.)</span></li> </ul>
Photodynamic Resolution of Racemic Compounds having Axial Chirality Dr. Kenneth Hanson 17-025 Garrett Edmunds <p>Enantioselective synthesis is important in modern synthetic chemistry, and can be an important step in the production of certain chemicals, such as food additives, fragrances, natural products, and pharmaceuticals.</p> <p>One of the most utilized ligands/catalysts for enantioselective reactions is 1,1’-bi-2-napthol (“BINOL”).  The most common methods to synthesize BINOL and its derivatives, however, result in the formation of a racemic mixture of (R) and (S) isomers.  Due to the fact that only a single isomer of BINOL is required for enantioselective reactions, the racemic mixture typically is purified through chromatography or recrystallization to achieve the desired isomer, while the other isomer is discarded.</p> <p>Dr Hanson has developed a methods of forming a product having an enantiomeric excess from BINOL, BINOL derivatives,  and other atropisomers, including the racemic mixtures thereof.</p> <p> </p>
A Practical Process to Densify High Temperature Superconducting Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+x (2212) Round Wire Before Coil Winding Maxime Matras 15-257 Michael Tentnowski <p>This invention describes the processing of Bi2Sr2CuO<sub>6+x </sub>(2122) oxide superconducting round wires so as to obtain a magnet with a dense and stable winding pack mad of dense, highly-textured oxide superconductor with high critical current density.</p> <p>The present invention overcomes the limitations of the prior art by pre-densifying the 2212 wire before it is wound on the coil form. The invention significantly reduces, and can even eliminate, the decrease in wire diameter that occurs during the final heat treatment when the coil receives its final OP heat treatment, thus avoiding changes to the geometry of the coil.</p> <p>The advantages of round wire, compared to tape, are its ability to be twisted, its electromagnetic isotrpy and its ability to be easily cabled.</p>
Route to Synthetic Analogues of Rocaglamide and Aglafoline using Cascade Transformations initiated by Oxy-Cope Rearrangement of Bis-Alkynes Dr. Igor Alabugin 11-043 Garrett Edmunds <p>Dr. Alabugin and his team have developed a method for preparing a cyclobutene compound or a cyclopentenone. The method comprises contacting an α,β-diketone with a metal acetylide at a temperature below 0° C. to thereby form a reaction mixture comprising a bis-alkyne precursor. The bis-alkyne precursor rearranges into a bis-allenic intermediate, which undergoes further rearrangement into the cyclobutene compound or the cyclopentenone compound as the temperature of the reaction mixture increases from below 0° C. to above 0° C.</p>
Photo-Induced Phase Transfer of Luminescent Quantum Dots Dr. Hedi Mattoussi 12-207 Michael Tentnowski <p>A method for the photo-mediated phase transfer of inorganic nanocrystals, such as luminescent quantum dots, QDs, is provided. Irradiation, specifically UV excitation (λ<sub class="style-scope patent-text">ex</sub>&lt;400 nm), promotes the in-situ ligand exchange of hydrophobic quantum dots with hydrophilic ligands and their facile transfer to polar solvents and buffer media. The technique enables transfer of quantum dots and other nanocrystal materials from hydrophobic to polar and hydrophilic solutions.</p> polar solvent,nanoparticle,phase transfer
Modulating Electron Transfer Dynamics at Hybrid Interfaces via Self-Assembled Multilayers Dr. Kenneth Hanson 15-001 Garrett Edmunds <p>Electron transfer at organic-inorganic hybrid interfaces is a critical event in bio/organic electronics, solar energy conversion, electrocatalysis, sensing and other applications. At the interfaces in these devices, the goal is to maximize the rate of electron transfer in one direction (forward electron transfer, FET). Equally important is the inhibition of the back electron transfer (BET). We have introduced the use of a molecular bridge in self-assembled bilayer films as an effective strategy for modulating electron transfer dynamics at the semiconductor-molecule interface. The bilayer films of the general form MO-(X)-Zr-moelcule are composed of a metal oxide electrode (MO; TiO2 or SnO2 for example), a bridging molecule (X), linking ions (Zr, Zn, etc.) and a molecule. One example bilayer with TiO2, a bridging molecules 1, 2 or 3, Zr4+ ions and RuC ([Ru(bpy)2(4,4'-(COOH)2bpy)]2+) is depicted in Figure. This approach offers a simple and modular method for slowing BET between any dye molecule and the semiconductor interface. Additionally, as opposed to other methods of slowing BET, like atomic layer deposition or synthetic modification, the step-wise soaking/loading procedure is amenable to roll-to-roll printing for large scale manufacturing of devices. Controlling electron transfer rates will help to decrease photocurrent leakage and improve device performances.</p>
Direct Conversion of Phenols into Amides and Esters of Benzoic Acid Dr. Igor Alabugin 10-128 Garrett Edmunds <p>Dr. Alabugin and his team have designed a method is for the preparation of an aromatic carboxylic acid aryl ester or an N-aryl aromatic carboxamide. The method comprises contacting an O,O-diaryl thiocarbonate or an O-aryl-N-aryl thiocarbamate with a reactant that regioselectively reacts with sulfur, which contact causes an O-neophyl rearrangement, thereby forming either the aromatic carboxylic acid aryl ester or the N-aryl aromatic carboxamide, respectively.</p>
Facile Conversion of Red Phosphorous to Soluble Polyphosphide Anions by Reaction with Potassium Ethoxide Dr. Michael Shatruk 16-087 Garrett Edmunds <p><span>Activation of phosphorus is an important process for the preparation of semiconductors and low-dimensional electronic materials. The industry, in general, uses white phosphorus, which is hazardous and should be stored under water due to its spontaneous flammability in air. Activation of red phosphorus, which is a more stable polymorph of the element, is usually done by high-temperature reactions with metals in sealed evacuated tubes. However, this process is expensive and difficult to scale up.</span></p> <p><span>We have discovered a methodology to activated red phosphorus using inexpensive potassium ethoxide in ethanol. The reaction can be performed with mild heating and provides access to soluble polyphosphide species, which can be used to explore further chemistry of phosphorus in solution, without the need to use white phosphorus. Moreover, we showed that this process can be easily scaled up using flow chemistry approaches.</span></p> <p><span>For more information: </span><a href="">Chemists Discover a Safe, Green Method to Process Red Phosphorus</a></p> <p><a rel="noopener" href="" target="_blank">red-wonder FSU chemists pave the way of phosphorus revolution</a></p> <p><i>Angew. Chem. Int. Ed.</i> 2016, DOI: <a href="" title="Facile Conversion of Red Phosphorus into Soluble Polyphosphide Anions">10.1002/anie.201511186</a></p> phosphorene,black phosphorus
A Real-Time, Ubiquitous Structural Health Monitoring System for Fiber-Reinforced Composite Materials Dr. Okenwa Okoli 12-037 Michael Tentnowski <p>The Florida State University invites companies to join us in commercializing a new method for monitoring the structural health of fiber-reinforced composites (FRCs). The continuous push to create faster and lighter vehicular structures has radically increased the use of fiber-reinforced composite (FRC) materials in the aerospace industry and others because these composites possess high specific strength and stiffness. Economic constraints have also contributed to the growing trend of airlines operating aircraft beyond their design lives, making their effective monitoring for structural damage an important safety feature. Increasingly, too, composite materials are used in the construction of buildings, dams, naval structures, and ground-based vehicles.</p> <p><a href="/media/3830/okoli.pdf">Download PDF Version</a> </p> <h2>The Problem:</h2> <p>Multiscale, multifunctional advanced composite materials have the potential of creating a paradigm shift in how engineered structures are used. Their failure modes which enhance their ability to absorb impact energy are unlike those seen in metallic materials and have no single, similar self-propagating crack features. Metals show visible damage caused by impact mainly on the surface of structures, while damage is hidden inside composite structures especially when subjected to low velocity impact such as bird collisions or tool drops. This barely visible damage may cause serious decrease in material strength of the structure over its life-cycle.</p> <p>Current inspection and monitoring techniques are based primarily on exterior examinations and/or externally mounted sensors placed at discrete locations. Since failures in composites are frequently microscopic, originate internally, and are slow to reveal themselves externally, current detection systems are limited in their effectiveness.</p> <p>A cost issue also exists. In the case of airplanes, approximately 27% of their life-cycle cost is spent on inspection and repair. Thus, accurately and quickly identifying the location and severity of damage at the micro-structural levels is essential to detecting macroscopic fatigue and avoiding catastrophic failures. Future sensors for Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) of aerospace structures are envisioned to be an array of inexpensive, spatially distributed, integrated sensors supporting online/real-time acquisition of structural integrity information on the loading, environmental effects, structural characteristics and responses of these structures. The information obtained from the sensors can then be used to monitor the structural integrity of the components in real-time in order to avoid catastrophic failures.</p> <h2>The Solution:</h2> <p>With the recent advances in material research, solutions to damage monitoring will need to be based on an integrated platform. At FSU’s High-Performance Materials Institute, a novel SHM system is in development, which will detect minute structural damage in FRC materials (e.g., fiberglass, carbon fiber). Essentially, this is a biomimetic solution pre-existing in nature that can act as a guide towards ubiquitous sensing by use of Triboluminescent materials. Triboluminescence is a physical phenomenon, where upon duress crystalloid materials emit copious amounts of visible light. By integrating these triboluminescent materials in fiber-reinforced composites alongside a transmission medium, failure information can be obtained.</p>
Carbon Nanotube and Nanofiber Film-based Membrane Electrode Assemblies Dr. Zhiyong (Richard) Liang 06-088 Michael Tentnowski <p>The present invention describes a carbon-materials-based membrane electrode assembly (MEA) for a fuel cell comprising a catalyst layer.</p> <p>The catalyst layer can include a plurality of catalyst nanoparticles, e.g., platinum, disposed on buckypaper. A particular feature of the MEA, according to the invention, is that the buckypaper film is fabricated with carbon nanotubes, nanofibers, or a mixture thereof, with little or no binder. The buckypaper additionally can be treated with high temperature for improving electrical and/or mechanical properties of the structure. The microstructure of the buckypaper can be tailored by adjusting the starting materials and nanotubes dispersion so as to achieve a desired porosity, pore size, surface area, and electrical conductivity for use as the catalyst layer of the MEA. The catalyst nanoparticles are preferably deposited directly at the most efficient sites of the buckypaper to thereby maximize the three-phase reaction coefficient.</p> <p>The MEA so fabricated can have a higher catalyst utilization rate at the electrodes, can provide higher power output, and can have enhanced oxidation resistance, and well as a longer service life, as compared to conventionally-fabricated fuel cells.</p>
Actuator Devices Including Nanoscale Fiber Films Dr. Zhiyong (Richard) Liang 08-110 Michael Tentnowski <p>This present invention describes a novel technique to fabricate carbon nanotube or nanofiber thin films (buckypapers)/solid electrolyte actuator devices for lightweight, high performance actuator and morphing structure applications. The method includes two nanoscale fiber films adjacent to a solid polymer electrolyte positioned at least partially in between. Moreover, the solid polymer electrolyte is affixed to the two nanoscale fiber films. The nanoscale fiber films may be buckypapers made of carbon nanotubes. The actuator is capable of dry actuation.</p> <p>This new approach to prepare buckypaper actuators can eliminate the need to use insulation layer in structures and retains high concentration and conducting of nanotube networks in the actuators, which are critical to achieve high performance actuation. More importantly, all the actuators can work properly in open air, which is critical for real-world applications. High nanotube loading and good conducting networks in buckypapers lead to improved actuation performance. Furthermore, the actuator can be easily laminated or encapsulated with polymer films or coating to resist environmental effects. Through improvements of nanotube dispersion, alignment and conductivity of buckypapers, we can further enhance and optimize actuation performance. The invention is a technical breakthrough to realize real-world engineering applications of nanotube-based actuators. The invention overcomes the major technique barriers, such as working in liquid electrolyte and lower performance, of current liquid electrolyte and nanotube/polymer mixture-based actuator systems.</p> <p>Due to exceptional high mechanical properties and lightweight of carbon nanotube and nanofiber materials, lightweight and high performance actuation can be expected for both immediate and near future engineering applications, such as morphing structures of aircraft and nanoscale/microscope actuators for device applications (for instance, actuators for driving microscale).</p>
Solderless Joint Technology Dr. Thomas Painter 09-026 Michael Tentnowski <p>This is a simple, yet novel device that eliminates the need for any type of solder when joining two large cables. The Solderless Joint Technology will immediately save hundreds of thousands of dollars in manufacturing costs, as well as minimize the risk to the entire multi-million dollar superconducting magnet system. This device has been fabricated and tested by the team in the laboratory and has yielded amazing results.</p> <p>This invention eliminates the need for solder by placing wires in a compression box that seals them between a novel cradle of steel and copper. These cradles are compressed by a novel steel tool which sandwiches the wires under extreme pressure. The steel housing is then welded together and heat treated for over eight days. This creates a vacuum-like seal, similar to solder, yet cheaper, higher performing, and with a longer lifespan.</p> <p><a data-id="6110" href="/media/3832/painter2.pdf" title="Painter2.pdf">Download PDF Version</a> </p> <h2>Applications:</h2> <ul> <li>This device’s primary purpose is to form an electrical joint between two cable-in-conduit conductor wires, such as those typically used in superconducting magnets.</li> </ul> <p> </p> <h2>Advantages:</h2> <ul> <li>The fabrication technique is simple, inexpensive, quick, and is designed to last as long as the CICC wire itself.</li> <li>Minimal electrical resistance compared to its predecessor, which allows a magnet to retain more power.</li> <li>Eliminates the need for solder, which is messy and leaves gaps in the electrical seal.</li> <li>Eliminates the need to handle the magnet after it has been heat treated, which lowers the risk to the brittle multi-million dollar magnet.</li> <li>Unlike previous methods, this joint technology will not need to be frequently maintained or replaced over the life of the magnet.</li> </ul> <p>The present invention describes a method of fabrication for a low-resistance, vacuum-tight electrical connection for a cable-in-conduit-conductor (CICC) joint for use with a hybrid magnet. An elongate copper member is disposed in sandwiched relation between a first and second cable that are disposed in parallel, spaced apart relation to one another. A first elongate member is disposed in overlying relation to the first cable and a second elongate member is disposed in underlying relation to the second cable. All of the parts are positioned within a joint box, and the joint box is sandwiched between first and second flat plates that are interconnected to one another by elongate bolts. Tightening the bolts compresses the parts within the joint box. A heat treatment completes the solderless joint.</p> <h2>Advantages:</h2> <ul> <li>Provides the low electrical resistances required for CICC magnets which in turn increases operational margins or decreases the cost of cryogenic refrigeration</li> <li>Eliminates the need for vacuum leak-tight copper to stainless steel mechanical bonds, which reduces the operational risk of vacuum leak and costly remediation</li> <li>Eliminates the need for solder filling, which reduces the risk during fabrication of the expensive superconductor typically costing more than $1m</li> <li>Eliminates the need for post-heat treatment processing, which reduces the risk of handling the expensive superconductor in its brittle state and reduces fabrication costs by eliminating lengthy and problematic solder filling processes</li> </ul>
Carbon Nanotube and Polymeric Thin Film Assemblies for Pressure Sensing and Mapping Dr. Liang, Dr. Lu, Dr, Whang and Dr. Zhang 08-132 Michael Tentnowski <p>Pressure/force sensing technologies are used in a broad range of applications. Many pressure/force sensors are available, but thin film sensors are limited. Currently, the most common film pressure sensors are either resistive or capacitive, which are both reusable. This new technology utilizes the rupture of microcapsules filled with dyes for pressure sensing to create a disposable thin film mapping.</p> <p>The sensing assembly is composed of a top and bottom element. The top element is made of elastomer-like polymer with grooves that are filled with polymer gel electrolyte and the bottom is made of patterned conducting material thin film strips on top of flexible polymer film. When pressure is applied, a deformation of the material in the top element causes the gel to come in contact with the film strips, which creates an ionic-conducting path.</p> <p><a data-id="6119" href="/media/3841/liu2.pdf" title="Liu2.pdf">Download PDF Version</a> </p> <h2>Applications:</h2> <ul> <li>Seat occupancy detection in the automobile industry</li> <li>Tactile feedback for robots to sense and respond to environments</li> <li>Rehabilitation progress monitoring in the medical industry</li> <li>Bite force mapping in dentistry</li> <li>Measuring force of golf grips</li> </ul> <h2>Advantages:</h2> <ul> <li>Disposable</li> <li>Low percolation threshold</li> <li>Detects low levels of pressure sensing</li> <li>Utilizes ionic conduction as the major sensing mechanism</li> </ul>
Scalable Manufacturing of Carbon Nanotube Network-based Strain Sensors with Printed Electrodes Shu Li 14-029 Michael Tentnowski <p>FSU researchers have discovered a method that manufactures strain sensors based on carbon nanotube network sensing elements, printed microelectrodes, and flexible substrates.</p> <p>In one case, carbon nanotube network sheets are bonded to the substrate with epoxy resin, and electrodes are printed on top of the nanotube sheet. In another variant, electrodes are directly printed on top of the substrate, and the nanotube sheet is fixed atop across the printed electrodes. Type A and B sensors achieved positive and negative gauge factors up to 20 and 40 in magnitude. Both the positive and negative gauge factors are one order of magnitude higher than commercial strain gauge sensors. The high performance and flexible nature of the sensors, as well as the capability of scalable manufacturing processes, exhibits promising application potential.</p>
Conjugation of Two Alkyne Molecules at High Efficiency Under Physiological Conditions Dr. Lei Zhu 12-236 Garrett Edmunds <p>The present technology describes a double-conjugation method in which two copper(l)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloadditions (CuAAC) reactions occur sequentially in a single reaction mixture without an intervening deprotection step or purification of intermediates. The sequential chemoselective ligation reactions are enabled by the different reactivities of chelating and non-chelating azido groups included in an unsymmetrical bisazide. These linkers can be used in combinatorial chemistry to cross-ligate alkyne molecules, in the modification of ethynyl-functionalized surface chemoselectively, and in extension, in the conjugation of three biomolecular fragments.</p> <p>This method affords an excellent regioselectivity while preserving the fast kinetics and large substrate scope of the CuAAC reaction. In addition to the reduced workload comparing to currently available bifunctional linkers, the disclosed products are relatively easy to prepare. The substrate scope is broad, and the chemistry proceeds well under a vast array of conditions, including physiological conditions.</p>
Fully Printable Halide Perovskite Light-Emitting Diodes Zhibin Yu 16-064 Michael Tentnowski <p>Organometal halide perovskites (Pero) have been well known for their astounding opto-electronic properties and in their utilizations in photovoltaic cells and light emitting diodes (LEDs). They are highly efficient, have low processing temperatures, and are cost effective. For Pero solar cells, the highest power conversion efficiency has reached about 20%, which approaches the best efficiencies of thin film solar cells. With continuing efforts to improve device efficiency and operational stability, the next challenge is to develop Pero solar cells and LEDs using a scalable printing technique to fulfill the promise of large scale, low cost devices.</p> <p>The present technology is first to develop printed Pero LEDs on rigid indium tin oxide (ITO)/glass and flexible carbon nanotubes (CNTs)/polymer substrates. The devices have ITO or CNTs as the transparent anode, a printed composite film consisting of methyl ammonium lead tri-bromide (Br-Pero) and polyethylene oxide (PEO) as the emissive layer, and printed silver nanowires as the cathode. The printing process can be carried out in air without any deliberate control of humidity; in fact, printing the PEO/Br-Pero in air actually improves its photoluminescence properties. The light intensity, turn-on voltage, and maximum luminescence compare favorably to existing Pero LEDs that are made of multi-layer structures which are formed by more complex fabrication techniques.</p> <p>For more information, please see publication <a rel="noopener noreferrer" href="" target="_blank">here</a>.</p> <h2>Applications:</h2> <ul> <li>Scalable manufacturing of Pero <span class="small">based</span> opto-electronic devices for various surfaces</li> </ul> <h2><span class="small"> </span></h2> <p> </p>
Novel Method for Producing Ultra Small Iron Oxide Particles Dr. Joseph Schlenoff 12-166 Garrett Edmunds <p>The proposed invention describes methods of producing, in one pot, iron oxide nanoparticles of total diameter less than 10 nm bearing a stabilizing shell of zwitterion and associated compositions. The synthesis of zwitterated iron oxide nanoparticles was achieved by a modified Massart method by the addition of sulfobetaine siloxane either post-synthesis or before co-precipitation of iron salts (in situ). The particles are precipitated in the presence of a zwitterion siloxane which caps the particles and stabilizes them as soon as they are made.</p> <p>This fine tuning finds mass applications in data storage, catalysis, and in biotechnology and medicine. Detection, cell sorting, and diagnosis using iron oxide nanoparticles have been reported. However, their potential use as contrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or as magnetic fluids for hyperthermia treatment continues to be the driving force for their miniaturization and surface chemistry manipulation. The particles obtained using this new method are super stable and small enough to be excreted so that they do not remain in circulation after the imaging is finished.</p>
Six-Membered N-Heterocyclic Carbine-Based Catalysts for Asymmetric Reactions Dr. David McQuade 10-020 Garrett Edmunds <p>The present invention relates to the field of asymmetrical catalysts used for transition formations in a wide variety of organic synthesis reactions.</p> <p>The catalyst is a N-heterocyclic carbine (NHC) having three fused rings with first and second rings being six-membered rings and the third being a five-membered ring. The first ring is fused to the second and has four substituents. The second ring has two nitrogens flanking a carbine atom with one nitrogen bound to a substituent. The carbene atom may optionally be bonded to a metal. The third ring is fused to the second ring and contains two nitrogens. The third ring of the catalyst has a double bond and two substituents on adjacent non-fused carbons. A non-fused nitrogen of the third ring is partially bonded to another substituent. Methods for the synthesis and use of the catalyst embodiments of the present invention are also provided.</p> <p>The new 6-NHC ligand and ligand-metal catalyst discovered and designed in this invention are relatively easy to prepare and shows excellent activity and enantioselectivity, for use in a variety of organic reactions.</p>
A New Organic Synthetic Route which Opens Access to a Variety of Graphene Substructures Dr. Igor Alabugin 12-027 Garrett Edmunds <p>Several approaches to graphene nanoribbons exist in the literature. However, in all of them the central part of the molecule is built first and then additional rings are added at the periphery via electrophile induced cyclization or oxidative cyclodehydrogenation. These methods are difficult to apply to the preparation of non-symmetric graphene nanostructures.</p> <p>Our approach utilizes a different class of starting materials and different chemistry for the formation of six-membered cycles. In our innovative approach, ortho polyyne chains of varying sizes, equipped with different functionalities, are built in a modular fashion using well-characterized and reliable cross-coupling chemistry. In the key step, these systems are then "zipped" up via an efficient cascade of fast and selective radical cyclizations. The selectivity of transformation is achieved via incorporation of a "weak link" - a chemically different functional group which can undergo transformation into a radical center in the presence of multiple alkynes.</p> <p>Since modular assembly allows each of the peripheral groups to be unique, it will allow preparation of graphene substructures with custom shapes and functionalities.</p>
Method to Identify the Molecular Structure of Large Biomolecules via IM/MS Christian Bleiholder, Ph.D. 17-008 Garrett Edmunds <p>This method uses data derived from Ion Mobility-Mass Spectroscopy (IM/MS) to computationally decipher molecular structures of proteins, protein assemblies, and protein-small molecules interactions.</p> <p><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><strong>Advantages</strong></span></p> <ul> <li>Enables high-throughput large-scale systematic fragment-based drug discovery</li> <li>Requires a fraction of the sample amounts and time</li> <li>Uses systems already available to most pharmaceutical and therapeutics companies.</li> </ul> <p><strong><span style="text-decoration: underline;">Introduction and Applications</span></strong></p> <p>This technology has the potential to revolutionize the field of drug discovery, especially fragment-based drug discovery, by elucidating the molecular structure of biomolecules and any bound ligands with high fidelity. </p> <p>Currently, structural characterization in drug discovery is often undertaken with techniques such as x-ray crystallography, nuclear magnetic resonance, or cryo-EM. These traditional methods require significant sample amounts, purified samples, and are poorly suited for high-throughput screening assays. Further, many potentail targets are not amenable to structural characterization by these methods, including, for example, the soluble protein assemblies implicated as toxic agents in Alzheimer's or Parkinson's diseases.</p> <p>In contrast, the current method exhibits sufficient sensitivity, sample-throughput, and dynamic range to enable the high-throughput, large-scale systemic screening of small molecule-target interactions. Additionally, the samples can be studied in a manner that more closely mimics their natural conditions, including flexible branches and glycan moieties that other methods often miss.</p> <p><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><strong>The Technology</strong></span></p> <p>The biomolecules of interest are analyzed in a few minutes via IM/MS. The output is then analyzed computationally, providing structural characterization. The program can be modified to work with in-house supercomputers or with cloud-based computing services, such as Amazon's AWS.</p> <p> </p> <p><span>Click here to watch an interview with Dr. Bleiholder: <span class="fa fa-caret-square-o-right"></span><span class="fa fa-blind"></span><span class="fa fa-check-circle"></span><span class="fa fa-hand-o-right"></span><a href=""></a></span></p> Drug discovery,fragment based drug discovery,computational chemistry
Controlling the Architecture, Coordination and Reactivity of Nanoparticle Coating Starting from an Aminoacid Precursor Hedi Mattoussi 16-065 Garrett Edmunds <p><span>We have developed a versatile strategy to prepare a series of multi-coordinating and multifunctional ligands optimized for the surface-functionalization of luminescent quantum dots (DGs) and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) alike. Our two new sets of multi-dentate ligands can promote the dispersion of both QDs and gold nanoparticles in buffer media with colloidal stability over a broad range of conditions, while conferring compactness and biocompatibility. </span></p> <p><span>The present synthetic scheme starts from L-aspartic acid to develop a versatile platform that allows the controllable coupling of one or more LA groups, one or more polyethylene glycol (PEG) moieties, along with terminal reactive groups, yielding a series of molecular-scale ligands with various architectures and selective reactivity. By attaching various combinations of lipoic acid and PEG chains on the aspartic acid, via peptide coupling chemistry, we have prepared a series of reactive ligands presenting either one PEG chain appended with multiple lipoic acid, or multiple PEG chains attached onto one lipoic acid. </span></p> <h2>Advantages:</h2> <ul> <li><span>Offers a simpler version for preparing bis(LA-appended ligands compared to the Michael addition reaction we have previously employed </span></li> <li><span>Provides high reaction efficiency at each reaction step, the ligand synthesis can be easily scaled up and various functional groups can be attached easily </span></li> <li><span>Ligands are fully compatible with a mild photoligation strategy to promote the in-situ ligand exchange and phase transfer of hydrophobic QDs to buffer media</span></li> </ul>
Method of Large Scale Fabrication of High CNT Content Composites with High Mechanical and Electrical Performance Dr. Zhiyong (Richard) Liang 18-020 Michael Tentnowski <p>Carbon nanotubes are ideal for polymer matrix composites due to their mechanical and electrical properties. However, to date, the overall properties of CNT-polymer composites have not reached their full potential due to poor dispersion and low concentrations of CNTs. Our new scalable process yields high-CNT content (60 wt%) polymer composites using a simple, three-step process:</p> <ol> <li>A filament winding process that allows for control of CNT orientation and overall composite thickness.</li> <li>A mechanical stretching process that has shown improved CNT alignment and overall composite properties.</li> <li>A curing process under tension that further stretches and aligns the CNTs in the stress direction.</li> </ol> <p>These improved polymer composites are ideal for defense applications and deep space exploration.</p>
Improved Thermoelectric Materials and Devices Dr. Theo Siegrist 18-057 Michael Tentnowski <p>Thermoelectric refrigeration requires no moving parts nor circulating liquid. Thus, it is the most stable form of refrigeration as it is invulnerable to leaks and can be designed to fit applications of various shapes and sizes. Compared with current refrigeration methods, thermoelectric refrigeration is much more economically efficient and environmentally friendly. Ultra-low temperature cooling, in particular, requires critical conditions and is costly due to the price of liquid Helium. Therefore, companies, universities, research institutes would benefit from thermoelectric refrigeration.</p> <p>Florida State University has synthesized heavy-fermion compounds with power values that are orders of magnitude larger than that of most competitive and well known thermoelectric materials. Thus, a new generation of thermoelectric devices are now possible for use in satellites and spacecraft or cryogenic cooling at temperatures below liquid nitrogen.</p>
Novel Material and Manufacturing Method of Three-Dimensional Multi-Reinforced Composites Dr. Cheryl Xu 15-010 Brittany Ferraro <p>Fiber reinforced composites are desirable for structural applications because long fibers, such as carbon fibers, can help prevent brittle failure in structural materials. Fiber reinforced composites are limited by relatively low strength and toughness and lack of thermal/ electrical transport functionality. 3D fiber-reinforced composites made of carbon nanotubes are commonly created using chemical vapor deposition to grow nanotubes and fibers. The method of chemical vapor deposition can damage the strength and structure of carbon nanotubes, deteriorating desirable properties. There is a need for stronger fiber reinforced composites and a new method to create these composites that will not affect the structure.  </p> <p>Dr. Cheryl Xu developed a novel 3D composite with improved mechanical strength and thermal and electrical properties with an easy manufacturing process. These novel composites are made up of one or multiple sheets with carbon fibers woven in orthogonal direction bundles with carbon nanotubes embedded within the pores between the bundles. The composites demonstrate a remarkable improvement to mechanical strength and thermal and electrical conductivities when compared to composites created using chemical vapor deposition. The novel method to create this fiber reinforced composite does not involve any chemical reaction, and therefore does not affect the structural integrity. The manufacturing method is low cost and materializes 3D composite structures without altering the long fiber sheet.</p> <p><strong>Advantages</strong></p> <ul> <li>Improved mechanical strength</li> <li>Increased thermal and electrical conductivities</li> <li>Low cost manufacturing method</li> <li>Does not involve any chemical reaction</li> <li>Creates 3D sheets without altering the long fiber sheet</li> </ul> nanoparticle,nanoparticle sheet,3D nanofiber,nanofiber,composite,fabrication
Formation of Wear-Resistant Nanocomposite Layer on Aluminum Dr. Cheryl Xu 15-145 Garrett Edmunds <p>In structural applications where surface contact is involved the performance and useful life of suitable materials are mainly determined by their surface properties such as wear resistance and hardness. Aluminum-based materials are attractive for these types of structural applications in the aerospace, military, and transportation industries due to their light weight, high strength-to-weight ratio, and good corrosion resistance. However, the applications for aluminum-based materials are significantly limited, due to their poor surface properties, such as poor wear resistance which is evidenced as severe adhesive wear. Other materials, such as magnesium and titanium, also suffer from poor wear resistance, and therefore, applications with these materials are similarly limited.</p> <p>Al<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub>-Al composites containing a relatively high concentration of Al<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3 </sub>nanoparticles have been found to exhibit superior wear resistance by showing both significantly lower wear rates and desired abrasive wear. However, direct usage of these bulk nanocomposites is limited because of the resulting reduction in ductility and thermal conductivity. Furthermore, bulk processing typically used to manufacture Al<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub>-Al composites is time and energy intensive. There is a need for improved nanoparticle-reinforced composites that provide a hard, strong, wear-resistant surface while maintaining the ductility and thermal conductivity of the substrate material that, by itself, otherwise has poor surface properties.</p> <p>Dr. Cheryl Xu invented a method of surface enhancement that binds a hard wearable surface and ductile metal substrate without introducing an interface between them. The interface between these layers is often very weak. Dr. Xu’s method solves this problem and creates composites with strengthened wear resistance and surface hardness. This is accomplished while maintaining good ductility and thermal conductivity.</p> <p><strong>Advantages</strong></p> <ul> <li>Efficient manufacturing</li> <li>Eliminates de-bonding inherent in other surface coating techniques</li> <li>Easily applied to selected areas</li> <li>Low cost</li> <li>Process can be applied to non-flat surfaces</li> <li>Strengthened wear resistance and surface hardness while maintaining good ductility and thermal conductivity</li> </ul> nanoparticle,water-resistant,nanofiber,composite,coating,manufacture,manufacture method,process
Stabilized Nanoabrasive Suspensions for Chemical Mechanical Planarization Dr. Joseph Schlenoff 07-064 Garrett Edmunds <p>With modern advancements in the integrated circuit industry, Chemical Mechanilcal Planarization (CMP) has been widely adopted for high-precision fabrication processes. CMP creates a nearly-perfect flat surface on a silicon wafer by using mechanical polishing and a chemical slurry to remove unwanted conductive and dielectric materials. </p> <p>Two chief problems commonly faced by users of CMP are the tendency of the nanoparticles within the chemical slurry to agglomerate and the adherence of these particles to the surface of the wafer. Dr. Schlenoff has developed a silica nanoparticle with a modified surface that is well suited for these challenges. Importantly, these abrasive nanoparticles form stable suspensions. They resist aggregation or agglomeration without the need for surfactant additives and the additional steps required to remove the resulting residue. Additionally, they demonstrate minimal adhesion to the wafer surface.</p> <p><a href="" title="2x910 / CC BY-SA ("><img src="" alt="Si wafer" width="512" /></a></p>
Lignin-based Biodegradable Plastic Dr. Hoyong Chung 20-006 Garrett Edmunds <p>Researchers at Florida State University have developed a cost-effective and non-polluting biodegradable polymer as an attractive alternative for current petroleum-based plastics. The material is prepared from cheap and naturally degradable biomass lignin and castor oil-based substances. After several years of use, the resulting degradation end products are environmentally non-toxic. The polymer can be used on its own or blended with other resins to achieve improved, tailor-made features.<br /><br />This material can be used as a replacement for petroleum-based plastics, including:<br />• Bottles<br />• Shopping bags<br />• Fishing nets<br />• Straws<br />• Multi-pack beverage rings</p> <p><strong>Advantages</strong><br />Compared to petroleum-based plastics:<br />• Biomass-based<br />• Biodegradable<br />• Sustainable</p> <p>Compared to other biodegradable plastics such as PLA and PHB:<br />• Biomass source – castor oil and lignin – is not food-based and not subject to global pressures<br />• Recyclable<br />• Low-cost<br />• Can be readily incorporated into existing conventional processes and machinery<br />• Tough, strong, and easily tunable<br />• Totally synthetic manufacturing process</p> Bioplastic,Bioresin,Biodegradable,Green Material,Plastic,Lignin,Castor Oil
Managing Branch Currents in Switches Mischa Steurer 19-022 Michael Tentnowski <p>Within a direct current hybrid circuit breaker (DC HCB), a commutation unit (CU) is provided in a semiconductor switch path in series with a semiconductor switch to facilitate opening the DC HCB. The semiconductor switch path is connected in parallel with a switch path that includes a mechanical switch. The CU is a controlled voltage source which applies a reverse biased voltage on the semi-conductor switch path. The CU causes the current through the mechanical switch to ramp down while the current through the semiconductor switch ramps up to a supply current. The CU maintains the current through the mechanical switch to remain at a zero vale by compensating for the voltage drop across the semi-conductor switch and the self-inductance of the semiconductor switch path. The mechanical switch can open without current and against no recovery voltage.</p> <p> </p>
Active Wave Canceler Hui Li 19-031 Michael Tentnowski <p>A device to solve over voltage issues caused by the reflected wave phenomenon (RWP). A motor drive connected to a motor through long cables can cause the reflection of the electromagnetic wave, resulting a voltage spikes at the motor side that is twice as high as the voltage at the drive side.  This transient over voltage can damage the insulation of the motor or reduce its useful life. The canceler detects rising/following edge of the motor drive and generates a short pulse that breaks the voltage slope so that over voltage at motor side is suppressed.</p>
A Modular Multilevel Duel-Active-Bridge DC-DC Converter Hui Li 16-095 Michael Tentnowski <p>A battery energy storage system (BESS) for medium voltage direct current (MVDC) or high voltage direct current (HVDC) grids or systems. The BESS comprises split-battery units and an isolated DC-DC converter interface connecting the battery units to the MVDC or HVDC system. The isolated BESS converter is a soft-switched modular multilevel dual-active-bridge (DAB) converter which has DC fault rid-through capability. The converters can be single-phase or poly-phase configurations and can be controlled to maintain a desired DC output under normal and DC grid fault conditions.</p>
Halide Perovskite-Polymer Composites for High Energy Photon Detection and Protection Dr. Zhibin Yu 18-048 Michael Tentnowski <p>An FSU researcher created a novel material comprised of halide perovskite crystals embedded in a polymer matrix for radiation blocking and detection. The material is lightweight and lead free. Other materials require expensive and long manufacturing processes, but this novel material can be manufactured in a variety of ways such as solution-based drop casting, hot pressing, melt extrusion, injection molding, and 3D printing, to save time and money. Electrodes can be embedded in the material for passive and accurate x-ray and gamma-ray detection.  </p> <p>Third party independent testing has shown that the material is 50% more effective than current state of the art radiation blocking technology. These semiconducting nanocrystals are uniformly dispersed in the polymer matrix to not only block radiation but also detect high energy radiation.</p>
A Method for Tracking Resin Flow and Optimizing Process Design in Vacuum Assisted Resin Transfer Molding Process Using Test Liquid Pre-Infusion Dr. Richard Liang 07-080 Michael Tentnowski <p>An innovative method to detect fiber preform problems and design optimum resin flow strategy in vacuum assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM) process, a common manufacturing process in composite industry has been created. In this new method, prior to part production, a removable test liquid, such as alcohol, is infused into the production mold with fiber preform laid up inside. The flow pattern of the test liquid is recorded for flow analysis purpose. The test liquid is then removed by vacuum and temperature. As the test liquid flow behavior is similar to that of resin, the acquired test liquid flow pattern information can be used to direct and optimize process design/control of resin flow to eliminate flow-induced defects. For instance, the test liquid flow pattern can be used to detect the locations where defects might occur and the corresponding control action can then be determined for production (resin flow).</p> <p>An advantage of this method is that it does not need any sensors, but instead, uses the low cost test liquid (such as alcohol) to pre-infuse the fiber preform prior to the resin infusion to detect any fiber perform problems and to predict resin flow pattern, through which the optimum resin flow process design can be obtained. The method provides effective and practical technical solutions to facilitate process design and control of VARTM process for defect-free part fabrication. This new method can significantly reduce the manufacturing cost by improving first-time success rate (reducing the defects related wastes/cost). This technique is particularly useful for large and complex part fabrication where flow-induced defects are common in manufacturing.</p>
Improvement of Electromagnetic Interference Shielding through the Optimization of Carbon Nanotube Buckypaper Layup Stacking in Composites Dr. Richard Liang 09-055 Michael Tentnowski <p>FSU researchers created a novel technique to improve the lightweight electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding properties based on preformed thin films or buckypaper layers made of single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT), multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWNT), carbon nanofibers (CNF), and their mixed forms in composites.  Carbon nanotubes are promising material for EMI shielding because of their electrical conducting properties and lighter weight compared to metal. Film materials made of entangled network using carbon nanotubes, called buckypapers (BP), provides free standing films. The film materials are easy to be use and integrate into various structures and composites fabrication processes to reduce manufacturing cost. Nanotube buckypapers can have an areal density from 18.1 g/m<sup>2</sup> to 21.5 g/m<sup>2</sup>, while offering electrical conductivity as high as 50S/cm to 8,000S/cm.</p> <p>To improve the EMI shielding effectiveness (SE), layers of BP were stacked together. The absorption loss increased due to the increased thickness of conducting material since the thickness of individual BP layers is usually less than 30 mm. However, in experiments, the EMI SE does not linearly increase with the increased of number of BP layers directly stacked together. Since the absorption contribution to the total SE is small as a result of directly stacking multiple BP layers together, we discovered a new method to effectively utilize internal multiple reflection effects to further improve the SE. This invention achieves high EMI shielding effectiveness by inserting polymer insulators in between conducting nanotube buckypaper layers in composites.</p>
Method for Making High-Performance Carbon Nanotube Reinforced Polymer Composites through Integrating Alignment and Tailored Degree of Functionality Richard Liang 10-134 Michael Tentnowski <p>This invention provides a novel technique to make high-performance carbon nanotube (CNT) polymer composite through integrating alignment and tailored degree of functionalization of carbon nanotubes. Lack of alignment, weak interface bonding, and low CNT concentration are major obstacles for developing high mechanical performance CNT reinforced composites. The team at FSU has developed several unique techniques to realize alignment and interfacial bonding improvement through chemical functionalization. With the demonstrated alignment and tailored functionalization, record-high mechanical performance of CNT polymeric matric composites can be achieved. Active epoxide groups on CNTs created through the chemical functionalization can react with amine and phenolic hydroxyl groups. Therefore, interfacial bonding between nanotube and matrices, such as epoxy and bismaleimide (BMI) resin, can improve resulting nanocomposites. Specifically, the proper combination of alignment enhancement and tailored functionalization led to record high mechanical and electrical performance. This novel method created high mechanical properties exceeding state-of-the-art carbon fiber composites which are widely sued in aerospace, defense, and sporting goods, etc.</p>
Flexible/embeddable 3D Wire-Shaped Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSCs) in Solid State using Carbon Nanotube Yarns (CNYs) with Hybrid Photovoltaic Structure for Sensing Dr. Okenwa Okoli 14-224 Michael Tentnowski <p>Dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) is a photoelectrochemical (PEC) system based on a semiconductor formation with a photo-sensitized anode, a conductive cathode and an electrolyte. The incorporation of conventional flat cells with FTO substrates may yet prove challenging to the integrity of engineering structures due to their rigid substrates and unavoidable thickness. FSU researchers created hybid flexible wire shaped DSSCs to replace conventional devices with similar functions. These novel structures possess higher flexibility on a smaller scale for novel integration. Moreover, the hybrid sensitizer realize both MEG effects and multiple electron transmission paths, which can improve the cell performance to a large extend.</p> <p>The 3D PY sensor construction is embedded smart composites with intrinsic triboluminescent/mechanoluminescent (TL/ML) features. Hybrid wire-shaped DSSC was developed as PY sensor using as a tool in TL-based structural health monitoring (SHM) system. The current design allows it to capture, convert, and transport light signal for TL events for the detection of damage and in-situ SHM. It also allows for the harvesting of energy in systems.</p> <p>Novel Features:</p> <p>-High flexibility when applying wire-shaped DSSC to replace conventional FTO glass based rigid device.</p> <p>-CNTs are light weight, and exhibit strong mechanical performance, and significant electrical and chemical properties, all which make it competitive when replacing other metal wires in the research.</p> <p>-The combination of two efficient quantum dots (QDs) has been first applied into wire-shaped DSSCs and the effects of QDs have been enlarged when acting in concert with porous TiO2.</p> <p>-All soli- state fabrication method ensures stable mechanical properties and illustrates the simplicity of assembly, which also provides a protection to cell itself.</p> <p>-The novel small size wire shaped DSSC has been proved to maintain stable under various working environment, which is beneficial for future installment and other engineering applications.</p>
Integrated Setup for Continuously Manufacturing Carbon Nanotube Buckypaper Materials Gerald Horne 15-089 Michael Tentnowski <p>A novel custom-designed setup and system to produce high quality continuous carbon nanotube buckypaper (CBP) materials has been created. A fully automated system was developed to produce 6 inch-wide continuous roll-to-roll of buckypaper materials. The technology includes two major engineering designs, consisting of (1) continuous sonication process of high-quality and large quantity CNT suspension preparation, and (2) automation filtration process by preciously controlling the filter membrane movement and the automatically separating the membrane from buckypaper. Our tests resulted in demonstrating that the continuous sonication setup can produce up to 300Uday high quality CNT suspensions and achieved 5 feet per hour or greater production rate of 6 inch-wide continuous buckypaper materials, with an aerial density ol 2-10 GSM (g/m2) buckypaper materials. This production speed is about 10x higher than previous models we developed by implementing a large filtration area and using a high concentration of CNT suspension. The system also features an automatic filter member movement, drying process and CBP/filter member separation fully controlled by Micro PLC Controllers. The system only requires one person to operated, compared to the need at least four people to operate previous prototypes. The system can produce up to 1,000 ft long or longer CBPs and is only limited by the available length of filter members.</p>
Method of Large Scale Fabrication of Continuous CNT Cable/ Sheet with High Conductivity and Stability Richard Liang 17-033 Michael Tentnowski <p> </p> <p>This invention offers a novel technique to fabricate large-scale, lightweight electrically conductive cable using carbon nanotubes (CNTs). CNTs have good intrinsic electrical conductivity. However, entangled structures of CNTs in the form of yam or sheet has lower conductivity due to intertube contact resistance and gaps in between. Lightweight and high electrically conductive CNT materials can be used for cables for such applications as signal or power transmission, electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding in electronic devices and lightning protection in aircraft etc.</p> <p>An integrated approach of three major steps was used to improve the CNT sheet conductivity:</p> <p>1) Mechanical stretching of entangled CNT sheets provides CNT alignment. Random and pristine CNT sheets in rolls were continuously stretched producing narrow and densely packed CNT networks, which reduced intertube contact resistance. With increased alignment, conductivity improved two or three times higher compared to the pristine, randomly aligned CNT sheets. This process can be performed continuously and scale-up production is possible.</p> <p>2) A doping approach increases the carrier concentration of CNTs. For this purpose, vapor phase iodine doping was adopted, which can be expanded to other oxidizing liquids (acids such as HNO3, HCI or SOCh). Upon this chemical doping process, conductivity improved 3-4 times and a final room temperature conductivity of 10,000 <em>Siem </em>(up to 13,000 Siem). The doping process is a typical diffusion process and conductivity saturated after several hours, and its speed is depended on the packing of CNTs and mobility of the dopant and followed by time.</p> <p>3) An approach to coating dramatically increased the cable stability. After doping process, the dopants are diffused out and kept inside the CNT yams/sheets to maintain the conductivity. For this purpose, doped CNT sheets were dipped in air stable conducting polymer, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)poly(styrenesulfonate)(PEDOT:PSS). The thin polymer coating on the surface provides synergetic effects for the conductivity and a protection layer. Different polymer layers, such as polyvinyl ch loride, polyethylene and rubber can also be used as protection layers as for conventional cables.</p>
Deterministic Nucleation for Halide Perovskite Thin Films with Large and Uniform Grains Dr. Zhibin Yu 17-040 Michael Tentnowski <p>In recent years, remarkable optoelectronic properties have been discovered in a group of halide perovskite semiconductors. Their potential to invigorate the current solar cell and light-emitting diode (LED) industries has been demonstrated by achieving very high device efficiencies in relatively short periods. While higher efficiency records are pursued, an equally important task is to improve their device reliability. So far, most reported perovskite solar cells and LEDs employed a polycrystalline thin film for light absorbing or light emitting purposes. The size of the grains in such films typically varied from sub-100 nanometers to a few micrometers. The high density of grain boundary defects can trap charge carriers and aid the diffusion of water molecules and ionic species in the perovskites, deteriorating their structural integrity and transportation properties in long-term applications.</p> <p>We recently have invented a new process enabling the formation of perovskite thin films with a ultra-large and uniform grain size. The large grain size will significantly reduce the density of grain boundaries, and the films perform nearly the same as single crystalline materials. In addition, the simple solution process in our approach will potentially more practical to scaled up for future high throughput industrial production. The new discovery is based on our scientific understanding to precisely control the nucleation sites and nucleation densities of halide perovskites during film formation on a substrate.</p> <p>Our halide perovskite thin films with large and uniform grains can exhibit enhanced structural and morphological stability in ambient air. For instance, efficient LEDs had been made with our methylammonium lead tribromide films after exposing them in air for three months without encapsulation. Our halide perovskite thin films also showed greatly reduced ionic migration tendency under an external electrical field. Photo-detectors had been fabricated using our methylammonium lead triiodide films. The devices exhibited 10 times lower dark current at a constant applied voltage compared to devices with conventional halide perovskite thin films that were processed using previously reported methods. In addition, no measurement hysteresis was observed in our halide perovskite thin films when a dynamic voltage was applied at both dark and illuminated conditions.</p>
Lightweight and Flexible Heat Sink from Carbon Nanotube Sheet Dr. Richard Liang 18-028 Michael Tentnowski <p>FSU researchers created a lightweight and flexible heat sink based on carbon nanotube (CNT) sheet which can also be expanded to other lightweight sheets such as graphene and boron nitride free-standing sheets. CNTs have good electrical and thermal conductivity with large surface to volume ratio due to its nanostructures and these properties are good for heat dissipation. Compared to the conventional aluminum heat sink or copper heat pipes, CNT sheets are more lightweight and have more flexibility; this reduces the manufacturing cost and makes it possible for versatile application with easier shape deformations.</p> <p>Different CNTs can be used for free-standing sheet fabrication either multi-walled CNT and/or double-walled CNT. Entangled CNT structures show voids and large surface area and this also increase the convective heat dissipation in addition to the thermal conduction. Also the novel heat sink design has increased surface area to enhance the convective heat dissipation and flexible CNT sheet can increase the design freedom of the heat sink with higher number of fins for larger surface area for convection. Furthermore, the overall thermal conductivity is low.</p>
A Method for Making Ultralow Platinum Loading and High Durability Membrane Electrode Assembly for PEMFCS Dr. Jim Zheng 18-032 Garrett Edmunds <p>FSU researchers have created a method of making membrane electrode assembly (MEA) which has following characteristics:</p> <p>(1) the unique microstructure and well-connected nanotubes network ensures a high electron conductivity</p> <p>(2) the platinum group metal (PGM) nanoparticles are de posited electrochemically in a liquid solution on the outermost surface area of an established porous CNT/CNF buckypaper network such that the locations of these nanoparticles are accessible by both electrons and gas</p> <p>(3) the surfaces of deposited PGM nanoparticles and buckypaper network are coated in a layer of Nafion electrolyte using electrophoretic deposition (EPD) in a Nafion monomer solution and combined with  the liquid dropping method, in order for the PGM nanoparticles to be accessible by protons.</p> <p>This method provides a novel approach to fabrication of the “ideal” membrane electrode assembly (MEA) in which most of the platinum group metal (PGM) catalytic particles are located at sites that satisfy the triple-phrase boundary (THB) condition and maximize the PGM usage.</p>
Electro-Coating Method for Uniform Layer Thickness of Perovskite Material on Carbon Wire-Shaped Substrates Dr. Okenwa Okoli 18-035 Michael Tentnowski <p>This novel method allows the individual to predictably and repeatably coat semi-conductive wire shaped materials (such as carbon nano-tube yarn (CNY)) with perovskite solution (CH3NH3Pb13). Perovskite is a rising star in the photo-voltaic community. With the research community rushing to bring 2D planar perovskite solar cells to market, coating/manufacturing methods for 3D structures have been left behind. Controllable and uniform heating of the substrate is necessary for a high-quality perovskite layer. Due to the complex 3D geometry of wires, the repeatable control and uniform heating of CNYs has not been possible until this method was created. Here we use Joule Heating to accurately and stably control the temperature of the wire in order achieve a uniform perovskite layer. Not only does this method add control and repeatability to the process, but it is also more energy efficient than any other published method. This makes this process ideal for scalable research applications and eventually industrial fabrication of wire-shaped perovskite LEDs, photo-detectors, and solar cells.</p> <p>Advantages:</p> <p>- Uses less energy than other methods, making it a strong candidate for scalable manufacturing as perovskite solar cells continue to rise in efficiency and performance.</p> <p>- Provides instant heating and cooling to the substrate using Joule heating.</p> <p>- Allows for the instantaneous control over heating of the substrate by merely adjusting the power source.</p>
Contactless Power Converter Age Detector Yanjun Shi 20-045 Michael Tentnowski <p>A measurement method/device that measures the acoustic noise near an operating power converter and predicts the remaining useful life of the converter. The acoustic noise is generated by the switching events of power semiconductors. Compared with the state-of-the-art aging detection or failure detection methods, this method does not require inserting a special-designed detection circuit near the power switches.</p>
Active Adaptive Low-Pass Filter Control for Power Electronic Converters Yanjun Shi 21-057 Michael Tentnowski <p><span>A digital control method that builds on the principle of active damping using a virtual memristor low pass filter which adjusts the cutoff frequency based on the output voltage in a way such that adaptive response to transient features is achieved.  Implementation is done by linearizing the equations governing the behavior of a memristor and directly programming the control algorithm onto a digital signal processor.  Greater stable operation area is covered by the controller, as opposed to conventional active damping control.</span></p>
Data-Driven Recirculating Aquaculture System Moses Anubi 21-055 Michael Tentnowski <p>A recirculating aquaculture system with a data-driven control strategy that improves the growth rate of cultured species (ex: shrimp, tilapia), minimizes required feed, reduces water consumption by improving waste removal from recirculating water, and provides robustness against uncertainty and disturbances. The system uses low-cost and readily available sensors to obtain estimates of concentrations of hard to measure target parameters such as ammonia, nitrate, nitrite, chemical oxygen demand, and phosphate).  It is controlled in real-time using data-driven (including machine learning) algorithms.</p> <p>In addition to the main culture tank, the system houses bioreactors for nitrification and denitrification in the waste removal process. The type of reactor varies but may include a mixed bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) and an anaerobic suspend growth reactor or sequencing batch reactor (SBR). These reactors are equipped with sensors and dosing pumps to cultivate a monitored biomass (biofloc). An intelligent control strategy is constructed from measurement data to optimize the waste removal ability of the biomass and to track reference setpoints which can be sized appropriately to feed plants in an aquaponics or hydroponics operation. The purpose of this design is to create a semi-automated method to continuously monitor and control aquaculture systems for maximum food production.</p>
Organic Photovoltaic Materials for Mechanoluminescence Sensing and Structural Health Monitoring Okenwa Okoli 22-052 Michael Tentnowski <p>Structural health monitoring (SHM) is an essential tool for ensuring safety and integrity while detecting the progression of damage within engineering structures to estimate expected failure.1-4 This is usually done over time through periodically sampled response measurements to monitor changes in material and geometrical properties of a given system. Take a commercial aircraft, for example, that usually travels at around 580 MPH. Any impact at this speed could cause damage to the material.  If it goes unnoticed, then it will progress and further risk ultimate failure or the lives of that on-board.5 Because of situations like this, there is a demand for a real-time SHM device within damage-prone systems.  A proposed idea to meet the demand is a flexible mechanoluminescent (ML)-organic photodiode. The device consists of a photodiode constructed on top of an ML layer which emits light when it experiences some mechanical action, such as pressure.</p> <p>Organic photovoltaic (OPV) materials can be used as a photo-absorbing layer for ML light. This OPV layer is made up of a blend of donor polymer, poly (3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl (P3HT), and non-fullerene acceptor (BTP-4F or Y6). The broad ultraviolet-visible to near-infrared light absorption and excellent charge transport efficiency make P3HT:Y6 active materials a promising alternative as the light absorbing layer to detect photon emission from the ML layer in flexible organic photodiodes for sensing and SHM. The pressure sensor is a vertical device structure of indium tin oxide (ITO)/tin oxide (SnO2)/P3HT:Y6/silver (Ag) electrode. The current-voltage measurements revealed that the P3HT:Y6 OPVs exhibited an excellent rectification ratio.  When this technology is coupled with a software and data acquisition system, sensor’s data can be received and interpreted</p> <ul> <li>Advantages:</li> <li>The response time measurement demonstrated that the device has an impressive response speed. The three-point bending test unveiled that the pressure sensor possesses excellent stability after several cycles.   </li> </ul>
Tensegrity Adaptive-Geometry Wave Energy Converter (TAGWEC) Kourosh Shoele 22-043 Garrett Edmunds <p>The proposed device is a novel wave energy harvesting system with shape-changing capabilities intended to increase system survivability during extreme weather, increase energy generation, and facilitate large-scale deployment. The device consists of a floating buoy connected to a submerged reaction plate by a spar. The relative motion of the buoy and reaction plate, caused by water waves, generates electric power through a power-take-off system. The novelty of the proposed design lies in the changing geometry capability through tensegrity. Devices designed using tensegrity principles are lightweight and deformable, having the ability to quickly toggle between shape configurations with low actuation cost. These characteristics allow for ease of stowage and deployment in addition to enhanced wave-energy converter (WEC) performance and lifetime. The efficiency of this floating-point absorber WEC concept can be significantly increased by incorporating an automatic control that optimizes the relative motion between device components, i.e., the buoy and reaction plate. This control scheme tunes the oscillation of the device to the incident wave elevation by changing the size and shape of the device components, maximizing the power transfer from the wave to the device. The invention constitutes the tensegrity design with accompanying control scheme.  The novelty of the proposed design lies in the changing geometry capability through tensegrity. The invention constitutes the tensegrity design with accompanying control scheme.</p> <p> </p> <p>Advantages:</p> <ul> <li>The efficiency of this floating-point absorber WEC concept can be significantly increased by incorporating an automatic control that optimizes the relative motion between device components.</li> <li>This control scheme tunes the oscillation of the device to the incident wave elevation by changing the size and shape of the device components, maximizing the power transfer from the wave to the device.</li> </ul>
Manufacturing of Polymer Derived Ceramic Composites with High Thermal Shock Resistance Zhibin Yu 22-040 Michael Tentnowski <p>Ceramics and their composites are demanded for high temperature and extreme environment applications. However, they are brittle and easy to crack especially upon mechanical shock and thermal shock. We discovered that by incorporating nanotube/nanowire fillers and following the manufacturing procedure in this invention, high performance ceramic composites can be obtained with greatly enhanced mechanical shock resistance and thermal shock resistance. The composite can also be rapidly fabricated with 10-50 times improvement of manufacturing throughput.</p> <p>Advantages:</p> <ul> <li>Improved speed in manufacturing without cracking and deformation</li> </ul>
Bioreactor for Continuously Metabolizing 1,4-Dioaxane to Less Than a Half Microgram Per Liter Youneng Tang 22-034 Garrett Edmunds <p>1,4-Dioxane is a contaminant of emerging concern.  It is found above the health-based reference level (0.35 microgram/liter) in 6.9% of the U.S. public water systems. It is also found in many sites on the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) National Priorities List (NPL).  Bioreactors that are filled with adsorbent for biofilm attachment are widely utilized for water treatment.  They have been studied for 1,4-dioxane removal.  In such reactors, biofilms continuously metabolize 1,4-dioxane to harmless forms by respiring oxygen.  Existing bioreactors are not able to remove 1,4-dioxane to close to the health-based reference level.  The main reason is that the environmentally relevant 1,4-dioxane concentrations (&amp;lt; tens of microgram/liter) cannot sustain growth of microbes. </p> <p>This invention adds a screen above the adsorbent in the bioreactor, which is operated in the up-flow mode.  The screen retained the detached biofilm that would have been out of the reactor.  By accumulating biomass, the reactor was able to degrade 1,4-dioxane to &amp;lt;0.5 microgram/liter, which is the detection limit of the equipment in the researchers’ laboratory.  The combination of a medium empty bed retention time and a low influent 1,4-dioxane concentration also plays a critical role in the success of the bioreactor. </p> <p>Advantages</p> <ul> <li>The bioreactor can be directly used to treat contaminated water.</li> <li>It can also be used to enrich 1,4-dioxane-metabolizing microbes.</li> <li>These can then be injected into contaminated sites through bioaugmentation for in-situ remediation.</li> </ul>
Cellulose Nanocrystals for Starter Plugs Gang Chen 22-015 Garrett Edmunds <p>Plant starter plugs are popularly used in urban farming, especially for aeroponics, hydroponics, and aquaponics. They are small, compact mass of solid growing media for seed germination and their sponge-like consistency protects the delicate root structures of young plants to ensure safe transplanting into soil or soil-less growth media. Plant starter plugs provide a starter charge of nutrients to stimulate fast and healthy root growth and moisture control is crucial for their success. Water needs to be added appropriately so that the seed will germinate. Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) have the capacity to extract moisture from the atmosphere. If CNCs are used as components of plant starter plugs, moisture can be maintained with vapor water extracted from the atmosphere to meet the seed germination needs without watering the plugs. The use of CNCs for plant starter plugs depends largely on the source, composition, crystal and pore structure, and the preparation or fabrication method. CNCs can be designed for specific needs and moisture stability to meet the specific requirements.</p> <p>Advantages</p> <ul> <li>Fast and healthy root growth</li> <li>Useable in remote areas</li> </ul>
Interface Engineering for Flexible Radiation Shielding Composites with High Attenuation Zhibin Yu 22-009 Michael Tentnowski <p>Numerous materials have been used for radiation protection.  For example, radiation protection materials have been used in articles of clothing, such as gloves, but such materials typically include relatively low concentration of particles, such as concentrations of up to 80 %, by weight, of embedded particles.  Greater concentrations have not been used, because doing so makes it difficult, if not impossible, to maintain suitable flexibility of the materials.   There remains a need for flexible radiation shielding composite materials with high attenuation, including materials that can maintain a desired degree of flexibility at relatively high particle concentrations.  </p> <p> </p> <p>This invention embodies composite materials including bismuth oxide that may be flexible and include relatively high particle loadings.  These composite materials, therefore, may be flexible, and have very high attenuation properties per unit thickness and/or per unit weight.  The potential uses are improved flexible and stretchable radiation protection material which have potential uses in clothing, gloves, and more.</p> <p> </p> <p>Advantages</p> <ul> <li>Very high loading concentration of inorganic particles in an elastic polymer matrix.</li> <li>Demonstrated high radiation attenuation without damaging mechanical flexibility.</li> </ul>
Estimation of fugitive Landfill Methane Emissions using Drone-Based Surface emission Monitoring and GA Optimization Tarek Abichou and Nizar Bel Haj Ali 21-049 Garrett Edmunds <p>The algorithm identifies positions of leakage sources and to quantify the gas emission rate from the surface of a landfill. An optimization-based approach using Genetic Algorithms (GA) is employed to solve the inverse problem that consists of identifying source data (locations of hot-spots and corresponding emission rates) having only receptor location and surface measurements as input data. Single and multi-objective optimization schemes through GAs are used with surface methane concentration data along with wind speed and wind direction during the monitoring campaign.  This is the measurement data. The optimization methodology uses atmospheric dispersion calculations to predict major methane emissions sources in a landfill. The total emissions of the landfill are then estimated by summing all of the methane sources predicted by the algorithm.</p> <p>Advantages</p> <ul> <li>More accurate calculations</li> <li>Quicker calculations</li> </ul>
Self-Mated Ultralow Wear Perfluoropolymer Composites Brandon Krick 21-042 Michael Tentnowski <p>An ultralow wear material pairing for dry/unlubricated sliding and bearing.  Ultralow wear perfluoropolymer-based composites have been realized in the form of a perfluoropolymers filled with organic and inorganic fillers. These systems are typically reported for sliding against steel and other metal countersamples. The present invention considers a paired system in which a low wear perfluoropolymer composite is slid against another perfluoropolymer composite.  This  resulted in a lower wear rate than either system against the traditional steel countersample. This is the first time these systems have been proposed, tested and measured. </p> <p>Advantages</p> <ul> <li>Significantly improves the wear rate and/or friction coefficient of already ultralow wear perfluoropolymer composite systems.</li> <li>the steady state wear rate after 1 million sliding cycles in a standard experiment is significantly reduced</li> </ul>
Microwave-Mediated Biochar-Hydrogel Composite Synthesis Gang Chen 21-025 Michael Tentnowski <p>Microwave-mediated biochar and biochar-hydrogel composite production can provide an energy-efficient, timesaving, and environmentally friendly way for the synthesis of biochar and biochar-hydrogel composite. Microwave-mediated pyrolysis and polymerization are creating an alternative to the current methods of biochar and biochar-hydrogel composite synthesis. This invention includes microwave-mediated pyrolysis, polymerization and polymer modification. The rapid dipole rotation prompted by microwave irradiation introduces energy to the involved chemical reactions more efficiently.  This significantly speeds up these chemical processes. Unlike conventional thermal heating, microwave irradiation can be performed at deliberately chosen temperatures in shifts.  The reaction equilibrium and kinetics of the absorption of radiation is temperature independent. This process can also achieve stable thermodynamic properties of polymers with no further influence on other reactions.  This helps to avoid the deformation of these polymers. </p> <p>Advantages</p> <ul> <li>Microwave-mediated biochar and biochar-hydrogel composite synthesis reactions are simple to operate with limited additives.</li> <li>It is also space efficient and can largely reduce processing costs.</li> <li>The produced biochar and biochar-hydrogel composite are popularly used in agricultural to conserve water and nutrients in response to climate change.</li> <li>The waste can be used as feedstocks for the biochar and biochar-hydrogel composite synthesis.</li> <li>This invention can be useful in various agricultural applications.</li> </ul>
A Rapid Laboratory Testing Protocol to Evaluate Pavement Interlayer System Qian Zhang 21-024 Garrett Edmunds <p>The invention is a small-scale lab testing protocol, including testing apparatus, testing procedures, and data analysis procedures, for rapid and accurate evaluation of the performance of interlayer products and other treatment methods on delaying or suppressing the reflective cracking. The testing protocol will utilize bench-scale specimens and consider various effects of temperature and traffic loadings and load transfer coefficient on the performance of the pavement repair system.</p> <p>Advantages</p> <ul> <li>Quicker testing time</li> <li>Small scale environment is all that is needed.</li> </ul>
A System for Removing Trichloroethane, Trichloroethene, and 1,4-Dioaxane from Contaminated Wastewater Bruce Rittman 20-056 Garrett Edmunds <p>This invention relates to a synergistic system featuring coupled precious-metal catalysis and biodegradation in series.  It contains methods for forming catalyst-film capable of removing TCA and TCE.  It contains methods for forming ethane-oxidizing biofilm capable of 1,4-dioxane biodegradation.  It contains methods for removing TCA, TCE, and 1,4-D using the synergistic system containing a reactor with catalysts followed by a reactor with microorganisms.  In a certain embodiment, the system comprises a membrane, a catalyst-precursor medium, a microorganism-enrichment medium, an inoculant comprising a biofilm-forming population of microorganisms, and a hydrogen-gas source along with an oxygen-gas source.</p> <p>Advantages</p> <ul> <li>State-of-the-art technology that removes TCA, TCE 1,4-dioxane which cannot be done solely by chemical or biological processes.</li> <li>Easy yet accurate method of chemical regulation to mitigate these chemical toxins.</li> </ul>
Calcium-Resistant Clay-Polymer Liner for Containment of Aggressive Leachates Tarek Abiochou 20-046 Garrett Edmunds <p>There is a need for soil-based liner systems in containment facilities as an alternative to compacted clay liners to control groundwater contamination from leaches.  Geosynthetic Clay Liners (GCL’s) made with bentonite have been widely used in these applications.  However, bentonite only GCL’s are not effective for calcium-rich leachates such as waste from energy power plants, leachates from coal-ash by-products, and leachates from mining operations.</p> <p>The industry has developed “Polymer-Modified” GCL’s containing bentonite and water-soluble polymers.  Some of these new products seem to work only when the ionic strength of the leachates is below a certain value.  These polymers also elute from the GCL (leave the GCL) when permeated with harsher leachates.  This can lead to even higher permeabilities.</p> <p>We have developed a mix of granular bentonite and a specific super-absorbent polymer that can be used to manufacture a new generation of Geosynthetic Clay Liners.  The polymer is resistant to aggressive leachates that are rich in divalent cations.  The polymer used in the new mix design does not elute from the GCL substrate.  Therefore, it maintains low permeability in the long-term.  There is no product currently on the market that can achieve the performance of our new design with this new polymer at its base.</p> <p>Advantages</p> <ul> <li>The polymer is resistant to aggressive leachates that are rich in divalent cations.</li> <li>The polymer used in the new mix design does not elute from the GCL substrate.</li> <li>Therefore, it maintains low permeability in the long-term.</li> </ul>
Multi-Axially Force/Torque Controlled Rating Leg Assembly for Vehicle Drive and Suspension Christian Hubicki 20-009 Michael Tentnowski <p>This device is designed to drive ground vehicles at high speeds and safely over rough and uncertain terrain.  An actuated wheel rotates an arrangement of actuated leg-like contact linkages where both the wheel and each leg mechanism are force/torque controllable at high speeds.  This multi-axial force/torque controllability enables a smooth ride for a mounted vehicle chassis, even over unseen rough terrain and at high speeds.  In effect, a rider on a force-torque controlled vehicle can be made to feel as though they are floating on air, even as the vehicle clamors over rocky ground terrain underneath. </p> <p>Advantages</p> <ul> <li>Applications include better maneuverability for high-speed military vehicles, all-terrain emergency vehicles, medical patient transport, package delivery, and interplanetary exploration.</li> </ul>
A Predictive-control based Low-voltage Ride-through Method for Grid-tied Inverter Hui Li 23-005 Michael Tentnowski <p>Two predictive-control based low-voltage ride-through methods for a grid-tied Inverter: a Finite-Control-Set Model-Predictive-Control or FCS-MPC based LVRT method, and a deadbeat control based LVRT method.  Both methods can predict the grid voltage, so no voltage sensor is required.  The control can operate with, or without, a phase-lock-loop.  A significant cost and design complexity reduction on the grid-tied inverter is realized.</p>
Charge Pump Gate Driver Circuit with an Adjustable Pump Voltage for Active DV/DT Control Hui Li 23-006 Michael Tentnowski <p>A charge pump gate driver circuit that provides an adjustable pump voltage level to achieve the active dv/dt control for wide bandgap devices.  The driver circuit has two power supplies, which provides positive and negative reference voltages, two separate charge pump circuits with two capacitors, and a typical totem-pole drive with two decoupling capacitors.  This achieves an online and active dv/dt regulation and eliminates extra power supplies to reduce cost and associated footprint.</p>
Universal Power Electronics Building Block (U-PEBB) Based Delta-Connected Cascade Multilevel Converter Fang Peng 23-030 Michael Tentnowski <p>A multilevel converter consisting of a bi-directional and isolated ac to dc converter module using commercial semiconductor devices.  With a very high-power density, the converter system is configured directly from a medium voltage grid by plug-and-play for solid state transformers to extreme fast charging stations to grid-tied converters that interface with renewable energy, storage elements, static synchronous compensators, and static var compensators. Manufacturing and installation costs are reduced significantly.</p>
Dual Multilevel Inverter Topology with Reduced Switch Count and Small DC-link Capacitor Jinyeong Moon 21-036 Michael Tentnowski <p>A multilevel inverter topology that provides multilevel operation without a neutral point connection. With no split dc-link capacitors, the neutral point balancing issue is completely eliminated. Instead, the neutral points of the phase-legs are interconnected through a single bidirectional switch. This topology reduces the required number of switches for dual inverter operations. All critical benefits of multilevel operation (e.g., low current total harmonic distortion, low switching loss, low common-mode electromagnetic interference noise, and low motor iron loss) are intact. The topology also offers a reduction in the dc-link capacitance up to 90%. Compared to a dual 2-level inverter, the invention with the same capacitance produces 50% less stress in the capacitor current and 50% less ripple in the capacitor voltage due to the multilevel operation without neutral point connections. The invention enables the same level of ripple performance with only 46% of the capacitance required in the dual 2-level topology leading significant cost and volume reductions.</p>