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Name Investigator Tech ID Licensing Manager Name Micensing Manager Email Description Tags
Fully Printable Halide Perovskite Light-Emitting Diodes Zhibin Yu 16-064 Abby Queale <p>Organometal halide perovskites (Pero) have been well known for their astounding opto-electronic properties and in their utilizations in photovoltaic cells and light emitting diodes (LEDs). They are highly efficient, have low processing temperatures, and are cost effective. For Pero solar cells, the highest power conversion efficiency has reached about 20%, which approaches the best efficiencies of thin film solar cells. With continuing efforts to improve device efficiency and operational stability, the next challenge is to develop Pero solar cells and LEDs using a scalable printing technique to fulfill the promise of large scale, low cost devices.</p> <p>The present technology is first to develop printed Pero LEDs on rigid indium tin oxide (ITO)/glass and flexible carbon nanotubes (CNTs)/polymer substrates. The devices have ITO or CNTs as the transparent anode, a printed composite film consisting of methyl ammonium lead tri-bromide (Br-Pero) and polyethylene oxide (PEO) as the emissive layer, and printed silver nanowires as the cathode. The printing process can be carried out in air without any deliberate control of humidity; in fact, printing the PEO/Br-Pero in air actually improves its photoluminescence properties. The light intensity, turn-on voltage, and maximum luminescence compare favorably to existing Pero LEDs that are made of multi-layer structures which are formed by more complex fabrication techniques.</p> <p>For more information, please see publication <a href="" target="_blank">here</a>.</p> <h2>Applications:</h2> <ul> <li>Scalable manufacturing of Pero <span class="small">based</span> opto-electronic devices for various surfaces</li> </ul> <h2><span class="small"> </span></h2> <p> </p>
Fast Dynamic Parallel Approximate Neighbor Search Data Structure Using Space Filling Curves Piyush Kumar 16-096 Matthieu Dumont <p>The nearest neighbor search (NNS) is a technique that is used in computing to optimize the amount of time it takes to accurately locate one data point in relation to another data point in a dataset that is organized so that distances between points are measured in Euclidian space. Increasingly, NNS computation is becoming a key sub-task in many algorithms and applications that are used to process, organize, cluster, learn, and understand massive data sets, such as those used in the automotive, aerospace, and geographic information system (GIS) industries.</p> <h2>The Problem:</h2> <p>The NNS algorithm works well for small data sets, but it is too time-consuming to implement with large data sets. The approximate nearest neighbor (ANN) search, an alternative to NNS, improves search time and saves memory by estimating the nearest neighbor, without guaranteeing that the actual nearest neighbor will be returned in every case. Two limitations of this method are that it is difficult to make an ANN algorithm dynamic (i.e., allows for insertions and deletions in the data structure) or to parallelize it (i.e., use multiple processors to speed up queries).</p> <h2>The Solution:</h2> <p>Dr. Kumar and his research team are developing a novel, practical, and theoretically-sound method that will solve the NNS problem in lower dimensional spaces. Specifically, the researchers are creating an approximate k-nearest neighbor algorithm, based on Morton Sorting of points, to create a software library for approximate nearest neighbor searches for Euclidian spaces. The library will use multi-core machines efficiently (parallel) and enable the insertion and deletion of points at run time (dynamic). This new algorithm delivers the search results with expected logarithmic query times that are competitive with or exceed Mount’s approximate nearest neighbor (ANN) search.</p> <h2>Advantages:</h2> <ul> <li>Speed on multicore machines</li> <li><span>Minimum spanning tree computation</span></li> </ul>
Method to Elucidate Molecular Structure from Momentum Transfer Cross Section Christian Bleiholder 17-008 Matthieu Dumont <p>Ion mobility spectrometry-mass spectrometry (IMS-MS) is ideally suited to study co-existing, transient conformations of proteins and their complexes related to diseases because of its high sensitivity and speed of MS analysis.</p> <p>Many existing results suggest that IMS-MS could accurately elucidate structures for these protein conformations in a high-throughput manner.</p> <p>The present technology identifies how protein tertiary structures can be determined from IMS-MS data in an automated manner.</p> <h2>Advantages:</h2> <ul> <li>IMS-MS requires a fraction of sample amounts and time</li> <li>Does not suffer from charge-state dependent protein dynamics in the gas phase</li> <li>Computationally efficient</li> <li>Automatized</li> </ul> <p><span>Click here to watch an interview with Dr. Bleiholder: <span class="fa fa-caret-square-o-right"></span><span class="fa fa-blind"></span><span class="fa fa-check-circle"></span><span class="fa fa-hand-o-right"></span><a href=""></a></span></p>
CNN Filters for Noise Estimation and Improved Denoising in Low-Light Noisy Images Adrian Barbu 17-019 Matthieu Dumont <p>The proposed invention is a system and method for training a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) to predict a tuning parameter to be used in an existing image denoising method (called BM3D) to obtain best possible denoising results on images obtained by digital cameras in low-light conditions. The performance of the BM3D denoising algorithm varies with this tuning parameter.</p> <p>In this work we present a method to predict the best parameter value for each image patch and we observe that using this prediction we obtain better results than using a fixed parameter value for all images.</p> <p>There are many image denoising methods available today. However, they are trained and tested on artificial noise. According to our observations, when it comes to images corrupted by real low light noise the BM3D method works best. Our work takes the BM3D method and enhances it by predicting what its tuning parameter should be for each image patch being denoised.</p> <p>This technology could be directly sold to consumers in the form of an app or embedded in a mobile phone or digital camera.</p> <p> </p>
Preparation of Expanded Polyaromatics Dr. Igor Alabugin 15-220 Dr. Matthieu Dumont <p>Current methods utilized to synthesize crowded polyaromatic architecture often use strategies that demand stringent design to achieve control over the size and substitution of the product. The proposed technique addresses this challenge by using a robust and flexible cyclization method in which a functional handle is installed during the reaction sequence to offer means for further extensions and functionalization.</p> <p>The present invention is an efficient process to prepare synthetically challenging large distorted aromatics. The new approach developed at Florida State University efficiently transforms enynes into polyaromatic structures of precise dimensions and tunable electronic properties, solving the problem of selectivity in cascades aimed at the preparation of polyaromatic structures from conjugated enynes.</p> <p>The overall process incorporates an unprecedented sequence in which chemo-and regioselective interaction of the triple bond with Bu<sub>3</sub>Sn radicals originates from a conceptually novel source and propagates in such a way that renders alkenes synthetic equivalents of alkyns. By coupling the cyclization/rearrangement cascade with an aromatizing C-C bond fragmentation, the net result is a convenient transformation of readily available enyne reactants to a-Sn substituted naphthalenes that can serve as a lauching platform for the preparation of extended distorted polyaromatics.</p> <p>The key challenge that had remained in the design of radical cascades was achieving control over chemoselectivity of initial radical attack and the subsequent cyclization mode. We resolved these problems by using the first radical enyne cascade in which chemo- and regioselective interaction of the triple bond with Bu<sub>3</sub>Sn radicals originates from a novel 1,2 metallotropic shift.</p> <p>The use of alkenes assists in the elimination of a radical leaving group via scission at the end of the cascade, aromatizing the final product without the need for external oxidants. This selective radical transformation opens a new approach for the controlled transformation of enynes into polycyclic distorted aromatics of tunable dimensions.</p> <h2>Advantages:</h2> <ul> <li>The feasibility with which the scission of strong C-C bonds is accomplished under mild conditions.</li> <li>Provides a convenient and efficient method to synthesize large distorted aromatics and polycyclic ribbons of tunable dimensions.</li> <li>Installation of Bu<sub>3</sub>Sn at a specific position and conversion of readily available enynes into highly valuable a-Sn naphthalene derivatives in high yields in a single cascade step</li> </ul>
Facile Conversion of Red Phosphorous to Soluble Polyphosphide Anions by Reaction with Potassium Ethoxide Dr. Michael Shatruk 16-087 Dr. Matthieu Dumont <p><span>Activation of phosphorus is an important process for the preparation of semiconductors and low-dimensional electronic materials. The industry, in general, uses white phosphorus, which is hazardous and should be stored under water due to its spontaneous flammability in air. Activation of red phosphorus, which is a more stable polymorph of the element, is usually done by high-temperature reactions with metals in sealed evacuated tubes. However, this process is expensive and difficult to scale up.</span></p> <p><span>We have discovered a methodology to activated red phosphorus using inexpensive potassium ethoxide in ethanol. The reaction can be performed with mild heating and provides access to soluble polyphosphide species, which can be used to explore further chemistry of phosphorus in solution, without the need to use white phosphorus. Moreover, we showed that this process can be easily scaled up using flow chemistry approaches.</span></p> <p><span>For more information: </span><a href="">Chemists Discover a Safe, Green Method to Process Red Phosphorus</a></p> <p><a href="" target="_blank">red-wonder FSU chemists pave the way of phosphorus revolution</a></p> <p><i>Angew. Chem. Int. Ed.</i> 2016, DOI: <a href="" title="Facile Conversion of Red Phosphorus into Soluble Polyphosphide Anions">10.1002/anie.201511186</a></p> phosphorene,black phosphorus
Reproducible Random Number Generation using Unpredictable Random Numbers Michael Mascagni 16-103 Matthieu Dumont <p>The use of random numbers in simulation is widespread, and is crucial in a large number of applications. In simulation, it is equally important that applications using random numbers are reproducible. The requirement of reproducibility is important for many reasons:</p> <ol> <li>Code development and debugging would be nearly impossible without reproducible random numbers</li> <li>Many simulation applications require absolute reproducibility in certification situations, such as those mandated by the Nuclear Regulator Commission</li> <li>Publication in many journals now has a code reproducible mandate, such as the ACM Transactions on Mathematical Software.</li> </ol> <p>This has led to many new, and very capable random numbers designed primarily for cryptographic use, and hence are unpredictable, to be deemed inadequate for simulation purposes. One such generator, the Intel digital random number generator (DRNG) is of particular note, and served as Dr. Mascagni’s inspiration.</p> <p>In the Scalable Parallel Random Number Generators (SPRNG) library that Dr. Mascagni developed, one has the capability to produce independent full-period random number streams based on parameterization. The parameter can be thought of as a very long integer, and SPRNG currently assigns parameters to steams. One can use an unpredictable RNG to produce the parameters in SPRNG, and by augmenting the SPRNG RNG data structure, this can be done in a reproducible way. The reproducibility will be of the so-called forensic type, and reproducing the results will require the use and design of extra software to collect the parameters used in a computation, and to stage a new computation with the same parameters.</p> <h2>Advantages:</h2> <ul> <li>All current Intel and AMD processors have an interface to the RdRAND function, which produces the unpredictable random values. Thus, this would provide a reproducible generator for a wide variety of machines, and would permit parallel and distributed computing without the need for message passing, as the Native RdRAND function can be used independently.</li> </ul>
Microfluidic Sample Preparation Device for Electron Microscopy Dr. Michael Roper and Dr. Scott Stagg 15-230 Dr. Matthieu Dumont <p>Cryogenic electron microscopy (cryoEM) is quickly becoming a routine method in the determination of high-resolution structures of biological molecules. However, for most samples before cryoEM data can be collected, the sample quality and heterogeneity must first be characterized using negative staining. Conventionally, EM grids are prepared by hand and, as such, variability is introduced due to user-to-user differences. The variability of the staining can have large effects on the final stained sample, ultimately hindering the resolution, image processing, and data analysis.</p> <p>A microfluidic platform is presented for preparing negatively stained grids for use in transmission electron microscopy (EM). The microfluidic device is composed of glass etched with readily fabricated features that facilitate the extraction of the grid post staining and maintains the integrity of the sample. The device allows for sealing of an electron microscopy grid, facile and reproducible delivery of a sample, followed by delivery of subsequent solutions that could be negative stains or other biological samples. The device houses the EM grid in an outlined chamber with an access point below the grid for gentle and easy recovery of the EM grid. The fluid is directed to the grid using the integrated channels of the microfluidic system.</p> <p>Utilization of this device simultaneously reduced environmental contamination on the grids and improved the homogeneity of the heavy metal stain needed to enhance visualization of biological specimens as compared to conventionally prepared EM grids.</p> <p>High-magnification images from grids prepared by the microfluidic system showed similar image qualities as those prepared by hand. With this methodology for housing the grid, opportunities are abound for more integrated systems using elastomeric materials for incorporation of valving and other microfluidic features. For example, this system can subsequently be complemented with gradient generators or multianalyte perfusion and reaction timers to study both multivariable interactions as well as reaction kinetics. This proof</p> <p>of principle paves the way for future added layers of complexity that can be used to uniquely investigate structural biology dynamics.</p> <h2>Advantages:</h2> <ul> <li>User friendly</li> <li>Reproducibility</li> <li>Parallel/high throughput</li> <li>Results have been published in Analytical Chemistry (Roper, 2016, American Chemical Society Publications) and led to multiple requests by research groups offering to beta test the prototype.</li> <li>Straightforward manufacturing</li> </ul> <p>For further reading, please visit:</p> <p><a href=""><strong></strong></a><strong> <br /></strong></p> <p><a href=""><strong></strong></a></p> <p><video alt="" width="400" controls="controls"> <source src="/media/4180/rs4-fin.mp4" type="video/mp4" /> Your browser does not support HTML5 video. </video></p>
Fast Compression and Estimation of the Channel State Information (CSI) with Sparse Sinusoid Approximation for Broadband Wireless Networks Zhenghao Zhang 16-079 Matthieu Dumont <p>CSIApx is a very simple algorithm for the compression of the Channel State Information (CSI) of OFDM systems. The algorithm is guided by rigid mathematical findings and has with bounded performance. It is very suitable to be implemented in hardware because it involves only a small number of complex multiplications, similar to that of a digital FIR filter. In the illustrated embodiment CSIApx has been extensively tested with both experimental data and the Wi-Fi channel model, and the results confirm that while dramatically reducing the computation complexity, CSIApx still significantly outperforms the existing solutions both in compression ratio and accuracy, in nearly all cases.</p> <p>Accordingly, the present invention provides an improved system and method for compressing the CSI for OFDM that is accurate and computationally easy to implement.</p> <p> </p> <h2>Applications:</h2> <ul> <li>Computer systems</li> </ul> <h2>Advantages:</h2> <ul> <li>Extremely simple</li> <li>Compressed CSI consists of small range of 5 or less complex numbers</li> <li>Easy to quantize and transmit</li> <li>Based on rigid mathematical foundations</li> <li>Resilient against the disturbance of noise</li> </ul>
Controlled Thickness of Hard-soft Shell Nano Magnets for Increased Energy Product Geoffrey F. Strouse 16-005 Matthieu Dumont <p>High performance magnets are critical components in energy technologies. Growing awareness of economic limitations associated with rare-earth containing materials has stimulated innovative research efforts to replace rare earth containing magnets.</p> <p>With this in mind and the need to outperform current technologies by developing larger energy products, nanostructured magnets consisting of hard-soft single domain cores using transition metals is a viable solution.</p> <p>It has been postulated that patterned nanocomposites consisting of hard and soft magnetic domains can achieve a 6-fold improvement in energy product over simple hard magnets due to magnetic exchange behavior at the nanoscale.</p> <p>We have developed synthetic protocols that allow the isolation of soluble, mesoscale assembled hard-soft core shell exchange spring magnets. The materials are produced in a unique way allowing for control of the shell thickness which increases both magnetic remnance and coercivity providing a dramatic increase in the energy product value.  FePt/Co is one such example. A 5nm hard magnetic FePt core and a soft magnetic 0.6-2.3 nm thick Co shell were chemically prepared. The variation in shell thickness allows the achievement of double the coercivity which generates approximately a 3.5-fold increase in the energy product for FePt/Co relative to FePt.</p>
Controlling the Architecture, Coordination and Reactivity of Nanoparticle Coating Starting from an Aminoacid Precursor Hedi Mattoussi 16-065 Matthieu Dumont <p><span>We have developed a versatile strategy to prepare a series of multi-coordinating and multifunctional ligands optimized for the surface-functionalization of luminescent quantum dots (DGs) and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) alike. Our two new sets of multi-dentate ligands can promote the dispersion of both QDs and gold nanoparticles in buffer media with colloidal stability over a broad range of conditions, while conferring compactness and biocompatibility. </span></p> <p><span>The present synthetic scheme starts from L-aspartic acid to develop a versatile platform that allows the controllable coupling of one or more LA groups, one or more polyethylene glycol (PEG) moieties, along with terminal reactive groups, yielding a series of molecular-scale ligands with various architectures and selective reactivity. By attaching various combinations of lipoic acid and PEG chains on the aspartic acid, via peptide coupling chemistry, we have prepared a series of reactive ligands presenting either one PEG chain appended with multiple lipoic acid, or multiple PEG chains attached onto one lipoic acid. </span></p> <h2>Advantages:</h2> <ul> <li><span>Offers a simpler version for preparing bis(LA-appended ligands compared to the Michael addition reaction we have previously employed </span></li> <li><span>Provides high reaction efficiency at each reaction step, the ligand synthesis can be easily scaled up and various functional groups can be attached easily </span></li> <li><span>Ligands are fully compatible with a mild photoligation strategy to promote the in-situ ligand exchange and phase transfer of hydrophobic QDs to buffer media</span></li> </ul>
Cashtags: Prevent Leaking Sensitive Information through Screen Display An-I Andy Wang 15-091 Dr. Matthieu Dumont <p>Mobile computing is the new norm. As people feel increasingly comfortable computing in public places such as coffee shops and transportation hubs, the risk of exposing sensitive information increases. While solutions exist to guard the communication channels used by mobile devices, the visual channel remains, to a significant degree, open. These solutions aim only to prevent the visual leakage of password entries. However, once the uses has been successfully authenticated, all accessed sensitive information is displayed in full view.  No existing mechanism allows arbitrary data to be marked as sensitive. Shoulder surfing is becoming a viable threat in a world where sensitive information from images can be extracted with modest computing power.</p> <p>In response, we present Cashtags: a system to defend against attacks on mobile devices based on visual observations. The system allows users to access sensitive information in public without the fear of visual leaks. This is accomplished by intercepting sensitive data elements before they are  displayed on screen, then replacing them with non-sensitive information. In addition, the system provides a means of computing with sensitive data in a non-observable way.</p>
Multiple Parabolic Trough Solar Collector for Heating Working Fluid Anjaneyulu Krothapalli 12-208 Robby Freeborn-Scott <p>Solar energy collecting devices frequently use focusing lenses or reflectors to intensify the energy of the sun. Some collecting devices directly convert the solar energy to electrical energy using a photovoltaic array. Other collecting devices use the solar energy to heat a circulating working fluid. The device we have created at Florida State University may be adapted to either type of collecting device, as well as other types.</p> <p>The invention comprises a solar collector incorporating multiple parabolic troughs and a moving array of collector pipes which moves in order to keep the collector pipes in the focus of the troughs as the sun moves across the sky. The collector does not use conventional azimuth tracking; instead, the trough reflector remains static while the collecting device is moved across the face of the trough reflector with the shifting focal zone. The present invention moves the collective device so that it remains within the shifting focus as the sun moves.</p> <p>The multiple parabolic reflector flat plate collectors use solar radiation to heat a working fluid up to 120 degrees Celsius at pressures exceeding 5 bar. Our invention reaches temperatures above other systems under the same conditions.</p>
Supersonic Microjet Actuators for Control Of Cavity Flows Farrukh Alvi 04-022 Robby Freeborn-Scott <p>Air traveling over a cavity creates an unsteady flow field.  This is especially true in the case of aircraft - which travel at high speeds and varying conditions. Such cavities include landing gear wheel wells and internal weapons bays. When these cavities are exposed, a highly unsteady air flow passes over the cavities resulting in high dynamic pressures and acoustic loads in cavities and within the vicinity of the cavities. Such loading results in decreased and less stable flight dynamics of the aircraft as well as increased noise within the aircraft. Additionally, the unsteady airflow acts on the stores released from the cavities resulting in decreased delivery accuracy in the case of a weapons payload. Furthermore, the high dynamic loads in and around the cavity results, over time, in structural fatigue at the areas of the high loads. In order to increase the stability of air flow over aircraft cavities, and thus reduce the high pressure loading, various methods have been proposed.</p> <p>Most techniques presently used are/have been passive and their performance is either marginal or not uniform over a desired range of operating conditions.  Such control techniques either require too much power/flow rate and/or often adversely affect system performance when flow control is not needed, factors which make them undesirable for practical applications.</p> <p>The proposed supersonic microjets enable active control of cavity flows with minimal flow requirements which produces substantial performance gains in terms of reducing the high dynamic pressures and acoustic loads in flows over cavities. The scalability, simplicity, adaptability, and minimal flow requirements and its demonstrated efficacy makes this technique a strong candidate for implementation in aircraft.</p> <p>Fluidic actuators, consisting of arrays of supersonic microjets have been used to actively control and manipulate the highly unsteady flow over cavities. The microjet arrays produce supersonic flow streams that have very high momentum while requiring very low mass flow rates and very efficiently control the very unsteady flow over cavities.</p> <p>These actuators have been tested for controlling large and small-scale cavity flows. These experiments, conducted over a large range of conditions, clearly demonstrated that microjets significantly reduce flow unsteadiness and dynamic loads inside and the vicinity of the cavity. This control also has a beneficial effect on the release of store from such cavities.</p>
1MHz Scalable Cascaded Z-Source Inverter Using Gallium Nitride (GaN) Device Hui (Helen) Li 11-127 Robby Freeborn-Scott <p>Currently, implementation of photo-voltaic (PV) systems into power grids is limited.  The reason for the limited use of PV systems in power grids is that the interface between the grid and the PV source very inefficient.  These inefficiencies are caused by module mismatch, orientation mismatch, partial shading, and maximum power point (MPPT) inefficiencies.  This technology provides a scalable cascaded Z-source inverter which can integrate distributed renewable energy sources and/or storages having a wide voltage range. The inverter uses a low voltage Gallium Nitride (GaN) device, which can be used to facilitate modular structure.  The GaN transistor is able to facilitate this structure due to ultra-high frequency, a small AC filter, and a DC electrolyte capacitor.  A comprehensive Z-source network design has been developed based on an innovative equivalent AC circuit model for the single phase photovoltaic system.  The invention is also suitable for hybrid renewable energy sources/storages application in wide system operation range.  A flexible and reliable control system is developed to improve the photovoltaic energy harvesting capability.</p> <h2><strong>Advantages</strong></h2> <ul> <li>Single energy conversion and boost function can be achieved simultaneously</li> <li>Independent maximum power point tracking for each Z-source inverter module can implement an efficient photovoltaic energy conversion</li> <li>This inverter is immune to shoot-through faults especially operating at high switching frequency and enhance the system reliability</li> <li>The scalable cascaded Z-source inverter is able to interface flexibly with different distributed renewable energy sources or storages in a wide voltage range, including: <ul> <li>wind power</li> <li>solar power</li> <li>battery</li> <li>fuel cell</li> <li>ultra-capacitor</li> </ul> </li> </ul> <h2><strong>Applications</strong></h2> <ul> <li>Photo-voltaic systems</li> <li>Plug-in electric hybrid vehicle</li> <li>Motor drives</li> <li>Uninterruptible power supply</li> </ul> <p> </p>
Cyrogenic Heat Sink for Helium Gas Cooled Superconducting Power Devices Danny Crook and Sastry Pamidi 13-040 Robby Freeborn-Scott <p>Power cables have terminations on each end to maintain dielectric integrity. Terminations interconnect the power cable with its high electric field to air-insulated components with lower electric fields and changing ambient conditions. In the case of a superconducting power cable, the terminations act as an interface between the cable and the grid.  In addition, these terminations manage the thermal gradient from the cryogenic temperature components to the ambient temperature components. The terminations additionally need to link the cryogenic environment in the cable with the ambient temperature environment of the non-superconducting elements of the power system, such as copper cables, power transformers, circuit breakers, instrumentation transformers, and disconnect switches.</p> <p>Superconducting power devices, such as cables, fault current limiters, or transfers, need feedthroughs that connect them with other elements of the power system that stay at ambient temperature. The higher temperatures of these components cause substantial heat influx into the terminations and consequently into the superconducting cable if no countermeasure is installed.</p> <p>The new technology developed, which solves these issues, comprises a method of maintaining an operating cryogenic temperature range of a low temperature system (e.g., including a superconductor). A heat intercept is attached to the lower temperature system that is temperature critical. This part may be, for example, the termination or intersection point between a copper conductor and high temperature superconducting cable. The heat intercept is pre-shaped to conform to the shape of the temperature-critical part. The heat sink, or at least the portion attached to the low temperature system, is formed of a heat conductive material. The heat intercept includes a heat sink, an inlet channel, and an outlet channel. The inlet and outlet channels extend from the heat sink, as the heat sink abuts the temperature-critical part of the system. The heat sink, inlet channel, and outlet channel are configured such that the inlet channel is in open communication with the interior of the heat sink and the outlet channel also is in open communication with the interior of the heat sink.  A cryogenic gaseous medium is injected into the inlet channel, such that the gaseous medium enters the heat sink through the inlet channel and exits the heat sink through the outlet channel. Thus, since heat is transferred to and absorbed by the gaseous medium within the heat sink, the gaseous medium has a higher temperature when exiting the heat sink than when entering the heat sink.</p> <h2>Advantages</h2> <ul> <li>Compact design</li> <li>Vacuum tight</li> <li>Low pressure drop</li> <li>Highly efficient due to maximum heat transfer</li> <li>Simple design and manufacturing</li> <li>Optimal for a gas having low viscosity</li> </ul>
Slip Mitigation Control for an Electric Powered Wheelchair Emmanuel Collins 14-060 Robby Freeborn-Scott <p>Electric Ground Vehicles (EGVs) such as electric automobiles, golf carts, and electric powered wheelchairs are increasing in use since they are energy efficient, environmentally friendly, and reduce oil dependency. However, when traveling across slippery surfaces, EGVs become susceptible to lateral slip.</p> <p>Our developed novel technology mitigates slip using feedback control. The essential components are the following: a reference model based on mass-damper system, a trajectory tracking controller for each wheel, and a maximum tractive force estimator. The reference model generates the desired acceleration, velocity, and position of the vehicle based on user inputs, for example, the position of the steering wheel and throttle or the commands from a joystick displacement. The user inputs are mapped to force and torque inputs to the reference model. The commanded trajectory is mapped to the desired wheel trajectories using the controller. The maximum tractive force estimator determines the minimum of the maximum tractive forces that can be applied to each wheel by the surface the wheel is traversing. An associated lower bound on the mass of the reference model is used to determine when one or more of the wheels has been required to follow a trajectory that requires more than the estimate of the min-max tractive force, such that it can be inferred that slip has occurred or may soon occur. Subsequently, the value of the mass parameter in the reference model is reduced to help ensure that future slip will not occur.</p>
Adaptive Nonlinear Model Predictive Control Using a Neural Network and Sampling Based Optimization Emmanuel G. Collins 14-086 Robby Freeborn-Scott <p>The model predictive control algorithm uses a nonlinear model, input domain sampling, and a graph search technique without dependence on gradients. The nonlinear model is obtained by using input and output data from the system to tune a neural network model. The initial neural network can be trained using open loop data. Once the predictive control is turned on, the neural network continually adapts to represent time varying changes in the system. This is the first approach to adaptive nonlinear model predictive control that simultaneously performs online adaptation and model predictive control without the calculations of gradients for the predictive control.</p> <p>This technology provides, in a single software package, a very general means of simultaneously identifying and controlling nonlinear systems without computing gradients, which leads to lower computational requirements than methods that are currently commercially available.</p> <p>The technique of sampling the input domain guarantees satisfaction of hard constraints on input commands. Multiple core processing will give the proposed method increasingly greater computational speed advantage over current alternative methods since parallel computing hardware continues to become more widespread and more capable.</p>
Fast Electromechanical Disconnect Switching Chamber with Integrated Drive Mechanism Michael (Mischa) Steurer 14-117 Robby Freeborn-Scott <p>The technology developed is a fast electromechanical switch with the drive mechanism integrated into the switching chamber. The integration of the drive mechanism allows for much faster contact travel and therefore faster switching operation.</p> <p>The proposed invention uses a vacuum or pressurized gas chamber with internal piezoelectric-actuator driven contacts for an electrical switch that can provide ultra-fast voltage. It fills a need for use in hybrid breaker applications.</p> <h2>Advantages:</h2> <ul> <li>Compact</li> <li>Low loss</li> <li>Does not need high current pulses</li> <li>Can be automatically reset</li> <li>Simple and fast</li> </ul>
A Practical Process to Densify High Temperature Superconducting Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+x (2212) Round Wire Before Coil Winding Maxime Matras 15-257 Abby Queale <p>This invention describes the processing of Bi2Sr2CuO<sub>6+x </sub>(2122) oxide superconducting round wires so as to obtain a magnet with a dense and stable winding pack mad of dense, highly-textured oxide superconductor with high critical current density.</p> <p>The present invention overcomes the limitations of the prior art by pre-densifying the 2212 wire before it is wound on the coil form. The invention significantly reduces, and can even eliminate, the decrease in wire diameter that occurs during the final heat treatment when the coil receives its final OP heat treatment, thus avoiding changes to the geometry of the coil.</p> <p>The advantages of round wire, compared to tape, are its ability to be twisted, its electromagnetic isotrpy and its ability to be easily cabled.</p>
Defect Irrelevant Winding Technique for High Temperature Superconductor Magnet Seungyong Hahn 16-100 Abby Queale <p>Conventional high temperature superconductor (HTS) magnets have been constructed with a defect free and continuous piece of HTS wire, a primary cost driver for HTS magnets. To meet the length requirements of the HTS wire, multiple short pieces of HTS wires may be spliced by soldering. This approach creates multiple bumps in the hTS winding where the pieces are soldered together. These bumps prove unfavorable in the mechanical perspective for high field magnets.</p> <p>To reduce the cost and to manufacture mechanically more robust HTS magnets, this invention proposes a technique to build an HTS magnet with HTS wires having multiple defects. It even allows discontinuity of wire within an NI HTS winding, which is effective in elimination of resistive splices beneficial from a mechanical perspective particularly for high field magnets.</p>
Bidirectional Linear Nanoactuator Powered by Biomolecular Motors Timothy Moerland 03-032 Brent Edington <p>Nanoscale engineering by humans can be greatly enhanced by the assimilation of biological specialization already achieved through natural evolution and by envisioning additional modifications through molecular genetics. Increasing the demand for in situ characterization and the quantification of samples in complex systems has stimulated the development of miniaturized chemical analysis systems that automatically perform multiple steps such as sampling, transport, separation and detection.</p> <p>Critical to chemical analysis systems is the availability of nano-mechanical devices that provide the necessary locomotive factors. FSU researchers have developed a bidirectional linear nanoactuator powered by biomolecular motors. The device is composed of two major components: a metal rod (transmission) coated with myosin and a well structure (fuel tank) with two heater stripes (switch). Here, the heater lines are coated with actin filament patterns with opposite polarities. The nanorod will be assembled onto the ATP well and the well will be filled with ATP solution.</p> <p><a href="/media/3816/chase2.pdf" title="Chase2.pdf" data-id="6094">Download PDF Version</a> </p> <h2>Applications:</h2> <p>This technology can be used in nanoscale mechanical devices to pump fluids, open and close valves, provide translational movement, etc.</p> <h2>Advantages:</h2> <ul> <li>Represents a major step forward in nanoscale engineering</li> <li>Provides a mean to control motor movement direction</li> <li>The hydrophobic sealing isolates the ATP solution, which opens the possibility for motor application in non-aqueous environments</li> </ul>
Single Layer Emitting Diodes Using Organometal Halide Perovskite/Ionic- Conducting Polymer Composite Zhibin Yu 15-231 Abby Queale <p>Organometal halide perovskite (Pero) materials have been recently intensively explored. They are ideal in forming optoelectronic devices due to their optical and electronic properties. For example, solar cells with a thin layer of methyl ammonium lead iodide have achieved about 20% power conversion efficiency, approaching the state-of-the-art performance of polycrystalline thin film solar cells. Pero materials also exhibit high photoluminescence yield and can be tuned to cover the visible spectrum, thus they are potentially valuable in light-emitting diodes (LEDs) for information displays and lighting luminaires.</p> <p>We have created single-layer LEDs using a composite thin film of Pero and poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO). In contrast to the multi-layer strategy, a simplified device structure is certainly advantageous in terms of processing flexibility and fabrication cost at the manufacturing stage. Our single-layer thin films are synthesized by a one-step spin coating process and have a device structure that resembles “bottom electrode (ITO)/Pero-PEO/top electrode (In/Ga or Au)”. In spite of the simple device structure, the green emission LEDs with methylammonium lead bromide (bromide-Pero) and PEO composite thin films exhibit a low turn-on voltage of ~2.8-3.1V (defined at 1 cd m<sup>-2 </sup>luminance), a maximum luminance of 4064 cd m<sup>-2</sup>  and a moderate maximum current efficiency of ~0.24-0.74 cd A<sup>-1</sup>. Such performance is on par with reported results in literature involving a more complex multi-layer device structure. Blue and red emissions LEDs have also been fabricated.</p>
Lightweight Sensor Material Systems and Their Method of Manufacturing Changchun (Chad) Zeng 15-162 Abby Queale <p>Flexible, stretchable, highly sensitive and low-cost pressure sensors are key elements in advancing wearable or implantable measuring devices.</p> <p>The present invention provides a flexible piezoresistive sensor that exhibits improved piezoresistive sensitivity over other conventional flexible sensors currently available. The sensor is based on 3D porous auxetic materials and conductive materials coating layers. The sensing mechanism is the piezoresistivity of the conductive coating. The auxetic materials provide the overall sensing environment, and the unique auxetic properties enable high sensor sensitivity and larger sensing range.</p> <h2>Advantages:</h2> <ul> <li>The auxetic structure improves sensor performance compared to regular substrate.</li> <li>The unique auxetic properties, such as synclastic curvature, enable the fabrication of large area sensors of complicated contours and ensure accurate detection of signals.</li> </ul> <h2>Applications:</h2> <ul> <li>Wearable sensors</li> <li>Sports protection equipment</li> <li>Medical devices</li> <li>Underwater ultrasonic transducer</li> </ul>
A Universal Method for the Scalable Manufacturing of Macroscopic Nanomaterials Superstructures Changchun (Chad) Zeng 15-232 Abby Queale <p>The present invention is a novel technology capable of continuously manufacturing on a large scale of superstructure based on a broad range of nanoparticles. The technology has the potential to be a cost-effefctive way to manufacture nanomaterials based macroscopic parts and components, whose properties approach to those of the individual nanoparticles.</p> <h2>Advantages:</h2> <ul> <li>Uses supercritical water as a moderate oxidizer to remove the catalyst and purify the carbon nanotubes. This approach is superior compared to other technology forits efficiency of catalyst removal and low impact to the CNT structure and properties.</li> <li>This process can be scaled-up to a continuous process to manufacture these assemblies in industrial scale.</li> </ul>
Manufacturing of Superluminescent Light-Emitting Diodes with a Ternary Halide Perovskite/Polymer Composites Zhibin Yu 16-111 Abby Queale <p>Halide perovskites have emerged as a new generation semiconducting materials for LED applications. A recent finding at the Flroida State University found by adding an ionic insulating polymer into the mixture of perovskite/ionic-conducting polymer the device can perform significantly better. The use of a ternary composite to replace the previously used binary composite can help optimize the morphology and crystallinity of the perovskite materials, which led to efficient charge injection and transportation in the composites.</p> <p>This invention allows LEDs to achieve a reach of 800,000 cd m-2, 40x higher than the previous record. These devices can also be switched on at 1.8V, 40 percent lower than the devices with a binary composite.</p>
Carbon Nanotube Foam with Controllable Architectures: Fabrication Method and Applications Mei Zhang 14-030 Abby Queale <p>The present invention provides a method for fabricating carbon nanotube (CNT) foam, and all carbon prous structures, with controllable cell shape and distribution and therefore tunable properties including density, porosity, elasticity, conductivity, and strength.</p> <p>Compared with conventional foams, CNT solid foams ae expected to offer additional advantages such as mechanical flexibility and robustness, electrical conductivity, thermal stability and resistance to harsh environment, and can impact a broad range of applications such as multifunctional structural media, sensors, high strength to weight ratio composites, membranes and electrodes.</p>
Novel Coatings for Superconducting Magnet Superconducting Wires and Tapes Thomas Painter 15-225 Abby Queale <p>The present technology employs electrically insulating coatings on the superconducting wire. The novel technology employs semiconducting or resistive coatings in lieu of insulating coatings which allows smaller, more compact, and less expensive electromagnets and also allows the opportunity to eliminate expensive and complicated quench protection systems. Resistive coatings mitigate delays in reaching full field during ramping and minimize eddy current losses in the superconducting magnet during field changes in comparison to no-insulation coatings.</p> <h2>Advantages:</h2> <ul> <li>Enable faster ramping times compared to no-insulation coils</li> <li>Resistive coatings mitigate delays in reaching full field during ramping and minimize eddy current losses during field changes</li> <li>Enable a more compact superconducting magnet which allows higher magnetic fields by reducing the amount of superconducting material required to achieve a given magnetic field and by reducing the ancillary system requirements for cryostats and refrigeration</li> <li>Enable the superconducting coil to be self-protected</li> </ul>
Silica Gel Isolation of Interfacial Material from Organic Matrices Ryan Rodgers 12-205 Abby Queale <p>The present invention determines the species within a crude oil sample that exist at the crude oil/water interface of an emulsion. It addresses the need of the chemical company and oil producer to identify the species within a crude oil that contribute to emulsion formation during production and refining operations. It allows the isolation of large amounts of material that was previously unobtainable.</p> <h2>Advantages:</h2> <ul> <li>This technology is faster, easier to perform, and less expensive than existing interfacial material isolation technology.</li> </ul>
Novel Therapeutic Agent Sequestering Toxic Levels of Hemin in Cardiovascular Injury Events Ewa Bienkiewicz 11-154 16-110 Brent Edington <p>In vascular injury, one of the key damage-inflicting events is the release of toxic levels of free hemin that leads to cell and tissue death.  Currently, there is no direct treatment to alleviate hemin toxicity that exacerbates tissue damage during injury events. Our technology offers a solution to this damage with a peptide therapeutic agent that would serve as a high-capacity scavenger of the toxic hemin released during vascular trauma. This technology proposes the use of a peptide to sequester excess hemin and alleviate the extent of injury.</p> <p>We have shown that peptide fragments derived from the N-terminal domain of the normal, non-pathological prion protein, bind hemin.  Each peptide can bind more than one hemin molecule.  The hemin binding capacity of these peptides increases in an acidic environment, which is characteristic of vascular injury, including stroke.  These findings make the prion protein fragments, or their analogs, strong candidates for a therapeutic agent that would act as a “hemin sponge” sequestering the toxic hemin molecules. </p> <p>An important aspect of the developed product is that our peptide fragments originate from a naturally occurring protein that is essential in maintaining hemin equilibrium in our bodies, and has been shown to be a part of a cell rescue response in vascular trauma. Delivery of this high-capacity, hemin-sequestering peptide as a therapeutic agent would effectively amount to a boost of the natural defense mechanism against excess of hemin.  Overall, this therapeutic agent would diminish the damaging effects of the vascular injury, including stroke, significantly improving patients’ chances for survival and full recovery.</p>
A Novel Engineered Peptide for Treatment of Vascular Injury Ewa Bienkiewicz 16-110 Brent Edington <p>This technology uses an engineered peptide (A-OR2) to bind/neutralize hemin, reducing its toxic effects in living cells. A-OR2 is a modified version of peptide OR2 that binds hemin and reduces cell death in vivo. The A-OR2 peptide was engineered to adopt a more stable, B-like-structure, potentially resulting in a higher efficacy to neutralize toxic effects of hemin.</p> <p>This technology uses a modified version of the OR2 peptide to sequester/neutralize excess hemin and reduce the extent of injury. The OR2 peptide is a fragment of the prion protein that has been shown to be a part of the natural, protective response to stroke.</p> <p>Our preliminary data demonstrate that the hemin binding affinity for A-OR2 is higher than that for OR2. In addition, A-OR2 peptide is structurally more stable and folds faster.</p> <p>Overall, this technology employs a modified version of a peptide (OR2) that we have shown to reduce cytotoxic effects of excess hemin and alleviate vascular injury damage in a mouse model of hemorrhagic stroke.</p>
A Novel, Screening Assay for Colon and Rectum Cancer, based on a Antibody Specific for a Phosphorylated-Mcm2 at Serine 53 (Mcm2-S53P) Daniel Kaplan 16-093 Brent Edington <p>Approximately 4.5 percent of men and women will be diagnosed with colon and rectum cancer at some point during their lifetime, based on 2010-2012 data. The earlier colon and rectum cancer is caught, the better chance a person has of surviving five years after being diagnosed. Stool testing is likely to be particularly valuable, because it represents a non-invasive method for screening all of the colon and rectum, without the need for bowel preparation. The Mcm2 protein, a component of the DNA replication apparatus, is currently being developed for its use as an early marker of colorectal cancer in cells from stool washings. Mcm2 is a subunit of the replication fork helicase, the macromolecular assembly that unwinds DNA at a replication fork.</p> <p>Mcm2 lacks specificity because it is present in all stages of the cell cyle. The present invention identifies a novel post-translational modification of Mcm2, wherein the serine 53 residue is phosphorylated (Mcm2-S53P). This technology shows that the human Mcm2-S53P modification is an improved cancer marker compared to human Mcm2, and provides an improved screening array for cancer and other diseases of cell proliferation.</p> <h2>Advantages:</h2> <ul> <li>Higher sensitivity than other currently used markers of cell entry</li> </ul>
Monoclonal Antibodies Specific for 4,6-Diamino-5-(Formylamino) Pyrimidine Gary Ostrander and Eric Holmes 16-019 Brent Edington <p>The present invention describes monoclonal antibodies that are specific for 4,6-Diamino-5-(formylamino)pyrimidine. This structure, also known as FAPY-A, is formed in DNA bases by single electron oxidation reactions caused primarily by oxygen free radicals. Damage to DNA of this sort, along with its alternate product 8-hytdroxy-pyrimidine derivatives, can result in mutations from misreading if not first repaired. In the case of free radical oxidations of the DNA base Adenine, FAPY-A and 8-OH-A formed under more oxidative redox conditions. These different reaction products and their expression in biological tissues seem to correlate well with precancerous and cancerous changes in tissues. Thus, detection of FAPY-A and 8-OH-A via immunoassay may provide important future cancer risk information to individuals.</p>
Folding Nucleus Symmetric Expansion Michael Blaber 14-163 Brent Edington <p>The present technology is a novel method and design strategy for the efficient design of de novo proteins. This invention uses experimental or computation methods to identify an amino acid sequence that defines a folding nucleus of a protein that belongs to a symmetric protein architecture. Next, a complete amino acid sequence for the target architecture is generated by expanding the folding nucleus sequence by the intrinsic symmetry. The resulting protein will have robust folding properties that can tolerate subsequent mutational introduction of novel function. This process is an efficient means to create novel protein scaffolds with robust folding properties.</p> <h2>Advantages:</h2> <ul> <li>Leverages knowledge of naturally-evolved proteins for application in the design of novel proteins</li> <li>Uses a simple algorithm that permits design of the complete protein</li> <li>Produces a protein with highly-redundant folding potential- a protein that can therefore tolerate substantial mutational change and still yield a foldable protein.</li> </ul>
Modified Fibroblast Growth Factor 1 (FGF-1) Polypeptides with Increased Binding Affinity for Heparin and Associated Methods Michael Blaber 15-039 Brent Edington <p>A Mutant FGF-1 was designed so as to increase the intrinsic affinity for heparin sulfate glycosaminoglycan; involving a point mutation that introduces a basic amino acid (i.e. Arg or Lys) at position Ser116. Characterization of this mutant (S116R) shows reduction in mitogenic stimulation, increase in growth factor receptor-1c activation, and prolonged duration of glucose lowering in hyperglycemic mice. Such a mutant form can be advantageous in reducing blood glucose and as a novel insulin sensitizer to treat metabolic disorder.   </p>
Selective Dopamine D4 Receptor Agonists for the Treatment of Working Memory Deficits Pradeep G. Bhide 14-038 Brent Edington <p>Dopamine is a critical regulator of working memory, a mechanism for short-term information storage. Deficits in working memory occur in diseases with dopamine imbalance such as ADHD, schizophrenia and Parkinson’s Disease. However, a targeted treatment for working memory deficits is not available. In rodent models with working memory deficits, we show that selective activation of the dopamine D4 receptor (D4R) improves working memory. Based on these findings we propose that drugs that selectively activate the D4 receptor are novel class drugs for the treatment for working memory deficits.</p> <p>D4R is found in abundance in the frontal cortex and hippocampus, brain regions that regulate working memory function. We examined two rodent models with working memory deficits, a prenatal nicotine exposure mouse model and the spontaneously hypertensive rat model. In both the models, activity and expression of the D$R are significantly decreased in the frontal cortex. Although dopamine D2 receptors expression and activity are also decreased in the frontal cortex of these models, improvements in working memory produced by psycho-stimulant administration were accompanied by increases in the activity of only the D$R and not the D2 receptor. Therefore, it can be concluded that selective increase in frontal cortical D4R activity is associated with improvement of deficient working memory.</p> <p>Dopaminergic drugs that activate or antagonize multiple dopaminergic receptors or that produce global increases in brain dopamine content have failed as effective treatments for working memory deficits because of their pleotropic actions. Our discovery suggests that drugs that selectively target the D4 receptor and improve its function are effective treatments for working memory deficits.</p>
TrkB Receptor Antagonist for Treatment of Cognitive Inflexibility Pradeep G. Bhide 15-137 Brent Edington <p>Cognitive flexibility is the ability to execute multiple mental tasks simultaneously, to switch from one task to the next easily, and to restructure knowledge and strategy to tackle changing tasks. Deficits in cognitive flexibility are associated with multiple psychiatric conditions including schizophrenia, autism spectrum disorder and ADHD. Despite its critical role in normal mental function, and despite its well documented associated impairment, drugs that selectively target and improve cognitive flexibility are not available.</p> <p>The present technology shows that excess brain derived growth factor (BDGF) is associated with deficits in cognitive flexibility and that ANA-12 is an effective treatment for cognitive ability.</p>
Novel Concept and Method for Developing and Screening ADHD Therapeutics Pradeep G. Bhide 15-138 Brent Edington <p>Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) represents a conglomeration of multiple symptoms including inattention, hyperactivity, impulsivity and deficits in working memory. The proposed research shows that a prenatal nicotine exposure mouse model of ADHD displays each one of these symptoms, and that each symptom may have a distinct neurobiological basis. Moreover, the research using this mouse model suggests that improvement can be achieved in each symptom using a drug or a combination of drugs that selectively target specific neurobiological mechanism(s) underlying the symptom(s). However, at the present time, treatment for ADHD is not directed at tackling specific symptom domains or specific neurobiological mechanisms underlying such symptom domains. Development of drugs to target specific symptom domains or mechanisms is hampered by the lack of animal models that display the entire range of ADHD symptom domains, and in which each symptom domain and neurobiological mechanism can be assayed separately. Our mouse model of prenatal nicotine exposure fills this technological gap. Therefore, we advance the novel concept that drugs to selectively tackle each ADHD symptom domain can be screened using our mouse model. The significance of this concept is that efficacy of novel drugs can be evaluated against one or more specific ADHD symptom domains and their underlying neurobiological mechanisms.</p>
Device and Method for Concomitant Ejection and Suction of Perfusate Sanjay Kumar 15-008 Brent Edington <p>CESOP is a microfluidic device that enables focal application and clearance of drugs/compounds to nuclei or regions within acute brain slices submerged in artificial cerebrospinal fluid or other bathing media under non-laminar/turbulent flow conditions. The CESOP technique has distinct advantages over either both perfusion or local perfusion for studying how drug application to one region of the brain affects a neighboring/juxtaposed region. The CESOP device/method enables rapid focal application of drugs/compounds while restricting their spillover to neighboring regions. Turbulent/non-laminar flow conditions that manifest in slice recording chambers exacerbate spillover thereby hindering electrophysiological recordings and the study of region-specific drug effects. CESOP solves this problem through concomitant ejection and suction of perfusate, even under moderately turbulent conditions.</p> <h2>Advantages:</h2> <ul> <li>Rapid and focal delivery of drugs/compounds to regions of interest within the tissue with minimal or no spillover</li> <li>Fine control of application area</li> <li>Mobility within the restricted environs of the recording chamber/scope</li> <li>Savings in precious drug volumes while assaying drug effects</li> <li>Feasibility for assaying reversibility of drug effects</li> <li>Cost-effective</li> </ul>
Comprehensive, Genome-Wide Epigenetic Fingerprinting by Replication Profiling David Gilbert 07-106 Brent Edington <p>This is a procedure for typing cells (cancer cells, stem cells, any kind of cells) based upon the order of replication of chromosome segments. In brief, cells from any source are pulse-labeled with 5-bromo-2deoxyuridine, sorted into early and late S-phase of the cell cycle by flow cytometry and the DNA replicated in each temporal compartment of S-phase is differentially labeled and hybridized to a DNA array consisting of evenly spaced probes from the entire genome. Using customized algorithms, the resulting data (ratio of each probe sequence replicated in early vs. late S-phase) can be converted into a form that can segment the genome and identify the order of replication of chromosome segments characteristic for a cell type. An alternative, if the cell line is difficult to label metabolically, is to sort cells into S-phase and G1-phase populations, hybridize differential labeled DNA from these sorted populations, and determine the ratio of each probe sequence in S vs G1. This provides similar data that can be evaluated by the same computational conversion.</p> <h2>Advantages:</h2> <ul> <li>More comprehensive (covers the entire genome)</li> <li>Less expensive (covers the entire genome for less than 1/20th what is needed for existing profiling methods)</li> <li>Much easier to interpret- the informative data for each cell line is distilled down to combinations of only about 1,000-2,000 segments of the genome that uniformly identify each cell type</li> <li>Measures very different properties of cells than any other method</li> <li>Focuses the analysis on the proliferating population of cells, which is particularly useful for stem cell and cancer technologies.</li> </ul>
A Reliable Assay for the Detection of Pork and Blood Components for Halal, Kosher, and Other Dietary Needs and Applications Yun-Hwa Hsieh 06-097, 12-194 Brent Edington <p>Nearly half of the world’s total population is strictly prohibited to consume pork and any substances derived from animal blood. However, food ingredients derived from pork and blood are widely used and present in various forms of dietary products without the awareness of consumers and even regulators.</p> <p>Analytical tools for monitoring these materials are lacking. Our laboratory at FSU possesses the only reliable technology to protect consumers who avoid eating products containing pork and blood, and such technology has been frequently sought for commercialization by a number of domestic and international companies for consumer protection in the markets of Kosher food for 13.8- million Jews; Halal foods for 1.6-billion Muslims; 1 billion of Hindus and non-religious vegans/vegetarians.</p> <p>The most desirable detection method is enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) which, coupled with our panel of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) is able to detect protein ingredients derived from pork and blood components. These unique monoclonal antibodies are able to detect pork and blood from processed and cooked samples.</p>
Genome Capture and Sequencing to Determine Genome-Wide Copy Number Variation David Gilbert 14-102 Brent Edington <p>The present invention provides a means to determine the copy number of genomic segments distributed throughout a genome at considerably reduced time and expense vs. whole-genome sequencing. We have developed a solution-based sequence capture method enabling the capture of an equal amount of sequence space every 10 kilo bases to achieve even coverage of the genome. This reduces the sequence space by approximately 99 percent and ensures the sequencing of genomic information at evenly spaced locations across the genome, providing resolution close to the spacing of the probes. The technology measures replication timing and copy number variation (CNV) in human pediatric acute lymphocytic leukemia samples, but it will be broadly applicable to any CNV application.  </p>
Fingerprint for Cell Identity and Pluripotency David Gilbert 12-028 Brent Edington <p>At Florida State University, we have developed a method to identify sets of regions that replicate at unique times in any given cell type (replication timing fingerprints) using pluripotent stem cells as an example, and show that genes in the pluripotency fingerprint belong to a class previously shown to be resistant to reprogramming in induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), identifying potential new target genes for more efficient iPSC production. We propose that the order in which DNA is replicated (replication timing) provides a novel means for classifying cell types, and can reveal cell type specific features of genome organization.</p> <p>A major advantage of our fingerprinting method is in selection of a minimal set of regions that allow for classification with a straightforward PCR-based timing assay and a reasonably small set of primers, particularly if only cell-type specific regions are examined. Our results suggest that a standard set of 20 fingerprint loci can be effective for classification, but the number of regions queried can be adjusted based on the confidence level required. The sole requirement for replication profiling is the collection of a sufficient number of proliferating cells for sorting on a flow cytometer. Consistently, just as replication fingerprints can be generated for particular cell types or general categories of cells, features of replication profiles allow for the creation of disease-specific fingerprints, which may be valuable for prognosis. We have also identified regions that may undergo important organizational changes upon differentiation.</p>
Lignin-Based Nanoparticles and Smart Polymers Hoyong Chung 15-122 Robby Freeborn-Scott <p>Smart polymers are materials that are designed to have advanced functionality, enabling a host of new applications. The next challenge in this field is to develop classes of smart polymers that possess multiple complementary functions. Examples include stimulus-responsive materials that are self-healing and pressure-sensitive adhesives that form the basis for nanolithography.</p> <p>Our invention includes numerous approaches to developing these materials while incorporating natural, renewable resources, such as lignin, and leveraging advances in polymer chemistry, such as ruthenium metathesis catalysts. These novel materials can offer significant improvements over current production methods of smart polymers and the application of lignin-based materials.  Applications are nearly limitless with properties such as self-healing, shape-memory functionality, and responsiveness to external stimuli while taking advantage of biodegradable, readily available resources.</p>
Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF) 1 with Mutation in the Heparin Binding Domain and Methods of Use to Reduce Blood Glucose Michael Blaber 15-211 Brent Edington <p>Type 2 diabietes and obesity are leading causes of mortality and are associated with the Western lifestyle, which is characterized by excessive nutritional intake and lack of exercise.</p> <p>The present technology provides mutated FGF1 proteins and methods of their use to reduce blood glucose and/or to treat a metabolic disease.</p>
Optoelectric Switch and PV-effect from Dual Schottky Diodes in Ambipolar MoSe2 Field-Effect Transistors Luis Balicas 15-146 Abby Queale <p>The present technology describes a light-induced diode-like response in multi-layered MoSe2 field-effect transistors. The sense of current rectification can be controlled by the back-gate voltage which is able to modulate the relative amplitude between both Schottky barriers at the electrical contacts. This effect corresponds to a new form of optoelectronic switch or gate that also yields a photovoltaic response. In addition, one can harvest photovoltaic currents from such devices based on transition metal dichalcogenides without requiring PN-junctions. In fact, research suggests that the photovoltaic efficiency can be increased by just increasing the relative asymmetry between both Schottky barriers in these field-effect transistors.  This new electro-optical effect, namely light induced diode behavior whose sense of current rectification is controllable by a gate voltage, produces a new type of optoelectronic switch having a potential for technological applications.</p>
A Peptide Building Block for P-trefoil Protein Architecture Dr. Blaber 10-114 Brent Edington <p>Protein folding is a poorly understood science, and therefore, protein engineering has yet to realize the functional potential inherent in proteins. Development of a useful "structural toolkit" for de novo protein design is a highly desirable, yet unrealized goal of the field.</p> <p>A novel 42 amino acid polypeptide sequence has been designed that spontaneously assembles into a homo-trimer, forming a thermostable P-trefoil protein architecture. The polypeptide can also be ligated, to form three identical repeating sequences within a single polypeptide, which also spontaneously folds into a thermostable P-trefoil protein architecture. The peptide is thus useful for either de novo design, rational design, or directed evolution of novel proteins based upon the P-trefoil architecture. The Invention represents an initial successful example of the development of a useful peptide building block for a common protein architecture (the P-trefoil).</p> <p>The peptide sequence was designed using a novel approach, and as a consequence there are an extremely limited number of useful related "building blocks" in protein design. The idea of a "structural toolkit" for protein design is largely conceptual; the current Invention is arguably one of the first successful examples.</p>
An Improved Form of Human Acidic Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF-1) Dr. Blaber 09-122 Brent Edignton <p>The creation of a mutant form of human acidic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-1) with improved stability and functional properties is a unique discovery with a very large potential target market. Angiogenesis therapy can be greatly enhanced by this new technology. The growth factor is formulated without heparin, which reduces cost and eliminates the potential for introducing other disease, such as BSE (Mad Cow Disease). Additionally, improvements in potency and functional half-life may significantly reduce the effective dosage</p> <p>This is a cutting-edge “hidden design” protein engineering technique to enhance protein function while minimizing immunogenic potential.</p> <p><a href="/media/3803/blaber2.pdf">Download PDF Version</a></p> <h2>Applications:</h2> <ul> <li>Can be injected at the site of a vascular blockage to cause the development of new vasculature to supply blood to previously hypoxic tissue</li> <li>Treatment of patients with coronary artery disease</li> <li>Therapy of ischemic limbs where there is a potential for both tissue and nerve regeneration</li> <li>Enhanced wound-healing</li> </ul> <h2>Advantages:</h2> <ul> <li>More stable, has a longer half-life, and is 100 times more reactive than wild-type FGF-1</li> <li>Because heparin is not used in the formulation, cost is reduced and safety is increased</li> <li>Less dosage is required than FGF-1</li> <li>Better controlled than FGF-1</li> <li>Patent protection (unlike wild-type FGF-1)</li> </ul>
Assay for Screening HCV Drugs Hengli Tang 06-028 Brent Edington <p>More than 170 million people worldwide are infected with the Hepatitis C Virus (HCV), which can lead to acute and chronic liver diseases. Since the virus will not reproduce in test tubes for more than a few hours it is very difficult to perform experimental research on it. This novel assay uses a reporter cell line, causing the cells to send out a detectable signal when certain events happen internally. Whenever HCV is replicating, the cell will emit green fluorescence. The fluorescence is then tracked in the cell culture through flow cytometry.</p> <p><a href="/media/3810/tang2_2.pdf">Download PDF Version</a></p> <h2>Applications:</h2> <ul> <li>HCV testing</li> <li>Rapidly identify and isolate antiviral drug candidates</li> </ul> <h2>Advantages:</h2> <ul> <li>Easy to use</li> <li>Identifies HCV quickly relative to other assays</li> </ul>
Bioreactor for Stem Cell Cultivation Teng Ma 03-001 Robby Freeborn-Scott <p>Maintaining adult stem cell lines is an important aspect of future research and development. The perfusion bioreactor mimics conditions encountered by adult stem cells within the human body by bathing stem cells in a protein-rich liquid and simulating the flow of the human body’s circulatory system. The reactor creates the ability to control what type of cells the stem cells become.</p> <p>The present technology enables automated seeding, harvesting, and transport, while sustaining high density human hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell expansion and RBC differentiation.</p> <h2>Advantages:</h2> <ul> <li>Allows for greater cell viability due to the lack of enzymatic treatment of the cells when harvesting</li> <li>Allows for significantly greater cell densities to be achieved than previously available technology</li> <li>Ability to direct differentiation and therefore control the type of cells ultimately produced</li> <li>Uses a “smart” coating that enables on-off affinity control between the cells and the scaffolds to achieve automated cell harvesting and transport. This feature eliminates the need for enzymatic treatment which simplifies large scale growth and increases the viable cell yield</li> <li>Modular design allows for the removal of individual flow chambers without interrupting the system. This is an attractive feature for research use where multiple samples are needed at various times</li> </ul>
Conjugation of Two Alkyne Molecules at High Efficiency Under Physiological Conditions Dr. Lei Zhu 12-236 Dr. Matthieu Dumont <p>The present technology describes a double-conjugation method in which two copper(l)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloadditions (CuAAC) reactions occur sequentially in a single reaction mixture without an intervening deprotection step or purification of intermediates. The sequential chemoselective ligation reactions are enabled by the different reactivities of chelating and non-chelating azido groups included in an unsymmetrical bisazide. These linkers can be used in combinatorial chemistry to cross-ligate alkyne molecules, in the modification of ethynyl-functionalized surface chemoselectively, and in extension, in the conjugation of three biomolecular fragments.</p> <p>This method affords an excellent regioselectivity while preserving the fast kinetics and large substrate scope of the CuAAC reaction. In addition to the reduced workload comparing to currently available bifunctional linkers, the disclosed products are relatively easy to prepare. The substrate scope is broad, and the chemistry proceeds well under a vast array of conditions, including physiological conditions.</p>
Diagnostic Test for Detecting Anti-Cashew IgE in Patients Dr. Roux 01-030 Brent Edington <p>Approximately 0.5% of the US population is believed to be allergic to tree nuts. Additionally, the data from a voluntary registry of peanut and tree nut allergic US patients shows 20% of those reporting allergy to tree nuts list sensitivity to cashews, the highest percentage for any tree nut.</p> <p>The proposed invention discloses major allergenic proteins in cashew nut, which are legumin-like proteins and 2S albumins. Also disclosed is a polypeptide allergen in the 7S superfamily, which includes vicilin-like and sucrose binding proteins. Several linear epitopes of the cashew nut are identified and characterized.</p> <p>The invention further discloses the sequence of cDNA encoding the allergenic polypeptide, the allergen being designated Ana o 1, and also describes the characterization of the expressed recombinant polypeptide and associated methods employing the polypeptide. A diagnostic test for detecting anti-cashew IgE in a patient to thereby indicate an allergy to cashews comprises of: reacting patient's serum with a composition comprising at least one of the above mentioned purified polypeptide; separating the polypeptide from unreacted patient serum; reacting the polypeptide with a labeled human IgE-reactive agent after separating from unreacted patient serum; separating the polypeptide from unreacted labeled human IgE-reactive agent; and directly or indirectly detecting the labeled human IgE-reactive agent bound to the polypeptide after separating from unreacted agent to thereby indicate presence in the patient's serum of anti-cashew IgE.</p>
Drug and Protein Design System Based on Advanced Free Energy Simulation Algorithms Wei Yang 11-130 Matthieu Dumont <p>Free energy simulation algorithms are designed to solve problems in protein and drug design. This software is more accurate than any other method at predicting binding free energy changes upon the modifications of ligands to allow for more efficient, accurate, and reliable samples for pharmaceutical and bio-technology research.The proposed invention has demonstrated the ability to efficiently and accurately predict protein ligand interactions that have the potential to be effective drugs. </p> <p>The fundamentals of this algorithm are based on physical principles, various conformations of trial small molecules, or proteins are docked into the target proteins. Then binding affinity changes (scoring) are evaluated on each obtained docking mode. The combination of these two centerpieces in structure based rational drug/protein design can facilitate the drug discovery and protein engineering processes dramatically.</p> <p>This software has the potential to significantly reduce the time and cost of drug discovery by enabling unprecedented prediction accuracy within industry tractable computing resources and timescales.</p> <p><a href="/media/3812/yang.pdf" title="Yang.pdf" data-id="6090">Download PDF Version</a> </p> <h2>Applications:</h2> <p>This software will allow pharmaceutical and bio-technology companies to create new drugs and products with more efficiency and accuracy</p> <h2>Advantages:</h2> <ul> <li>Reduces cost and time spent discovering new medicines</li> <li>Helps identify lead ligands, the initial bottleneck step in research and development for new pharmaceuticals</li> </ul>
Dual-Chamber Perfusion Bioreactor for Orthopedic Tissue Interfaces Teng Ma 10-013 Robby Freeborn-Scott <p>Adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSC's) have been used to regenerate bone and cartilage in both pre-clinical and clinical studies. This device can be used to fabricate from MSC's orthopedic interfaces such as bone-cartilage, ligament-bone, or muscle-tendon for implantation to correct orthopedic defects caused by disease or injury. The perfusion bioreactor chamber has two compartments connected by a porous scaffold for growing the tissue. The conditions such as substance concentration, pressure, and fluid flow rates can be individually controlled in each compartment and the pressure can be regulated so that the fluid can penetrate the scaffold transversely or horizontally. The porous scaffold supports cell growth and fluid penetration thereby providing the structure for the MSC's to form a functional tissue (bone, cartilage, etc.).</p> <p>Large tissue constructs require a controlled heterogeneous environment to grow properly. Previous bioreactor technology typically creates a homogeneous growth environment by introducing media flow in one direction and is not able to control the communication between different regions of the construct.</p> <h2>Advantages:</h2> <ul> <li>Able to control the biochemical and physiochemical conditions in each growth chamber individually </li> <li>Able to modulate the interactions and communication between two compartments by directing flow</li> <li>Enables the MSC's to differentiate two different cell types within the same construct; for example, chondrocytes and osteoblasts, thereby creating constructs composed of both cartilage and bone</li> </ul>
Evaporative Edge Lithography (EEL) of a Liposomal Drug Microarray for Cell Migration Assays Dr. Lenhert 13-035 Brent Edington <p>The proposed invention is capable of producing linear lipid multilayer nanostructures along the edge of a stencil. The thickness of these lipid films is controlled that results in controlling dosage of material that is taken up by cells cultured over these areas. Unlike other migration assays, this approach makes it possible to screen different compounds and dosages on the same surface, with scalability for high throughput screening microarrays to assay for cell migration. Additionally, the drug or small molecules encapsulated will only be delivered to cells at the edge of the stencil because of the precipitation properties which can be important to selectively affect the migrating cells at the edge from non-migratory cells. This invention utilizes lipids as the bio compatible patterning materials, which have been used previously to create surface supported monolayers mainly to detect functionality in reconstituted proteins and to measure membrane diffusion. </p> <p>Creating bio-compatible films with defined features is important for materials research as these patterned surfaces can give rise to cellular responses such as differentiation, migration, alignment, and other cellular mechanisms. This research is important for biomedical applications such as implants, stents, and other devices surgically implanted in humans.</p>
Flow-Through Lipid Nanotube Arrays for Structure-Function Studies of Membrane Proteins by Solid State NMR Timothy Cross 07-043 Abby Queale <p>The proposed invention is a novel solid state NMR based technology that takes advantage of a recent finding that uses Anodic Aluminum Oxide (AAO) nano-porous filters to uniformly align membrane proteins in the NMR spectrometer. The technology is similar to SAR by NMR but is applicable to Membrane Proteins, a class of proteins that accounts for more than 60% of all current drug targets.</p> <p><a href="/media/3818/cross2.pdf" title="Cross2.pdf" data-id="6096">Download PDF Version</a> </p> <h2>Applications:</h2> <ul> <li>This novel NMR approach can be applied to all membrane proteins with well-aligned membrane protein samples in bicelles or AAO filters</li> <li>This approach can be used for drug development for all infectious diseases, including Mycobacterium Tuberculosis</li> </ul> <h2>Advantages:</h2> <ul> <li>This NMR technique can be used for target-based screening for membrane proteins</li> <li>Allow pharmaceutical research to identify which protein targets may respond to drugs and which targets are relevant to disease</li> </ul>
High Throughput Optical Quality Control of Phospholipid Multi-Layer Fabrication Dr. Lenhert 11-126 Brent Edington <p>The present invention describes a way to optically determine the height of fluorescent phospholipid multi-layers by measuring the intensity of emitted radiation using an inverted microscope and image analysis software. Fluorescent phospholipid multi-layers are an essential part of the cell structure, however, in order to characterize the height of these lipid structures atomic force microscopy (AFM) is generally performed, which is a time consuming and laborious process.</p> <p>The proposed invention outlines a method to determine the feature height over large areas rapidly using fluorescent intensity calibration curves (plots of intensity/s versus feature height) requiring no use of AFM. Fluorescent phospholipid multi-layers can be patterned in a number of ways including micro-contact printing, using Langmuir troughs or dip pen nanolithography (DPN). DPN is used to pattern fluorescent lipid multi-layer patterns (in the shape of dots, lines and squares) and to compare their height obtained using AFM and optically using calibration curves.</p>
Liposome Micro- and Nano-Arrays for Molecular Screens in Cell Culture Dr. Lenhert 11-191 Brent Edington <p>The proposed invention describes the use of surface supported liposome arrays as a platform for screening of molecular libraries in cell culture models. Drug candidates encapsulated into surface supported liposomes are arrayed on a surface to form lipid multilayer arrays. The surface has been functionalized to ensure liposome uptake by the cells. Cells are cultured on these arrays and their response to the liposomes are monitored optically. Multiple liposome compositions and different lipids or other additives printed onto the same surface can be simultaneously screened. The drugs that are and are not working can be determined by their position on the surface.</p> <p>Contrarily to actual small molecule microarrays for drug screening strategies our invention does not require to covalently attach to a surface, and cells can be grown on the surface. Covalent attachment of the small molecule on the surface prevents internalization of the compounds, limiting the types of tests that can be carried out. Furthermore, the number of molecules that a single cell can see is limited by the surface it contacts. Diffusion of small molecules from array sources, such as gels has also been used for screening, although molecular diffusion limits applicability of those methods. Using surface supported lipid multilayers encapsulating drug candidates solves these problems.</p> <h2>Applications:</h2> <ul> <li>Screening of delivery systems, particularly for lipophilic drug candidates</li> <li>Drug resistance cell screening, where cells from biopsies are cultured ex situ</li> </ul>
Mechanism of Action of Membrane Proteins Timothy Cross 10-130 Abby Queale <p>The present invention relates to the atomistic functional understanding of the M2 protein from the influenza A virus. This acid-activated selective proton channel has been the subject of numerous conductance, structural, and computational studies. Previously, little was known at the atomic level about the heart of the functional mechanism of this tetrameric protein, a tetrad of HxxxW residues. The structure of the M2 conductance domain in a lipid bilayer is disclosed and displays the defining features of the native protein that have not been attainable from structures solubilized by detergents. A detailed mechanism for acid activation and proton conductance is provided and elucidates many observations on the M2 proton conductance. The present invention provides a method based on the comparative study of solid-state NMR spectra in which detecting a change in resonance will determine that a drug candidate has bound to a histidine tetrad of a viral protein.</p> <p>Influenza A and B viruses cause a highly contagious respiratory disease in humans resulting in approximately 36,000 deaths in the United States annually. The only other drugs for inhibiting the M2 protein from Influenza A virus are no longer effective due to viral mutations. The knowledge of unique geometry associated with the tetramer of this protein may permit the development of drugs to inhibit this proven target. Unlike previous drugs that served to plug the pore formed by this protein across the viral membrane, drugs that targeted the channels unique chemistry could be much more specific for this target. The immediate application is to computationally model drugs that would bind with this chemistry and then conduct drug screening efforts to optimize drug binding affinity. Targeting the novel chemistry associated with function of this protein provides a new opportunity for drug development against the deadly Influenza A virus.</p>
Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSC) Expansion Teng Ma 11-054 Robby Freeborn-Scott <p>The present invention describes materials and methods for growing and expanding mammalian mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) while maintaining their undifferentiated phenotype, self-renewal ability, therapeutic potency, and/or multi-lineage potential. The method describes i) the seeding of freshly isolated MSC on a 3-D scaffold and their growth under physiological or low O2 tension for a period of time sufficient to support formation of 3-D extracellular matrix (ECM) network; ii) the decellularizing of the 3-D scaffold; and iii) the reseeding of the decellularized 3-D scaffold with MSCs, whereby the reseeded MSCs grow on the scaffold and maintain an undifferentiated phenotype. The 3-D scaffold comprises or is composed of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET).</p> <p>A faster production of highly potent human MSC is obtained using our methodology based on combining hypoxia and cell-derived ECM compared with the traditional culture methods utilizing growth factor supplements and a high concentration of serum.</p> <h2>Advantages:</h2> <ul> <li>Expands hMSC faster than the conventional methods</li> <li>Better presses hMSC's therapeutic potency compared with the traditional culture methods</li> <li>Requires a low concentration of serum and requires no exogenous factors to be added to expand the cells</li> </ul>
Method of Using RNA as an Inhibitor of HCV Dr. Hengli Tang 07-073 Brent Edington <p>The NIH estimates that four million Americans are infected with Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) and an estimated 8,000 to 10,000 Americans die annually of HCV related complications. This figure is expected to triple in the next 10 to 20 years. FSU researchers have utilized siRNA HT-161 to effectively block HCV replication and infection in cell culture. The replication is inhibited by clearing human cells of a protein essential for HCV replication. HT-161 inhibits diverse HCV strains including the genotype 1a and 1b that are prevalent and resistant to interferon therapy.</p> <p><a href="/media/3808/tang1_2.pdf" title="Tang1_2.pdf" data-id="6086">Download PDF Version</a> </p> <h2>Applications:</h2> <ul> <li>The method has been shown to prevent new infection and eliminates replicating HCV RNA from infected cells</li> <li>Can be utilized against a diverse selection of HCV</li> </ul> <h2>Advantages:</h2> <ul> <li>HT-161 targets a cellular gene necessary for viral replication thereby significantly reducing the likelihood of viral escape and resistance due to mutation</li> <li>Current therapies, such as interferon (IFN), have significant adverse side effects and HCV strains develop resistance to IFN treatment</li> <li>Unlike other siRNAs, the treatment does not target the viral genome, which, when targeted, increases the risk of mutations conveying resistances to treatment</li> </ul>
Mutant Polypeptides of Fibroblast Growth Factor 1 Dr. Blaber 07-055 Brent Edington <p>Human fibroblast growth factor-1 (FGF-1) is a potent human mitogen for a variety of cell types including vascular endothelial cells, and can stimulate such cells to develop neovasculature capable of relieving ischemia. For this reason, FGF-1 is an angiogenic factor with potential applicability in "angiogenic therapy”.</p> <p>The present inventions describe several mutant polypeptides of the β-trefoil protein human fibroblast growth factor-1 (FGF-1) which greatly exceed the wild-type polypeptide in ability to stimulate human fibroblasts to proliferate. The amino acid sequence of the FGF-1 mutants, as well as the methods of treating fibroblasts and of stimulating mitogenesis of the fibroblast leading to tissue healing are described. The purified polypeptides of the present invention exhibit from approximately fifteen to one thousand times more mitogenic activity than wild-type FGF-1 in stimulating fibroblasts to proliferate.</p> <p>These mutants of human FGF-1 with enhanced stability and mitogenic potency can be used as second generation forms of FGF-1 in angiogenic therapy. Enhanced stability may preclude the need for added heparin in the formulation of FGF-1 for therapeutic use. Additionally, the enhanced thermal stability may translate to longer shelf-life and minimization of aggregation during storage. The enhanced mitogenicity (possibly related to enhanced stability) may provide for smaller dosages for equivalent efficacy.</p>
Mutants of Human Fibroblast Growth Factor Having Increased Stability and/or Mitogenic Potency Dr. Blaber 04-046 Brent Edington <p>Human fibroblast growth factor-1 (FGF-1) is a potent human mitogen for a variety of cell types, including vascular endothelial cells, and can stimulate such cells to develop neovasculature capable of relieving ischemia. For this reason, FGF-1 is an angiogenic factor with potential applicability in "angiogenic therapy."</p> <p>The present invention describes engineered mutant polypeptides of human fibroblast growth factor 1 (FGF-1) having improved thermal stability and/or improved mitogenic activity. In comparison to wild-type FGF1, polypeptides having mutations at positions 12 and 134 exhibit enhanced properties of stability and/or mitogenic activity. Enhanced stability may preclude the need for added heparin in formulations of FGF1 for therapeutic use. Additionally, the enhanced thermal stability may translate to a longer shelf-life and minimization of aggregation during storage. The enhanced mitogenicity, which is possibly related to enhanced stability, may provide for use of smaller dosages for equivalent efficacy.</p>
Nucleic Acid and Allergenic Polypeptides Encoded Thereby in Cashew Nuts Dr. Roux 03-035 Brent Edington <p>Approximately 0.5% of the US population is believed to be allergic to tree nuts and the data from a voluntary registry of peanut and tree nut allergic US patients shows 20% of those reporting allergy to tree nuts list sensitivity to cashews, the highest percentage for any tree nut.</p> <p>The present invention describes isolated nucleic acid sequences and degenerate variants encoding an Ig-E binding immunogenic polypeptide of cashew. The invention additionally provides an in vitro diagnostic test for detecting anti-cashew IgE in a patient.</p> <p>The test comprises of reacting the patient's serum with a purified polypeptide, the amino acid sequence of which comprises at least one sequence selected from the isolated nucleic acid sequences; separating the polypeptide from unreacted patient serum; reacting the polypeptide with a labeled human IgE-reactive agent after separating from unreacted patient serum; separating the polypeptide from unreacted labeled human IgE-reactive agent; and detecting labeled human IgE-reactive agent bound to the polypeptide after separating from unreacted agent to thereby indicate presence in the patient's serum of anti-cashew IgE. The present invention thus discloses isolated nucleic acid sequences, polypeptide products thereof, and associated methods. The skilled will recognize that the isolated nucleic acids will be useful at least when expressed in a suitable cell or organism to produce the encoded polypeptides, which in turn may be employed in testing to identify patients allergic to cashew nuts. Furthermore, expression of the nucleic acid sequences of the present invention in a suitable cell may be useful in studying and characterizing gene function.</p>
Space Efficient Photobioreactor System Jose Vargas 10-090 Robby Freeborn-Scott <p>The continued use of petroleum-derived fuels is now widely seen as unsustainable. Presently available biofuels can be substituted for petroleum-derived fuels without the need for extensively modifying existing internal combustion engines.</p> <p>The present invention describes a microalgae-based bio-fuels production system in a space efficient photo-bioreactor. The bioreactor grows microalgae in a tall array of transparent flooded tubes. A nutrient media is circulated through the tubes. The array is configured to maximize the amount of sunlight falling upon each tube so that growth of the microalgae is as uniform as possible. Gassing/degassing systems are attached to the array of tubes at appropriate locations. These introduce carbon dioxide and remove oxygen. Cooling systems are preferably also provided so that the circulating media can be maintained at a desired temperature. Microalgae are harvested from the photo-bioreactor. The microalgae are filtered and dried. Lipids are then extracted from the microalgae. These lipids are made into biodiesel through a trans-esterification process and can be used to make other products as well.</p> <h2>Advantages:</h2> <ul> <li>Compact microalgae cultivation in a high productive manner</li> <li>Reduces the need for land since it has the potential to provide higher biomass production density than traditional systems of microalgae biomass production</li> <li>The modular conception allows for the gradual implementation of the system for in situ biofuel production wherever it is needed</li> </ul>
Reusable Colorimetric Fluoride Sensors Dr. Sourav Saha 10-186 Dr. Matthieu Dumont <p>Fluoridation of drinking water has been effective in preventing tooth decay and improving overall den-tal health; however, overexposure to fluoride poses numerous serious health risks including brittle bone disease and increases in bone cancers. Thus, accurate detection of fluoride levels in water and food sources as well as in body fluids is essential. </p> <p><a href="/media/4156/marketing-document-10-186-saha.pdf" target="_blank" title="Marketing document 10-186 Saha.pdf" data-id="7056">Download PDF Version</a> </p> <h2>Applications:</h2> <ul> <li>Medicine and health applications, both commercial and consumer-oriented, to test for the presence of fluoride in tap water, foods, blood and urine</li> <li>Food industry applications, such as testing toothpaste, bottled water, and food products</li> <li>Commercial product to enable water purifier manufacturers to test the effectiveness of their products more easily and at a reduced cost</li> <li>Municipal water-testing applications, particularly field testing</li> <li>Humanitarian application for use in developing countries with few or non-existent fluoride testing tools or standards</li> </ul> <h2>Advantages:</h2> <ul> <li>Offers both colorimetric and fluorimetric detection</li> <li>Can detect fluoride presence and quantity in a variety of environments including water, food, gas/air, and body fluids</li> <li>The sensors are easy to synthesize, environmentally benign, and can detect a range of fluoride concentration levels, with high sensitivity at extremely low nanomolar concentrations</li> <li>Dip-stick and spot-test forms are easy to use, effective, and comparatively inexpensive to produce</li> <li>Tests are reversible, reusable (with power source), and recyclable (disposable), thus reducing waste and costs</li> </ul>
A High-Efficiency Multi-junction Photovoltaic Cell for Harvesting Solar Energy Indranil Bhattacharya and Simon Foo 09-151 Robby Freeborn-Scott <p>Solar energy is a renewable energy source that continues to receive increased interest worldwide as it is the most abundant source of free energy available on the planet.</p> <p>At present, most of the commercially available solar cells are, at best, approximately 19% efficient in their ability to absorb energy from the sun. At the Florida State University, a novel multi-junction photovoltaic cell has been proposed by Dr. Simon Foo that will significantly increase solar energy conversion efficiency in excess of 40%, that is, more than double the efficiency of commercially-available crystalline silicon cells. The new design introduces a third layer to the solar cell that will enable the cell to absorb a wider range of the sunlight spectrum. The third layer is comprised of an Indium-Gallium-Antimonide (InGaSb) semiconductor material that improves the absorption of photons with wavelengths from near-infrared to the end of the infrared region of the solar spectrum. Importantly, of the infrared, visible light, and UV regions of the solar spectrum, it is the infrared region that contains the largest amount of harvestable energy.</p> <h2>Applications:</h2> <ul> <li>Aerospace</li> <li>Building construction</li> <li>Civil engineering</li> <li>Electronics</li> <li>Power stations</li> <li>Stand-alone and grid-connected applications</li> <li>Distributed power generation</li> </ul> <h2>Advantages:</h2> <ul> <li>More efficient than the single layer photovoltaic cells currently available on the market</li> <li>More efficient than existing multi-junction solar cells currently under development</li> <li>Capable of harvesting energy of photons with wavelengths exceeding 598nm, the largest portion of the solar spectrum</li> </ul>
A Single-Phase Single-Stage Grid-Interactive Inverter with Wide Range Reactive Power Compensation Dr. Liu and Dr. Li 11-131 Robby Freeborn-Scott <p>In this invention, a novel single-phase single-stage grid-interactive inverter based on a discrete Fourier Transform Phase Locked Loop technique is developed to separate the real and reactive power between different energy sources/storages. The hybrid modulation technique and sophisticated power allocation strategy are developed for the power generation system to achieve wide range reactive power compensation and enhance energy conversion efficiency. One distributed energy source and two energy storages are interfaced to the inverter with three cascaded H -bridge cells used to investigate the performance of the proposed system. Different energy source/storages with wide voltage change range can be directly connected in the invention and the single-stage energy conversion can be implemented. The present invention can integrate distributed energy sources/storages in one cascaded inverter. Due to the absence of DC-DC converter, single-stage energy conversion can be achieved. The hybrid modulation technique and power allocation strategy corresponding to the proposed system are developed to achieve the wide range reactive power compensation, voltage boost function, and the optimized power management.</p> <p>The proposed single-phase single-stage grid-interactive inverter is particularly suitable to meeting the increasing distributed power generation needs. It can facilitate to interface different distributed renewable energy sources or storages such as wind power, solar power, battery, fuel cell, Ultra-capacitor and so on. The switching loss will be decreased due to the cascaded structure and hybrid modulation technique.</p> <h2>Advantages</h2> <ul> <li>The multilevel AC output voltage will reduce the AC filter size, improve power quality and enhance the system reliability</li> <li>The transformerless structure will lead to lower cost and lighter weight, in addition to facilitating high power application</li> </ul>
Alkali Metal-Air Flow Battery Jian-Ping (Jim) Zheng 11-077 Robby Freeborn-Scott <p>Alkali metal-air batteries, and in particular, lithium (Li)-air batteries have attracted much attention due to their relatively low cost and extremely high specific capacity.</p> <p>This technology describes an alkali metal-air flow battery system including an electrochemical reaction unit having a lithium conductive membrane disposed between an anode and a cathode section, and an electrolyte reservoir. The electrolyte reservoir can be fluidly coupled to a cathode electrolyte chamber to allow for circulation of an electrolyte solution from the electrolyte reservoir to the cathode electrolyte chamber. Circulation of the electrolyte solution from the electrolyte reservoir to the cathode electrolyte chamber can be accomplished at a rate sufficient to maintain the solubility of at least one discharge product of a reaction occurring in the cathode section in the electrolyte solution.</p> <h2><span class="CmCaReT" style="display: none;">�</span>Advantages</h2> <ul> <li>Low cost</li> <li>High energy density</li> <li>Good cyclability</li> <li>High efficiency</li> <li>Easy to scale-up.</li> </ul> <p>Moreover, Li-air flow batteries are particularly-suited for large-scale grid applications by virtue of being cost effective, having a large energy density, and having a large cycle life compared to other electrical energy storage systems for grid applications.</p>
Catalytic Electrode with Gradient Porosity and Catalyst Density for Fuel Cells Jian-Ping (Jim) Zheng 10-113 Robby Freeborn-Scott <p>In the past decade, huge effort and resource has been devoted to developing proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) technology to realize the wide commercialization in automotive and portable application. However, challenges still remain related to the high cost especially the precious metal cost, relative low performance at low platinum loading, and poor long-term durability.</p> <p>The technology developed is a membrane electrode assembly (MEA) for a fuel cell comprising a gradient catalyst structure and a method of making the same. The gradient catalyst structure can include a plurality of catalyst nanoparticles, e.g., platinum, disposed on layered buckypaper. The layered buckypaper can include at least a first layer and a second layer and the first layer can have a lower porosity compared to the second layer. The gradient catalyst structure can include single wall nanotubes, carbon nanofibers, or both in the first layer of the layered buckypaper and can include carbon nanofibers in the second layer of the layered buckypaper. The MEA can have a catalyst utilization efficiency of at least 0.35 g,a1/kW or less.</p> <p>The SWNT/CNF buckypaper based Pt catalyst has shown a good Pt utilization and a good durability under an accelerated degradation test in a mimic cathode environment in our previous patent application. However, this new invention by using the Pt/DLBP with tailored gradient structure was demonstrated even better Pt utilization and stability. Therefore, the fuel cell made with this new structure catalytic electrodes will have better power density and operation time, and low cost.</p> <h2>Advantages:</h2> <ul> <li>Will have significant impact on the structure of future fuel cell</li> <li>Will significantly reduce the cost of fuel cells, because the usage of catalytic material (platinum) can be significantly reduced</li> <li>Fuel cells are capable of providing high energy efficiency and relatively rapid start-up</li> <li>Fuel cells are capable of generating power without generating the types of environmental pollution that characterize many other sources of power</li> <li>Thus, fuel cells can be a key to meeting critical energy needs while also mitigating environmental pollution by substituting for conventional power sources</li> </ul>
Determination of the Distribution of Corrosive and Non-Corrosive Sulfur in Petroleum and Its Fractions Ryan Rodgers 13-118 Abby Queale <p>The distribution of corrosive and non-corrosive sulfur in petroleum and its fractions is accomplished by the separation of the relevant classes of sulfur compounds by ligand exchange chromatography combined with determination of sulfur content in the initial oil and its separated fractions by appropriate analytical measurements.</p> <p>Sulfur compounds in petroleum present in enormous variety of chemical structures. For the purposes of this invention, we define "'corrosive sulfur" as the organic sulfur that generates H2S under thermal stress. Research indicates that such compounds (mercaptans, alkyl sulfides, and disulfides) are corrosive in refinery stress at temperatures between 250-400"C (450-700'F). Thermally stable organosulfur compounds (thiophenes, thiophenols, and aryl sulfides where sulfur electrons are conjugated with the aromatic ring) are termed '"non-corrosive".</p> <p>In the invention, a cation exchange sorbent (either a silica or polymer-based phase) is converted to its Ag form and a sample is eluted into two fractions. The first solvent mixture elutes non-corrosive thiophenics and aryl sulfides while the second solvent mixture elutes sulfides and disulfides. Mercaptans (thiols) remain on the column but can be recovered through additional treatment. By analyzing the initial sample and the two fractions by appropriate S techniques, it is possible to calculate the distribution of total S into non-corrosive (thiophenic) and two corrosive types. The latter consists of corrosive sulfide/disulfides that elute in the second fraction the mercaptans (difference between the initial S and sum of the fractions). Thus, the invention provides a convenient methodology for quantifying the distribution of S-types in petroleum and its distillate fractions.</p> <p>The fractions generated by this cartridge separation are also suited for subsequent characterization of the isolated fractions by the sophisticated methods described above. It is equally obvious that this sequence of solvents can be incorporated in a HPLC separation without any need for back-flushing.</p> <p>Alternate solvent combinations and sorbents are being considered to broaden the scope. Several options are being pursued to determine the most appropriate method for sulfur analysis. The separation has been validated with model hydrocarbon and sulfur compounds as well as with GC/MS analysis of isolated fractions for a number of crude oils and distillate fractions. Once the appropriate S-technique(s) have been identified, additional samples will be analyzed to generate a wider database.</p>
Flexible Electrochemical Cell with Fiber-like Geometry and Coaxially Structured Electrodes Jesse Smithyman 14-015 Abby Queale <p>The proposed technology is a flexible electrochemical cell with cylindrical, fiber-like geometry. As opposed to the sandwich-like structure of planar cells, the cell has coaxial electrodes with the separator in between such that all components are concentric cylinders.</p> <p>A flexible electrochemical cell consists of a carbon nanotube yarn as the inner electrode and supportive material. A polymer electrolyte is coated on the yarn followed by the application of an outer carbon nanotube network electrode. Chemical modification of the electrodes is possible to enhance or tailor the electrochemical properties.</p> <p>The inclusion of these carbon nanotube electrodes enables the integration of an electronic conductor and active material of each electrode in a single component. The features of the flexible electrical devices described herein beneficially enable the device to maintain high volumetric energy and power densities during device deformations. Without being limited to a single theory, a coaxial design of the flexible electrical device permits uniform primary current distribution because of the radial ion transport between electrodes.</p> <p>The initial prototypes fabricated had diameters - 500 micron and future size reductions are very feasible. Tailoring the materials used in the cell design allows for a number of different applications. Prototype super capacitor fibers and humidity sensing fibers have been developed.</p> <p>The high aspect ratio fiber geometry also provides a cell design able to undergo flexural deformation with minimal impact on the electrochemical properties, and &gt; 95% of the energy density and &gt; 99% of the power density was retained when wound around an I l cm diameter cylinder.</p>
High Efficiency Ion Exchange in Zeolites Dr. Susan Latturner 09-002 Dr. Matthieu Dumont <p>Aqueous ion exchange in zeolites is currently hindered by the acidic byproducts that deteriorate the zeolite structure. This invention improves the ion exchange efficiency in zeolites by utilizing polymer solutions that do not damage the zeolite network. The result is an efficient zeolite that is ideal for ion exchange, catalysis, and gas exchange.</p> <p><a href="/media/3827/latturner2.pdf">Download PDF Version</a> </p> <h2>Applications:</h2> <ul> <li>Industries that use ion exchange, i.e., nuclear power, petroleum processing, etc</li> <li>Lithium-ion batteries</li> <li>Gas exchange</li> </ul> <h2>Advantages:</h2> <ul> <li>Increased ion exchange efficiency than zeolites with aqueous solutions</li> <li>Ion exchange efficiency further increased by the use of zeolites with lower Si/Al ratio</li> <li>Operation at intermediate temperatures, unlike molten salts</li> </ul>
Pulsed Gliding Arc Electrical Discharge Reactors Bruce Locke 06-142 Robby Freeborn-Scott <p>Gliding arc discharges have been investigated as a potential technology for gas phase pollution treatment and for liquid phase pollution treatment. Ultimately, the practical use of gliding arc technology to promote chemical transformations, such as the removal of organic pollutants in water or the generation of hydrogen peroxide, other reactive oxygen species, or reactive nitrogen species for treatment of potentially contaminated foods, depends on the efficiency that can be achieved.</p> <p>The present invention describes a plasma gliding arc discharge reactor that is useful for chemical transformations in liquids and gases. The reactor may include a housing having a plurality of divergent electrodes, a power supply connected to the electrodes delivering pulsed power to the reactor, and a nozzle that directs a mixture of a carrier gas and a liquid to a region between the divergent electrodes, thereby generating plasma in the region. The nozzle can include a first inlet for receiving the carrier gas, a second inlet for receiving the liquid and a mixing chamber that is configured to mix the carrier gas and the liquid prior to being directed to the region.</p>
Metal-Air Flow Batteries Using Water Based Electrolytes Jian-ping (Jim) Zheng 12-206 Robby Freeborn-Scott <p>FSU researchers introduce new lithium (Li)-air flow batteries aimed to overcome major disadvantages of traditional Li-air batteries such as low current density and poor cyclability. The battery consists of three Units: the electrochemical (EC) reaction unit, the electrolyte storage unit, and the oxygen exchange unit which mimics the structure of a classical fuel cell system.</p> <p>Traditional Li-air batteries have an extremely large theoretical energy density, but suffer from several drawbacks:</p> <ol> <li>The Li20 2/Li20 discharge product deposits on the air side of the electrode reducing the pore size and limiting the access of the 0 2 in the cathode</li> <li>The cyclability and energy efficiency of Li-air batteries are poor due to the lack of effective catalysts to convert solid Li20 2/Li20 discharge products into Li ions</li> <li>The current and power densities of Li-air batteries are much lower compared to conventional batteries due to extremely low oxygen diffusion coefficient in liquid solution</li> </ol> <p>The FSU batteries overcome all of these drawbacks by circulating and refreshing the electrolyte continuously between the three units and using catalysts to increase the cathode potential during the discharge and decrease it during the charging process.</p>
Inflatable Solar Energy Collector Apparatus Ian Winger 09-128 Robby Freeborn-Scott <p>Solar energy collector design composed of various mirror and lens combinations have been proposed, with significant attention being paid to the concentrating power of the lens or mirror. These solutions typically involve expensive coated glass surfaces and the weight of the components requires substantial mechanical actuators to move them so that they can accurately track the sun's motion across the sky. While functional, the prior art systems are expensive and complex.</p> <p>The present invention is an inflatable solar energy collector using two elongated and pressure-stabilized air chambers with a trough-shaped reflecting surface in between. The curvature of the reflecting surface is created by adjusting the differential pressure between the two air chambers and the device can be configured to provide a focal point outside the air chambers or inside the air chambers. For the version using the external focal point an external energy receiver is appropriately positioned. For the version using the internal focal point, the receiver is mounted inside one of the air chambers. The collector is preferably adjustable in azimuth to accurately track the sun's motion across the sky and is able to operate efficiently without the need for altitude adjustment, although altitude adjustment may also be optionally provided. The invention preferably incorporates a novel energy receiver in which stagnant air is entrapped and used as an insulator.</p> <p>This light-weight solar concentrator is of interest as the infrastructure required to support and rotate it is reduced compared to more massive concentrators. Parabolic troughs need to be rotated about only one axis to track the sun throughout the year and concentration power of troughs is sufficient to reach reasonable temperatures. This invention would therefore provide a solar concentrating device made of inexpensive materials and is relatively light and simple.</p>
Novel Catalytic Air Electrodes for Rechargeable Lithium-Air Batteries Jian-ping (Jim) Zheng 11-160 Robby Freeborn-Scott <p>Due to the high energy density, lithium-air batteries have become very popular.  One of the most important components of a lithium-air battery system is the air diffusion electrode. The properties of an air electrode directly determine the performance of the entire battery system. The significant components of the air electrode, which are critical for its properties, include the surface area, porosity, thickness, catalysts, conductivity, and polarity for various organic electrolytes.  Among these factors, catalysts for oxygen electrochemical reduction enhance the discharge properties of the lithium-air battery and reduce over-voltage during the discharge. Thereby improving the energy and power densities.</p> <p>The technology developed is a novel lithium-air battery. The battery includes an anode comprising lithium, a cathode comprising an Ag<sub>2</sub>Mn<sub>8</sub>O<sub>16</sub> catalyst, and an<br />electrolyte comprising a lithium salt. The Ag<sub>2</sub>Mn<sub>8</sub>O<sub>16</sub> particles can range in diameter between 2 nm and 100 nm. The loading of the Ag<sub>2</sub>Mn<sub>8</sub>O<sub>16</sub> catalyst can range from 5% to 75%.</p> <p>The anode comprises lithium, which can take few forms including metal, powder, alloy, etc. The cathode may comprise single-wall carbon nanotubes, multi-wall carbon nanotubes, and/or carbon nanofibers. In addition, the cathode may include carbon black, carbon micro beads, and/or activated carbon. In some versions of the technology small and large diameter multi-wall nanotubes, an entanglement of flexible single-wall nanotubes, small diameter multi-wall nanotubes around nanofibers, and/or large diameter multi-wall nanotubes may be included in the cathode. The electrode can take many forms of a lithium salt.</p> <p> </p>
Voltage Profile Based Fault Detection Michael (Mischa) Steurer 13-147 Robby Freeborn-Scott <p>Fault location in a traditional power system is a challenging task. Electric power flows only in one direction: from the substation to the various loads. Therefore, when a severe short circuit fault occurs, there is a current rise with voltage sag near the faulted node or line and everything else that is downstream. If the fault protection system responds adequately it isolates the assumed faulted areas which are all the nearby and downstream customers of the actual faulted area.</p> <p>In a system containing distributed resources (DRs), most fault location technologies ignore the presence of DRs by assuming either low DRs penetration or no power injection from DRs during a fault. The few technologies that consider the presence of DRs have not considered a current limited system when a fault occurs.</p> <p>As the amount of local generation (PV, microturbines ... ) is increasing, the existing distribution systems fault location methods do not always apply because of various reasons including cost, complexity of the system due to mesh-like system topology, and bidirectional power flow. This FSU invention takes advantage of the system topology, the presence of the controllable voltage source convertors (VSCs), and the change of the voltage profile with the presence of the fault. Using the VSCs to help locate the fault will help overcome the issue of relying on the measured value of voltage when the voltage has completely collapsed in a section because of a fault in the distribution system. Instead of hindering the fault location process, the VSCs are used to help support the voltage, locate the fault, and provide fast restoration.</p>
Sharing Cyrogenic Cooling Systems Between Large and Auxiliary Devices Sastry Pamidi 13-040 Robby Freeborn-Scott <p>Cryo-cooled or super-cooled power applications are increasing in popularity because they are typically lower in weight and volume, and more efficient than traditional power applications. Cryocooling is well suited to superconducting technologies (e.g., high-speed accelerators, wind power and flywheel applications) that need to be kept at cryogenic temperatures in order to function.</p> <p>Currently, the cost of cryocoolers is prohibitively high for small applications, in part, because cryocoolers are primarily designed for large devices. Additionally, cryocooling systems are suboptimum in their design because they 1) are based on a “use-or-lose” model that wastes cooling power that is not fully utilized and 2) cannot be shared between critical devices.</p> <p>A potential solution to these two issues involves a new design by Dr. Sastry Pamidi that enables cryogenic sharing of “waste” cooling between a large superconducting device and smaller devices in close proximity that also benefit from cryocooling. In it basic form, the invention is an add-on heat exchanger that is attached to an existing cryocooler through which a controllable flow of helium gas is circulated to “steal” excess cooling power from the device. The helium circulation system enables the productive use of excess cooling power and also eliminates the need for resistive heaters that are typically used to maintain required operating temperatures in cryocooled devices. Importantly, this exchanger will make it easier to run auxiliary devices under cryogenic environments without the need for each device to have its own dedicated cryocooler, thus reducing costs and improving the efficiency of operation as well as creating new opportunities for using cryogenics.</p> <h2>Applications:</h2> <ul> <li>Aerospace</li> <li>Cryogenic equipment manufacturing</li> <li>Military</li> <li>Power grid</li> <li>Transportation</li> <li>Research laboratories</li> <li>Universities, national labs, and hospitals</li> </ul> <h2>Advantages:</h2> <ul> <li>Enables sharing of cryocooling between a large device and smaller devices to minimize or eliminate the cooling waste produced by “use-or-lose” cryogenic methods</li> <li>Multiple devices can be cooled by a single cryocooler, rather than each device requiring its own cooler</li> <li>Improves energy efficiency and reduced cost of operation</li> <li>Creates new opportunities for using cryogenics in smaller devices and applications</li> <li>May be designed into new cryocoolers or added on to existing cryocoolers</li> </ul>
A Real-Time, Ubiquitous Structural Health Monitoring System for Fiber-Reinforced Composite Materials Okenwa Okoli 12-037 Abby Queale <p>The Florida State University invites companies to join us in commercializing a new method for monitoring the structural health of fiber-reinforced composites (FRCs). The continuous push to create faster and lighter vehicular structures has radically increased the use of fiber-reinforced composite (FRC) materials in the aerospace industry and others because these composites possess high specific strength and stiffness. Economic constraints have also contributed to the growing trend of airlines operating aircraft beyond their design lives, making their effective monitoring for structural damage an important safety feature. Increasingly, too, composite materials are used in the construction of buildings, dams, naval structures, and ground-based vehicles.</p> <p><a href="/media/3830/okoli.pdf">Download PDF Version</a> </p> <h2>The Problem:</h2> <p>Multiscale, multifunctional advanced composite materials have the potential of creating a paradigm shift in how engineered structures are used. Their failure modes which enhance their ability to absorb impact energy are unlike those seen in metallic materials and have no single, similar self-propagating crack features. Metals show visible damage caused by impact mainly on the surface of structures, while damage is hidden inside composite structures especially when subjected to low velocity impact such as bird collisions or tool drops. This barely visible damage may cause serious decrease in material strength of the structure over its life-cycle.</p> <p>Current inspection and monitoring techniques are based primarily on exterior examinations and/or externally mounted sensors placed at discrete locations. Since failures in composites are frequently microscopic, originate internally, and are slow to reveal themselves externally, current detection systems are limited in their effectiveness.</p> <p>A cost issue also exists. In the case of airplanes, approximately 27% of their life-cycle cost is spent on inspection and repair. Thus, accurately and quickly identifying the location and severity of damage at the micro-structural levels is essential to detecting macroscopic fatigue and avoiding catastrophic failures. Future sensors for Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) of aerospace structures are envisioned to be an array of inexpensive, spatially distributed, integrated sensors supporting online/real-time acquisition of structural integrity information on the loading, environmental effects, structural characteristics and responses of these structures. The information obtained from the sensors can then be used to monitor the structural integrity of the components in real-time in order to avoid catastrophic failures.</p> <h2>The Solution:</h2> <p>With the recent advances in material research, solutions to damage monitoring will need to be based on an integrated platform. At FSU’s High-Performance Materials Institute, a novel SHM system is in development, which will detect minute structural damage in FRC materials (e.g., fiberglass, carbon fiber). Essentially, this is a biomimetic solution pre-existing in nature that can act as a guide towards ubiquitous sensing by use of Triboluminescent materials. Triboluminescence is a physical phenomenon, where upon duress crystalloid materials emit copious amounts of visible light. By integrating these triboluminescent materials in fiber-reinforced composites alongside a transmission medium, failure information can be obtained.</p>
Actuator Devices Including Nanoscale Fiber Films Dr. Liang 08-110 Abby Queale <p>This present invention describes a novel technique to fabricate carbon nanotube or nanofiber thin films (buckypapers)/solid electrolyte actuator devices for lightweight, high performance actuator and morphing structure applications. The method includes two nanoscale fiber films adjacent to a solid polymer electrolyte positioned at least partially in between. Moreover, the solid polymer electrolyte is affixed to the two nanoscale fiber films. The nanoscale fiber films may be buckypapers made of carbon nanotubes. The actuator is capable of dry actuation.</p> <p>This new approach to prepare buckypaper actuators can eliminate the need to use insulation layer in structures and retains high concentration and conducting of nanotube networks in the actuators, which are critical to achieve high performance actuation. More importantly, all the actuators can work properly in open air, which is critical for real-world applications. High nanotube loading and good conducting networks in buckypapers lead to improved actuation performance. Furthermore, the actuator can be easily laminated or encapsulated with polymer films or coating to resist environmental effects. Through improvements of nanotube dispersion, alignment and conductivity of buckypapers, we can further enhance and optimize actuation performance. The invention is a technical breakthrough to realize real-world engineering applications of nanotube-based actuators. The invention overcomes the major technique barriers, such as working in liquid electrolyte and lower performance, of current liquid electrolyte and nanotube/polymer mixture-based actuator systems.</p> <p>Due to exceptional high mechanical properties and lightweight of carbon nanotube and nanofiber materials, lightweight and high performance actuation can be expected for both immediate and near future engineering applications, such as morphing structures of aircraft and nanoscale/microscope actuators for device applications (for instance, actuators for driving microscale).</p>
Adaptive Control of Air Flow Using a Piezoelectric Controlled Pulsed Micro-jet Actuator William Oates 10-045 Robby Freeborn-Scott <p>Traditionally, structures and systems used to influence air flow include mechanical and/or servo-hydraulic actuators that rotate an aileron or rotor blade to mitigate the loss of lift from separated flow. More recently, active flow control systems in the form of bench-top demonstrations have been successful alternatives to controlling air flow; however, these applications are limited in their effectiveness because their designs are unable to effectively handle the performance variations that occur across different aircraft structures and operating conditions. Namely, these active flow systems are limited to a narrow frequency band and subsonic flow applications.</p> <p>A solution to the limitations mentioned above involves the design of a piezoelectric microjet actuator that integrates smart materials into a microjet to produce broadband pulsed flow with high actuation forces that can be adjusted in real-time.  This pulsed flow is able to better prevent stall scenarios and reduce noise on a case-by-case and as-needed basis for a wide variety of aircraft types. The actuator operates effectively under subsonic and supersonic conditions.  IN addition, the adaptive structures inherent in the actuator’s design reduce the parasitic load on the jet engine to ½% or less of the main flow field. The result of this design is a lighter, smaller, more efficient, and less complex air flow actuator that improves aircraft agility and efficiency while reducing noise.</p> <h2>Applications:</h2> <ul> <li>Aerospace</li> <li>Automotive</li> <li>Military</li> </ul> <h2>Advantages:</h2> <ul> <li>Improves agility and efficiency, reduces noise</li> <li>Can adjust air pulsations in real-time to prevent/reduce stall scenarios</li> <li>Has a built-in feedback loop that enables air to be pulsed at different frequencies</li> <li>Produces high actuation forces (kN) and broad bandwidth (quasi-static to approximately 10kHz) at small displacements</li> <li>Capable of pulsing subsonic and supersonic flows</li> <li>Actuator is less complex in design and smaller in size and weight</li> <li>Can work in compact aerodynamic structures, such as rotor blades and rockets</li> </ul>
Light-Weight Vacuum Chamber Sean Barton 05-080 Robby Freeborn-Scott <p>This technology developed at Florida State University comprises a vacuum chamber with an innovative wall structure. Instead of a conventional homogeneous wall structure, the vacuum chamber uses an array of internally-pressurized, thin-walled cells to contain an enclosed volume. The walls are arranged so that when a vacuum is present in the enclosed volume, the cell walls are placed in tension. In this way the potential modes of buckling instability are substantially reduced. The result is a much lighter vessel compared to a conventional homogeneous wall vessel of similar strength.</p> <p>Traditional vacuum chamber designs have been quite heavy. For earth-bound vacuum chambers, weight is frequently not a concern. However, for mobile chambers, weight can be a very significant concern. The weight associated with traditional vacuum chambers can be highly significant in such an environment.</p> <p>In addition to the mobile aspect advantage of having a light-weight vacuum chamber, this vacuum chamber raises the possibility of displacing a greater weight of atmosphere than the weight of the vacuum chamber itself. Such a design could achieve positive buoyancy, creating a rigid "vacuum balloon."</p>
Carbon Nanotube and Nanofiber Film-based Membrane Electrode Assemblies Dr. Liang 06-088 Abby Queale <p>The present invention describes a carbon-materials-based membrane electrode assembly (MEA) for a fuel cell comprising a catalyst layer.</p> <p>The catalyst layer can include a plurality of catalyst nanoparticles, e.g., platinum, disposed on buckypaper. A particular feature of the MEA, according to the invention, is that the buckypaper film is fabricated with carbon nanotubes, nanofibers, or a mixture thereof, with little or no binder. The buckypaper additionally can be treated with high temperature for improving electrical and/or mechanical properties of the structure. The microstructure of the buckypaper can be tailored by adjusting the starting materials and nanotubes dispersion so as to achieve a desired porosity, pore size, surface area, and electrical conductivity for use as the catalyst layer of the MEA. The catalyst nanoparticles are preferably deposited directly at the most efficient sites of the buckypaper to thereby maximize the three-phase reaction coefficient.</p> <p>The MEA so fabricated can have a higher catalyst utilization rate at the electrodes, can provide higher power output, and can have enhanced oxidation resistance, and well as a longer service life, as compared to conventionally-fabricated fuel cells.</p>
Carbon Nanotube and Polymeric Thin Film Assemblies for Pressure Sensing and Mapping Dr. Liang, Dr. Lu, Dr, Whang and Dr. Zhang 08-132 Abby Queale <p>Pressure/force sensing technologies are used in a broad range of applications. Many pressure/force sensors are available, but thin film sensors are limited. Currently, the most common film pressure sensors are either resistive or capacitive, which are both reusable. This new technology utilizes the rupture of microcapsules filled with dyes for pressure sensing to create a disposable thin film mapping.</p> <p>The sensing assembly is composed of a top and bottom element. The top element is made of elastomer-like polymer with grooves that are filled with polymer gel electrolyte and the bottom is made of patterned conducting material thin film strips on top of flexible polymer film. When pressure is applied, a deformation of the material in the top element causes the gel to come in contact with the film strips, which creates an ionic-conducting path.</p> <p><a href="/media/3841/liu2.pdf" title="Liu2.pdf" data-id="6119">Download PDF Version</a> </p> <h2>Applications:</h2> <ul> <li>Seat occupancy detection in the automobile industry</li> <li>Tactile feedback for robots to sense and respond to environments</li> <li>Rehabilitation progress monitoring in the medical industry</li> <li>Bite force mapping in dentistry</li> <li>Measuring force of golf grips</li> </ul> <h2>Advantages:</h2> <ul> <li>Disposable</li> <li>Low percolation threshold</li> <li>Detects low levels of pressure sensing</li> <li>Utilizes ionic conduction as the major sensing mechanism</li> </ul>
Conical Magnet Dr. Bird and Dr. Toth 05-152 Abby Queale <p>The present invention describes an electromagnet capable of producing an approximately conical field. The conical bore is created by wrapping a conductor around a conically-offset helix. The cross sectional area of the conductor can be varied in order to maintain a desired current carrying capacity along the helix. A single element can be used as the conductor. The conductor can also be created by stacking a series of specially-shaped plates analogous to prior art Bitter-disks.</p>
Method of Mitigating Backlash of Mechanical Gear Systems Using a Damper Motor Michael "Mischa" Steurer 08-018 Robby Freeborn-Scott <p>The technology developed comprises a torque damper motor connected to the output side of a mechanical gear system. The damper motor, along with its associated control system, mitigates backlash problems, reduced torsional resonance, and provides improved output torque control. In the preferred embodiment, the damper motor is powered by a power electronics-based variable speed drive. The damper motor can be significantly less powerful than the overall rating of the gear system (typically 5-10% of the overall rating) while still providing the enhanced performance.</p> <p>The invention can be applied to any rotating system having a gear train. The invention eliminates or at least mitigates many of the problems inherent in rotating gear systems. As one example, the invention could be used with many types of torque creating devices other than steam turbines, electric motors, and compressors. Likewise, although a was described in detail, the invention is equally applicable to speed-decreasing gear trains as well as speed-increasing gear train.</p>
Dendritic Cooling Layer Generator for Printed Circuit Boards (PCB's) Juan Ordonez 12-088 Robby Freeborn-Scott <p>Managing the heat generated in electronics continues to be challenge. This is especially true as electronic devices are getting smaller and smaller while becoming more and more powerful. This is true for almost all electronic components, including printed circuit boards (PCBs).</p> <p>The current technology includes a dendritic cooling layer that has non-intuitive dendritic structures that minimize peak temperature. Another embodiment of the invention includes a dendritic cooling layer that is compatible with current PCB fabrication techniques. In some instances, the dendritic cooling layer that has an adjustable tolerance to meet fabrication limits.</p> <p>The innovative technology generates a dendritic high conductivity path suitable for PCBs and identifies a process to manufacture the high conductivity layer compatible to those used in PCB construction. The methodology produces the geometry of a cooling layer for a multilayer PCBs following constructal theory principles.</p> <h2>Advantages:</h2> <ul> <li>Compatible with current PCB fabrication techniques and methods</li> <li>Unintuitive dendritic structures </li> <li>Adjustable tolerance to meet fabrication limits</li> </ul>
Design of an Electric Joint Design to be Used in Electromagnetic Coils Dr. Trociewitz 11-119 Abby Queale <p>The present invention describes an electric joint design to be used in electromagnetic coils made with high-temperature superconducting tape. The conductor runs without interruption all the way from the top of the coil along some part of the current lead and establish a distributed resistive joint outside of the area where the magnetic forces are high and helium gas may be trapped. One embodiment of this invention is to solder the conductor onto the complex contour that is machined into a terminal piece made from high purity copper. This contour allows for a change in the conductor direction by about 90 degrees as it leaves the winding pack just by applying a soft-bend and an internal twist without cutting it or forcing a hard-bend onto it.</p> <p>Conventional resistive joints within the terminal region present a performance limiting factor in high field coil design. The problem solved by this invention is the avoidance of heat generating resistive joints in the terminals of coils made with high temperature superconducting tape cooled by liquid helium. These terminals are located at the coil ends in a region where heat dissipation can both generate and trap helium gas. The original liquid helium cooling of the joint becomes thus insufficient causing the coil to either not perform at its fullest potential or not maintain its superconducting properties and fail.</p>
Gloves as Programmable and Wearable Carbon Nanomaterial Thin Film Enabled Sensor/Sensor System for Man-Machine Interaction and Body Monitoring Dr. Liu 13-211 Abby Queale <p>Carbon nanomaterial thin film is integrated in rubber gloves to create a wearable glove sensor/sensor system for man-machine interaction applications.</p> <p>In contrast to the conventional man-machine interaction systems, e.g. keyboard and camera, which require occupied hand or fixed space to input commands, the present invention gives orders simply based on a finger or body movement without touching anything.</p> <p>Design of the elastomer-like materials leads to wearable sensor:sensor systems that can be worn on any part of the human body for health monitoring and motion capturing.</p> <p>The immediate application is man-machine interaction, e.g., communication with computing devices to make phone calls, write emails, play games, adjust music volume without holding or touching anything; Remote control of robots working under extreme environments such as bomb disposal and deep sea exploration. Another potential application is body monitoring, e.g., rehabilitation progress monitoring of a patient such as wound healing, breath condition, and heart detect; Monitoring of an athlete's fatigue during training to reduce injuries and boost performance; Motion capturing to make 3D movies and games.</p> <p>Video demos of a prototype glove sensor and its application for man-machine interaction are available upon request.</p>
High Bandwidth & Control Authority Micro-Actuators for Active Flow & Noise Control Dr. Alvi 09-157 Robby Freeborn-Scott <p>Active control of flows for a wide array of applications has seen a surge of activity in recent years due to the potentially substantial gains in performance offered by flow control schemes. For example, control or delay of flow separation over airfoils and lifting bodies can significantly extend the operating envelope of aircraft by improving their aerodynamic performance. The control of aeroacoustically induced flow oscillations in cavity flows is another area where various active (and passive) control methods are being explored. Flows where control can be applied are wide and varied with more applications are likely to appear as the technology matures.</p> <p>Efficient control of flows requires the use of effective actuators, which can be adapted for specific applications. The proposed invention describes the design and development of pulsed actuator systems capable of producing high bandwidth, high momentum microjet arrays for active flow and noise control applications. Our results clearly show that the present design produces microjets with a very high mean momentum (high subsonic to supersonic) as well as a very significant unsteady component. Studies have been conducted over a large range of actuator and flow parameters, in terms of cavity length, source jet NPR and source jet impingement distance.</p> <p>The results unequivocally demonstrate the ability to vary the frequency as well as the amplitude of the mean and unsteady momentum of the microjets issuing from this actuator. By varying the dimensions of the actuator by only few hundred microns one can tune the frequency of the unsteady component from the order of a 100 Hz to 100 kHz, or more if needed. The ability to produce unsteady flow with significant mean and unsteady components, where the dynamic range can be easily varied makes these actuators promising for a number of subsonic and supersonic flow control applications for both internal and external flows.</p>
Leakage Current Suppression Solutions for Photovoltaic Cascaded Multilevel Inverter Application Hui (Helen) Li 13-176 Robby Freeborn-Scott <p>The cascaded multilevel inverter is considered to be a promising alternative for the low-cost and high-efficiency photovoltaic (PV) systems. However, the current leakage issue, resulting from the stray capacitances between the PV panels and the earth, needs to be solved for the cascaded inverter to be reliably applied in PV application.</p> <p>The proposed technologies solve the leakage current issue in PV cascaded multilevel inverter by using passive filters. It can retain the simple structure of the inverter and does not complicate the associated control system.  The system is a photovoltaic cascaded inverter, including inverter modules, which have both an AC and a DC side.  In addition, the system includes a common DC-side choke coupled to the DC-side of each of the inverter modules and a common mode AC-side choke coupled to the AC-side of each of the inverter modules.</p> <p> </p>
Methods for Implementing Stochastic Anti-Windup PI Controllers Emmanuel Collins 08-019 Robby Freeborn-Scott <p>In the present invention, different circuit-based implementations of stochastic anti-windup PI controllers are provided for a motor drive controller system. The designs can be implemented in a Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA) device. The anti-windup PI controllers are implemented stochastically so as to enhance the computational capability of FPGA. The invention encompasses different circuit arrangements that implement distinct anti-windup algorithms for a digital PI speed controller. The anti-windup algorithms implemented by the circuit arrangements can significantly improve the control performance of variable-speed motor drives.</p> <p>Compared with the existing technologies, the stochastic PI controller provides an efficient implementation approach that uses straightforward digital logic circuits but has the advantage of significantly reducing the circuit complexity. Therefore, the present invention notably improves the performance of the stochastic PI controller and saves digital resources in a motor drive control system. The immediate and/or future applications are motor drive controllers for induction motor systems, and more particularly, proportional-integral (PI) controllers. The use of the invention will increase the market of FPGA since the capability will be largely increased and the cost will be relatively reduced.</p>
Method to Increase Dynamic Range of Segmented Non-Linear Devices Kurtis Johnson 10-048 Robby Freeborn-Scott <p>The present invention describes a method to increase the dynamic range of a solid-state monolithic device such as a silicon photomultiplier (SiPM). In this method, the incoming flux of photons is rendered non-uniform allowing a significant increase in the useful dynamic range achieved. The desired distortion of the incoming flux can be obtained in a variety of ways. These include simple non-focused lenses, prisms, interference films, mirrors, and attenuating films. Virtually any device which distorts the incoming flux will increase the dynamic range of the SiPM and combinations may be used to tailor the response to a desired application.</p> <p>In addition to silicon photomultiplier, the present inventive method can be applied to a wide range of non-linear detectors, sensors, or transducers. This invention enables an inexpensive jump in dynamic range which otherwise would only be attained by awaiting a new round of silicon chip production and masking.</p>
Organic Chemical Synthesis using Plasma Reactors with Liquid Organic and Liquid Water Bruce Locke 13-153 Robby Freeborn-Scott <p>Electrical discharge plasma contacting liquid phases has been studied for a wide range of chemical, biomedical, environmental, and Materials synthesis applications.  The present invention utilizes a gas-water-organic plasma reactor for the conversion of alkanes into functionalized products (alcohols, aldehydes, etc.) using a pulsed plasma reactor with liquid water and flowing carrier gas. Hydrogen peroxide is also generated conjunction with the functionalized products.</p> <h1>Applications</h1> <ul> <li>Agriculture</li> <li>Healthcare</li> <li>Sanitization</li> <li>Waste water degradation</li> </ul>
Pressure Sensors including an Ionic Conduction Sensing Mechanism Dr. Liu 08-132 Abby Queale <p>The present invention describes thin film sensors for detecting the presence, intensity, and/or location of a compressive force, or pressure based on ionic conduction variation as the sensing principle. Upon wisely choosing soft materials-- elastomer-like polymer and polymeric gel electrolytes/polymer electrolytes in combination with appropriate patterning, the present invention offers low pressure level sensing and mapping capability with enhanced sensitivity. The sensor includes a plurality of conducting elements spaced apart from each other and at least one deformable electrolyte bridge contacting each of the conducting elements at one or more contact points having an aggregate contact area. Upon formation of an ionic circuit between two of the conducting elements, a first resistivity between the two conducting element exists. Upon application of a compressive force on the at least one deformable electrolyte bridge directed toward at least one of the conducting elements, the aggregate contact area increases such that a second resistivity between the two conducting elements exists. The difference between the first and second resistivity can be correlated with the pressure or mechanical displacement to be measured.</p> <h2>Applications:</h2> <ul> <li>This invention has numerous potential application in pressure sensing and mapping, e.g., seat occupancy detection for the automobile industry, tactile feedback for robots to sense and respond to environments, rehabilitation progress monitoring of a patient for the medical industry, biting force mapping in dentistry application, or measuring force on golf club grips.</li> </ul>
Scalable Manufacturing of Carbon Nanotube Network-based Strain Sensors with Printed Electrodes Shu Li 14-029 Abby Queale <p>FSU researchers have discovered a method that manufactures strain sensors based on carbon nanotube network sensing elements, printed microelectrodes, and flexible substrates.</p> <p>In one case, carbon nanotube network sheets are bonded to the substrate with epoxy resin, and electrodes are printed on top of the nanotube sheet. In another variant, electrodes are directly printed on top of the substrate, and the nanotube sheet is fixed atop across the printed electrodes. Type A and B sensors achieved positive and negative gauge factors up to 20 and 40 in magnitude. Both the positive and negative gauge factors are one order of magnitude higher than commercial strain gauge sensors. The high performance and flexible nature of the sensors, as well as the capability of scalable manufacturing processes, exhibits promising application potential.</p>
Solderless Joint Technology Dr. Thomas Painter 09-026 Abby Queale <p>This is a simple, yet novel device that eliminates the need for any type of solder when joining two large cables. The Solderless Joint Technology will immediately save hundreds of thousands of dollars in manufacturing costs, as well as minimize the risk to the entire multi-million dollar superconducting magnet system. This device has been fabricated and tested by the team in the laboratory and has yielded amazing results.</p> <p>This invention eliminates the need for solder by placing wires in a compression box that seals them between a novel cradle of steel and copper. These cradles are compressed by a novel steel tool which sandwiches the wires under extreme pressure. The steel housing is then welded together and heat treated for over eight days. This creates a vacuum-like seal, similar to solder, yet cheaper, higher performing, and with a longer lifespan.</p> <p><a href="/media/3832/painter2.pdf" title="Painter2.pdf" data-id="6110">Download PDF Version</a> </p> <h2>Applications:</h2> <ul> <li>This device’s primary purpose is to form an electrical joint between two cable-in-conduit conductor wires, such as those typically used in superconducting magnets.</li> </ul> <p> </p> <h2>Advantages:</h2> <ul> <li>The fabrication technique is simple, inexpensive, quick, and is designed to last as long as the CICC wire itself.</li> <li>Minimal electrical resistance compared to its predecessor, which allows a magnet to retain more power.</li> <li>Eliminates the need for solder, which is messy and leaves gaps in the electrical seal.</li> <li>Eliminates the need to handle the magnet after it has been heat treated, which lowers the risk to the brittle multi-million dollar magnet.</li> <li>Unlike previous methods, this joint technology will not need to be frequently maintained or replaced over the life of the magnet.</li> </ul>
The Lookahead Instruction Fetch Engine (LIFE) Dr. David Whalley 08-033 Dr. Matthieu Dumont <p>The Lookahead Instruction Fetch Engine (LIFE) provides a mechanism to guarantee instruction fetch behavior in order to avoid access to fetch-associated structures, including the level one instruction cache (Ll IC), instruction translation look aside buffer (ITLB), branch predictor (BP), branch target buffer (BTB), and return address stack (RAS). Systems and methods may be provided for lookahead instruction fetching for processors. The systems and methods may include an L1 instruction cache, where the L1 instruction cache may include a plurality of lines of data, where each line of data may include one or more instructions. The systems and methods may also include a tagless hit instruction cache, where the tagless hit instruction cache may store a subset of the lines of data in the L1 instruction cache, where instructions in the lines of data stored in the tagless hit instruction cache may be stored with metadata indicative of whether a next instruction is guaranteed to reside in the tagless hit instruction cache, where an instruction fetcher may be arranged to have direct access to the L1 instruction cache and the tagless hit instruction cache, and where the tagless hit instruction cache may be arranged to have direct access to the L1 instruction cache.</p> <p>LIFE can both reduce energy consumption and power requirements with no or negligible impact on application execution times. It can be used to reduce energy consumption in embedded processors to extend battery life. It can be used to decrease power requirements of general purpose processors to help address heat issues. LIFE, unlike most energy saving features, does not come at the cost of increased execution time. It will result in a significant improvement over the state of the art and will extend the life of batteries making mobile computing more practical. Finally, it will allow general-purpose processors to run at a faster clock rate with similar heat being generated.</p>
Chromatography- Removing Water Solubility Problems in Petroleum Crude Oils/Organic Matrices Ryan Rodgers 12-205 Abby Queale <p>The technology creates a new stationary phase that separates compounds based upon their interaction with water. Water-active species are "problem" species in organic matrices because they are often responsible for emulsion formation/stabilization in chromatography. This technology provides an easy and quick way to isolate water-active species that currently does not exist.</p> <p>The technology has already been applied to separate interfacially active species from petroleum crude oils/organic matrices.</p> <p>Most stationary phases in chromatography are based upon silica, alumina, or polymers to allow for the retention of compounds. However, no current commercially available stationary phase is based upon the interaction of compounds with water, because water has not been immobilized as a stationary phase.</p> <p>Immobilized water on silica gel creates a consistent product that can be reproduced. Since the stationary phase is created at room temperature (22-25°C), there are no difficulties with creation, storage, and usage of the stationary phase. The stationary phase has a long shelf-life (4+ years) and could be produced in bulk and stored until use, thus making it desirable for commercialization.</p>
Methods for Identifying in Naphthenates-Causing Deposits in Liquid Hydrocarbons during Refining Dr. Marshall 08-182 Abby Queale <p>The present invention describes a method and apparatus to test whole oil to determine if deposits are expected to occur in oil production. The invention specifically address both calcium and sodium naphthenate deposits but may have applications in scale and asphaltene deposition as well. Because hydrocarbon comprising liquids, e.g., crude oil, include a variety of hydrocarbon and heteroatom containing hydrocarbon components, it is often difficult or impossible to identify specific compounds, such as naphthenic acids, present therein. The method includes contacting a hydrocarbon-comprising liquid with gaseous ammonia in order to produce a reaction product, and then isolating the reaction product. The reaction product is then analyzed for the presence of naphthenates by use of an atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometry technique, including, but not limited to, electrospray ionization and photoionization techniques, e.g. atmospheric pressure photoionization and laser desorption ionization. The hydrocarbon-comprising liquid can be any liquid including hydrocarbons, such as crude oil, bitumen, a crude oil fraction, a crude oil concentrate, a crude oil extract, a diluted crude oil, or any other product of crude oil or other similar raw materials.</p> <p>In another embodiment, the invention is drawn to a method for determining whether a crude oil composition will produce commercial naphthenate deposits during crude oil processing. In this case, the analysis step can include comparing mass spectrometry results of the reaction product to standards for naphthenic acids known to form commercial naphthenate deposits. If no reaction product is formed, it can be concluded that the crude oil composition is not likely to form commercial naphthenate deposits. However if the comparing step indicates that the reaction product comprises a naphthenic acid ion present in commercial naphthenate deposits, the composition of the crude oil mixture can be adjusted to reduce the formation of commercial naphthenate deposits.</p> <h2>Advantages:</h2> <ul> <li>Easy to implement</li> <li>The deposit produced from the test is easily isolated for mass spectral or other analytical testing</li> </ul>
A Method of In-Situ Polymerization Functionalization of Nanotubes for Composite Applications Dr. Wang and Dr. Liang 08-096 Abby Queale <p>This invention provides a novel technique to enhance carbon nanotube dispersion and interfacial bonding in epoxy-based nanotube nanocomposites through in-situ polymerization. The in-situ polymerization reaction grafts peroxide groups onto the surfaces of nanotubes and the functionalized carbon nanotubes or nanofibers react with epoxy resin during nanocomposites fabrication. This in-situ polymerization can lead to high-exfoliation and uniform dispersion of carbon nanotubes or nanofibers in the epoxy polymer matrix during modification of nanotube surface characters. Furthermore the in-situ reaction produces covalent bond between nanotubes or nanofibers and the epoxy polymer matrix during composite fabrication through drafted peroxide groups to substantially improve load-transfer between nanotubes and resin. The significantly improved dispersion and interface bonding considerably increase the load-transfer and acquire high performance.</p> <h2>Applications:</h2> <ul> <li>This invention has excellent potential for use in the mass production of high-performance nanotube and nanofiber reinforced epoxy composites for multifunctional applications, such as lightweight high-performance structural materials, electromagnetic interference, and thermal management materials, etc.</li> <li>Immediate applications include composite applications for aircraft, thermal management for electronic device package, etc. The yield rate using this method is almost I 00% and has the excellent potential for low cost mass production and scale-up.</li> </ul>
A Method to Fabricate Highly Aligned Nanotube Buckypaper by Mechanically Stretching Thermoplastics /Buckypaper Composite Films Dr. Liang 09-057 Abby Queale <p>The present invention describes a method of creating lightweight efficient parabolic solar panels and a unique approach to realize improved alignment of nanotubes in buckypaper materials.</p> <p>This invention provides a new method to align carbon nanotubes in buckypapers by stretching thermoplastics/buckypaper films. Buckypaper is a thin film (approximately 20µm) of nanotube networks, which can be utilized in various products, such as composites, electronic devices and sensors. Since nanotubes are highly anisotropic in nature, the alignment of nanotubes in buckypaper is critical for achieving high mechanical performance and high electrical and thermal conductivity.</p> <h2>Applications:</h2> <ul> <li>This invention has an excellent potential for use in the mass production of high-performance nanotube and nanofiber-reinforced epoxy composites</li> <li>The significantly improved alignment is key factor toward realizing the potential of nanotubes for high mechanical, electrical and thermally conductive applications in composites and electronic devices</li> <li>The high-performance buckypaper nanocomposites can be used for EMI shielding, thermal management and structural materials applications</li> <li>Immediate applications include composite applications for aircraft and thermal management for electronic device package. High-performance buckypaper materials are also expected to be widely used to develop lightweight-conducting films and current-carrying materials for electronic products</li> </ul>
A New Organic Synthetic Route which Opens Access to a Variety of Graphene Substructures Dr. Igor Alabugin 12-027 Dr. Matthieu Dumont <p>Several approaches to graphene nanoribbons exist in the literature. However, in all of them the central part of the molecule is built first and then additional rings are added at the periphery via electrophile induced cyclization or oxidative cyclodehydrogenation. These methods are difficult to apply to the preparation of non-symmetric graphene nanostructures.</p> <p>Our approach utilizes a different class of starting materials and different chemistry for the formation of six-membered cycles. In our innovative approach, ortho polyyne chains of varying sizes, equipped with different functionalities, are built in a modular fashion using well-characterized and reliable cross-coupling chemistry. In the key step, these systems are then "zipped" up via an efficient cascade of fast and selective radical cyclizations. The selectivity of transformation is achieved via incorporation of a "weak link" - a chemically different functional group which can undergo transformation into a radical center in the presence of multiple alkynes.</p> <p>Since modular assembly allows each of the peripheral groups to be unique, it will allow preparation of graphene substructures with custom shapes and functionalities.</p>
A Reinforced Composite Bi2212 Superconductor using an Embedded Internal Oxygen Source Dr. Thomas Painter 09-165 Abby Queale <p>The present invention comprises a method for making a composite superconductor and a superconductor.</p> <p>Superconducting filaments (using a material such as Bi2212) are embedded in a silver-containing matrix material (which may be substantially pure silver). Oxygen-containing filaments are also embedded in the matrix material with the oxygen containing filaments preferably being dispersed evenly among the Bi2212 wire. A surrounding reinforcement material contains the other elements and preferably seals the superconductor from the surrounding atmosphere. The composite superconductor is created using any suitable process, such as passing the constituents through one or more drawing dies. Once the materials are bonded together, the composite superconductor is subjected to one or more heat treatment processes. The oxygen within the oxygen-containing filaments reacts with the Bi2212 to form desired superconducting materials.</p>
Binder-Free Nanocomposite Material Dr. Smithyman and Dr. Liang 10-047 Abby Queale <p>The present invention provides a new material and its manufacturing process to create improved binder-free composite materials having a network of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and activated carbon (aC) particles in which one or more types of particles or fibers is embedded. The activated carbon particles are embedded in a network or matrix of single-walled or multiple-walled CNTs. The highly dispersed and entangled CNT network provides essential high electrical conductivity, mechanical strength and durability which provides for the free-standing and binder-free characteristics. The high aspect ratio of the entangled CNTs allow for the incorporation of micron sized particles within the network structure. The absence of binders, which block surface pores and thus decrease usable surface area, allows for maximum adsorption of desired materials onto the carbon's highly microporous surface. The composite materials may be made by filtering suspensions containing carbon nanotubes, particles or fibers of interest, or both carbon nanotubes and particles or fibers of interest. The particles may be silicon particles, activated carbon particles, particles of a lithium compound, any other particles, or a combination thereof.</p> <p>The produced sheets can have a multitude of uses where high surface area, low electrical resistivity, low mass density and the chemical or electrochemical properties of carbon are desired. These applications include but are not limited to: batteries, fuel cells and electrochemical capacitor electrodes, water purification systems (capacitive deionization electrode, membrane filtration), hydrogen storage materials, gas purification, etc.</p>
Ceramic Electrical Insulation Coating on Bi2Sr2CaCu208-x Round Wire Hom Kandel 13-207 Abby Queale <p>The present invention relates to an electrical insulation on Bi2Sr2CaCu208-x (Bi-2212) superconductor wire used in high field superconducting magnets. More specifically, it relates to a method for preparing suitable ceramic powder solvent suspension (slurry) and thereby applying thin ceramic coating on Bi-2212 superconducting wire by the dip coating process.</p> <h2>Advantages:</h2> <ul> <li>Excellent adherence before and after the heat treatment - HT</li> <li>Thickness ~11µm (before HT), ~7 µm (after HT); Break down voltage ~300V (after HT)</li> <li>No large cracks but presence of porosity provides pathways for oxygen getting into the wire</li> <li>No degradation in Ic values or superconducting properties</li> <li>Long length capability</li> <li>Al2O3 ceramic is another candidate for Bi-2212 insulation</li> </ul>
Composite Materials Reinforced with Carbon Nanotube Yarns aka Fabricating Reinforced Transparent Composite by Using Carbon Nanotube Yarns Dr. Zhang 11-055 Abby Queale <p>This invention describes the fabrication of reinforced transparent composite by using the filler based on carbon nanotube (CNT) yarns. CNTs belong to a class of nanomaterial that has remarkable physical and mechanical properties. Their superlative mechanical properties make them the filler material of choice for composite reinforcement. However, it is difficult to uniformly disperse CNTs in matrix in high content or using long CNTs, hard to align CNTs in composite, and there is a weak interconnection between CNTs and matrix material. By using CNT yarns as filler, it overcomes the problems of CNT dispersion and alignment. The composite could have high mechanical properties and keep the transparency since CNTs in composite are well aligned and distributed as designed.</p> <p>This invention provides a solution for using CNTs to reinforce transparent materials, where the distribution, alignment, and content of CNTs are well controlled.</p> <p>The technology described has two main steps:</p> <ol> <li>Arranging CNT yarns into a desired pattern, and 2. embedding the pattern into the matrix material.</li> </ol> <p>The term "CNT yarn" is defined as a plurality of CNTs arranged to form a very-high aspect ratio, approximately cylindrical structure. The CNTs within the yarn are substantially parallel, in a local sense, to neighboring CNTs. The CNT yarns are a special assembly of CNTs. The CNT yarns could be made by solid-state process and wet process. The wet process involve disperse CNTs in solution and then spun into yarn (or called fiber). The solid-state processes are to assemble CNTs into yarn without solution.</p> <h2>Applications:</h2> <ul> <li>Reinforcing other materials, such as metals and ceramics with/without requirements to optical transparency</li> </ul>
Improved Fire Retardant Materials Dr. Liang and Dr. Zhang 10-135 and 11-109 Abby Queale <p>Current fire retardant polymer composites contain additives that weaken their structure. This invention foregoes those additives and adds a single layer of Buckypaper to the composite. The result is a structurally sound, fire-retardant polymer composite that is ideal for aircraft and ships, where fires can be devastating.</p> <p>Buckypaper is a free standing 'paper-like' material based on nanoscale dispersed carbon nanotubes. Due to its low density, small pore size, low gas permeability, chemical resistance and high thermal stability of carbon nanotubes, buckypaper acts as a physical protective layer to reduce fire spread, toxic smokes and gases generation during combustion. The nanotubes may also be applied using a spray method. The chemical inert nature of carbon nanotube also protects itself from atmosphere.</p> <p>The combustion nature of polymer-matrix system is a major technical challenge that has limited the use of composites on board warships and aircrafts. The introduction of nanotubes on the surface of polymeric composites reduces the fire hazard and toxic smoke and gases generation, which allows significant progress in fire retardant composites. Due to the high electrical conductivity of buckypaper, this new buckypaper-added polymeric composite material can also offer lightning strike protection and enhance EMI shielding properties of the composite structure, which is highly desired for aircrafts and ships structures.</p> <p><a href="/media/3984/zhang2.pdf" title="zhang2.pdf" data-id="6633">Download PDF Version</a> </p> <h2>Applications:</h2> <ul> <li>The primary applications of such materials are advanced composites which require good fire/smoke retardant properties, such as composite structures used on ships, aircraft, etc.</li> <li>Fire protection in aircraft where 40% of fatalities in impact-survivable accidents are due to fire, not impact</li> <li>Firewalls in virtually any structure</li> </ul> <h2>Advantages:</h2> <ul> <li>30-50 second delay in time to ignition</li> <li>50-60% reduction in toxic emissions and smoke upon combustion over the composite material to be protected</li> <li>Reduction in smoke can reduce fatalities caused by disorientation and inhalation</li> <li>Maintains the mechanical properties in the composite material to be protected</li> <li>Improved durability and adhesion over current fire retardant coatings</li> <li>Electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding properties</li> <li>Lightning protection</li> </ul>
Heterogeneously Structured Conductive Carbon Fiber Composites by using Multiscale Silver Particles Shaokai Wang 14-012 Abby Queale <p>This technology enhances the through thickness thermal conductivity (TTTC) of laminated graphite fiber fabric reinforced composites by applying nanoscale and microscale silver particles to construct heterogeneous thermally conductive paths along the composite's through-thickness direction.</p> <p>The FSU technology increased the TTTC of EWC300X/Epon862 composite to 3.51 and 4.33 W/(m•K), respectively.</p> <p>Silver flakes, copper particles, carbon black, carbon nanotubes, and aluminum powder have been applied to improve the thermal conductivity of polymer resins, and some have also been homogeneously applied in the fiber reinforced composite materials as fillers in matrix. The through-thickness thermal conductivities of the composites produced with these fillers were no more than 3.5 W/(m K), less than the FSU approach. Other changes increased performance compared to other approaches.</p> <p>The combination of microscale and nanoscale silver particles can effectively connect the conduction paths among intra- and inter-tow, resulting in greater thermal conductivity under the similar density.</p>
Mechanical Decoupling in High-Temperature Superconducting Tapes David Hilton 11-075 Abby Queale <p>The present invention describes a structure and method for creating and insulating high-temperature superconductor tapes that electrically insulates the conductors while mechanically decoupling them from the much stronger encapsulant. The concept of the invention is to use a conductor insulation which not only electrically insulates the conductors of the coil windings from each other, but also mechanically insulates them from the much stronger encapsulant. The insulation material mechanically decouples the conductor from the encapsulant at the boundary between them, thereby preventing damage as a result of thermal and electromagnetic shearing forces. The proposed structure allows the encapsulant to continue performing its functions of preventing coarse motion and stabilizing the coil as a whole, while allowing fine relative displacements of individual coil windings caused by radial stress gradients.</p> <p>This invention is counter-intuitive and new because during normal manufacture of a magnet, conductor insulation and encapsulant are expected to completely immobilize incorporated conductors to prevent damage of the conductors during cooling and energization due to thermal and electromagnetic tensile and shear stresses. Such stresses and damage, however, are the consequences of this expectation. Because shrinkage and not adhesion is the functional basis of the identified and incorporated thin-walled heat-shrink tubing, thermal and electromagnetic tensile and shear stresses are minimized at the boundary between the conductors and the encapsulant. This allows the use of a strong encapsulant, such as epoxy, which would otherwise be disallowed.</p>
Method and Apparatus for Making High Strength Metals with a Face Centered Cubic Structure Dr. Ke Han and Dr. Robert Walsh 10-205 Abby Queale <p>The invention comprises a method and apparatus for strengthening metals while limiting the dynamic recovery phenomenon and maintaining ductility. More precisely, this invention provides a process for increasing the strength of pure copper and other face-centered cubic (fcc) matrix alloys while maintaining good ductility. A material sample is first subjected to equal channel angular pressing to produce an ultra fine grain ("UFG") structure. The UFG structure is then subjected to cryogenic drawing to reduce the cross-section and increase the strain density. Finally, the sample is subjected to cryogenic rolling to reduce its thickness.</p> <p>This method attains high strength through the stable accumulation of very high dislocation densities. The work hardening rate is changed by deforming the material under cryogenic conditions. The methodology can potentially be applied to many different materials which suffer dynamic recovery and consequent low strain hardening when deformed at room temperatures. The inventive method can also produce highly-aligned dislocations. If, as an example, the dislocations are aligned with the central axis of a copper wire, the dislocations will have a greatly-reduced effect on the wire's conductivity.</p>
New High-Refractive Index Polymers: Solutions for Next Generation Eyewear, Optical Adhesives and Microarray Lens Technology Dr. Albert Steigman 09-124 Dr. Matthieu Dumont <p>Organic polymers play a key role in a number of important optical applications. Principle among them are as lens materials for consumer eye-wear where their unique combination of high refractive index and optical transmission combined with scratch and fracture resistance have lead to the safe light-weight corrective lenses that are used today. In addition, they are critical in a number of specialized advanced technological applications such as microlens arrays for CCD sensors and encapsulates for light emitting diodes.</p> <p>Dr. Albert Stiegman has developed a new class of low-density, high refractive index polymers that have optical and mechanical properties that recommend them for a number of current and future optical applications. The polymers are hybrid organic-inorganic materials, the constituents of which contain highly polarizable atoms and groups that contribute to the high refractive indices and excellent optical transparency observed for specific compositions. They can be formed into hard monolithic structures that can be ground and polished to obtain lenses and other optical components. Synthesis of the polymers is technologically simple and from easily obtained components suggesting that their manufacture will be cost effective. Potential applications include eyewear and other consumer optical products such as camera, magnifying glasses and telescopes. In addition, the polymers have excellent adhesive properties that may find application as index-matched adhesives in optical assemblies</p> <p><a href="/media/3985/stiegman.pdf" title="stiegman.pdf" data-id="6634">Download PDF Version</a> </p> <h2>Applications:</h2> <ul> <li>Consumer eyewear and optics</li> <li>Microlens array technology</li> <li>Encapsulates</li> <li>Optical Adhesives</li> </ul>
Novel Method for Growth of Metal Oxide Single Crystals Dr. Whalen and Dr. Siegrist 11-129 Abby Queale <p>The present invention outlines a process application for the growth of new, and difficult-to-synthesize, metal oxide single crystals from a molten metal flux. This new method of growth applies a chemical pressure in the form of a molten metal solvent that is capable of dissolving and subsequently crystallizing metal oxides. The chemical pressure accomplishes the creation of highly reducing conditions in the growth media which force equilibration of crystal lattice energies with kinetic energy losses from cooling of the reactions. This allows for the growth of phases below their melting points and can also be used to access incongruently melting phases. More precisely, batches of individual reactions are heat-treated to synthesize single crystals comprised of oxygen with one or more transition, alkaline-earth and/or lanthanide metals. Stoichiometries are calculated, weighed out then loaded into metal crucibles which are welded under -1atm Argon gas then jacketed in quartz ampoules under vacuum. The entire reaction vessel is heated appropriately then the furnace is opened, the ampoule is removed, inverted and briefly centrifuged to mechanically separate the flux and product crystals.</p> <p>Metal fluxes are new to the growth of metal oxide single crystals and our preliminary reactions have yielded both new phases, and phases that normally require costly, extreme conditions to grow. Contrarily to current state of the art technology for the growth of metal oxide single crystal, this method of this invention utilizes temperatures below 1,000°C and no applied pressure. Since currently known metal oxides have such expansive applications, growth of these materials from synthesis routes that are less expensive or faster will have significant value to industry and government. Traditional methods of metal oxide single crystal growth do not possess the exploratory edge of this new method, which is not limited by the oxidative and thermodynamic constraints of current state of the art "open crucible" stoichiometric growth techniques.</p>
Novel Method for Producing Ultra Small Iron Oxide Particles Dr. Joseph Schlenoff 12-166 Dr. Matthieu Dumont <p>The proposed invention describes methods of producing, in one pot, iron oxide nanoparticles of total diameter less than 10 nm bearing a stabilizing shell of zwitterion and associated compositions. The synthesis of zwitterated iron oxide nanoparticles was achieved by a modified Massart method by the addition of sulfobetaine siloxane either post-synthesis or before co-precipitation of iron salts (in situ). The particles are precipitated in the presence of a zwitterion siloxane which caps the particles and stabilizes them as soon as they are made.</p> <p>This fine tuning finds mass applications in data storage, catalysis, and in biotechnology and medicine. Detection, cell sorting, and diagnosis using iron oxide nanoparticles have been reported. However, their potential use as contrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or as magnetic fluids for hyperthermia treatment continues to be the driving force for their miniaturization and surface chemistry manipulation. The particles obtained using this new method are super stable and small enough to be excreted so that they do not remain in circulation after the imaging is finished.</p>
Polymer Foam Based Piezoelectric Materials Manufactured in an Environmentally Benign Novel Process Dr. Zeng 13-161 Abby Queale <p>FSU researchers have developed thermally stable piezoelectric polymer foams (ferroelectrets) with high piezoelectric activity for sensing and actuation, with tailored morphology, cell structure and mechanical and electro-mechanical properties. These piezoelectric foams have extremely high piezoelectric coefficients and very high thermal stability up to two orders of magnitude higher than other published results.</p> <p>Thermoelectric (TE) materials generate energy in the presence of temperature differential by virtue of converting thermal energy to electrical energy. Combination of different semiconductors are the dominant thermoelectric materials. Currently all research on TE materials focus on inorganic substance and the applications of most TE materials are limited to high temperature regime (&gt; 200 oC) to achieve meaningful figure of merit, which restricts application area. In this technology, COC ferroelectrets can harvest thermal energy operated at low temperature with high figure of merit.</p> <p>Commercially available ferroelectrets are based on porous polypropylene films which has been applied in various devices, i.e., audio devices as microphones, force sensors, actuators and respiration detectors. However, these devices lack sufficient thermal and UV stability. Our foams overcome these limitations.</p>
Polymer Mechanical Damping Composites Dr. Joseph Schlenoff 07-030 Dr. Matthieu Dumont <p>The present invention describes a new method of reshaping an article comprising a polyelectrolyte complex made up of an intermolecular blend of a predominantly positively-charged polyelectrolyte and a predominantly negatively charged polyelectrolyte by controlling the salt doping level.</p> <p>The method includes contacting the article with a first solution to change a salt doping level ratio within the polyelectrolyte complex from an initial salt doping level to a second salt doping level, wherein the salt doping level ratio is changed by varying one or more factor selected from the group consisting of salt type, salt concentration, temperature, and pH within the complex; and applying a mechanical force to the article at the second salt doping level in order to reform the complex into a persistent shape.</p> <p>The second salt doping level ratio is between about 0.50 and about 0.990 and the article is fully hydrated when the mechanical force is applied. The mechanical force is applied by a mechanism selected from the group consisting of piston, syringe, screw, rollers, hydrostatic pressure, magnetic field, and any combination thereof.</p> <p>Finally, contacting the compacted polyelectrolyte complex with a second solution to change the doping level ratio in the polyelectrolyte complex from the second doping level ratio to a third doping level ratio, whereby changing the doping level ratio in the polyelectrolyte complex changes the complex shear modulus of the polyelectrolyte complex from the second complex shear modulus to a third complex shear modulus.</p>
Six-Membered N-Heterocyclic Carbine-Based Catalysts for Asymmetric Reactions Dr. David McQuade 10-020 Dr. Matthieu Dumont <p>The present invention relates to the field of asymmetrical catalysts used for transition formations in a wide variety of organic synthesis reactions.</p> <p>The catalyst is a N-heterocyclic carbine (NHC) having three fused rings with first and second rings being six-membered rings and the third being a five-membered ring. The first ring is fused to the second and has four substituents. The second ring has two nitrogens flanking a carbine atom with one nitrogen bound to a substituent. The carbene atom may optionally be bonded to a metal. The third ring is fused to the second ring and contains two nitrogens. The third ring of the catalyst has a double bond and two substituents on adjacent non-fused carbons. A non-fused nitrogen of the third ring is partially bonded to another substituent. Methods for the synthesis and use of the catalyst embodiments of the present invention are also provided.</p> <p>The new 6-NHC ligand and ligand-metal catalyst discovered and designed in this invention are relatively easy to prepare and shows excellent activity and enantioselectivity, for use in a variety of organic reactions.</p>
Transparent Armored Windows and Walls Using Novel Materials Such As Steel, Concrete and Wood Alexey Kovalev 13-166 Abby Queale <p>Presently, transparent bulletproof windows and walls are made of multilayers of glass. These structures can withstand the impact of the small armor like guns and even the impact of the standard military light personal weapon from a certain distance, yet the hardness and antiballistic properties of these structures are limited by the hardness of the glass.</p> <p>The proposed inventions use the known hardness of much stronger materials: steel, concrete, special plastics, etc. to protect against the impact of ballistic and types of weapons. The thickness of the proposed walls is not limited and can be made arbitrarily large, with only moderate attenuation in the optical transparency. The invention is not limited to optical frequencies and can be used in the full electromagnetic spectrum with any materials and lenses. For example, lenses can be transparent only for the microwave radiation or for only a narrow band of the electromagnetic spectrum.The novel feature is a special combination of optical and constructive elements which provide both protection and transparency.</p> <h2>Advantages:</h2> <ul> <li>Can be used whenever both the safety and large field of view is required</li> <li>Provide much better protection while retaining visibility</li> <li>Structural elements can be made from any materials, depending on the purpose (including wood, paper, or any other material)</li> <li>All dimensions are flexible and not fixed in absolute or relative terms to each other</li> </ul>
Solid-State Fabrication of Graphene Nanoribbons and Their Networks Mei Zhang 13-244 Abby Queale <p>This invention is for fabricating freestanding graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) and GNR networks by unzipping carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in a freestanding CNT film using laser irradiation. It provides a novel solid-state process to fabricate freestanding GNRs and GNR networks.</p> <p>Since CNTs are cylindrical shells made, in concept, by rolling graphene sheets into a seamless cylinder, the unzipping of CNTs is a new and very promising approach for controlled and large-scale GNR production. In this process, CNTs are unzipped (opened or fractured) along their longitudinal axes in such a way that the obtained structures are the desired GNRs. Another advantage of using CNTs as starting materials to produce GNRs resides in the fact that the vast existing knowledge on CNT synthesis and purification methods can be used to control and to optimize GNR fabrication.</p> <p>Unzipping CNTs has been practiced in many different ways. However, these chemical and physical methods use strong acids, oxidizing agents, or other solvents. The wet-processes alter the properties of GNRs because of a high proportion of oxygen functionalities or particles and cause problems in device fabrication process because of wrinkles and folding of GNRs as well as positioning issues.</p> <p>Our invention uses freestanding CNT sheets as the starting material and uses controlled laser irradiation in a preferred environment to convert (unzip) CNTs to GNRs and weld (joint) GNRs together to form GNR network. This is a solid-state fabrication process, which does not use any acids or solvents. Only this process is capable of fabricating large, freestanding GNRs and GNR networks and creating controllable CNT-graphene intramolecular junctions. Freestanding GNR networks are transparent conductive layers, which can be transferred easily onto any kind of substrates as a transparent electrode for various electronic and photonic applications. This solid state process is fast, clean, and scalable, and can be developed to a large-scale nanomanufacturing process.                         </p>
A Novel Cell Culture System for Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Dr. Tang 06-028 Brent Edington <p>This new culture system creates stem cell-derived human hepatocyte-like cells which are Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) infectable. This FSU-created technology establishes a new noncancerous and renewable cell culture system for HCV infection; enables direct infection by patient sera in vitro; identifies a defined transition to HCV permissiveness during hepatocyte differentiation; and demonstrates the feasibility of generating viral-resistant human hepatocyte-like cells in vitro.</p> <p>Primary human hepatocytes (PHHs) isolated from patient biopsies represent the most physiologically relevant cell culture model for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. However, these primary cells are not readily accessible, display individual variability, and are largely refractory to genetic manipulation. The  hepatocyte-like cells derived from stem cells not only overcomes these shortcomings but can also provide an unlimited source of non-cancer cells for both research and cell therapy. The system reports a novel infection model based upon differentiated human hepatocyte-like cells (DHHs) derived from stem cells, including human embryonic (hESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Differentiated human hepatocyte-like cells (DHHs) derived from pluripotent stem cells have demonstrated hepatic functions but have not been explored for HCV infection studies as here. The ability to directly infect cultured cells with HCV patient serum, to study defined stages of viral permissiveness, and to produce genetically modified cells with desired phenotypes all have broad significance for host-pathogen interactions, drug resistance analysis and drug therapy.</p> <p><a href="/media/3986/tang4.pdf" title="tang4.pdf" data-id="6635">Download PDF Version</a> </p> <h2>Applications:</h2> <ul> <li>An HCV platform for drug-resistance analysis</li> <li>Infection studies and metabolic studies</li> </ul>
A Prosthetic Socket System with an Unprecedented Degree of Multifunctionality and Integration Dr. Zhang 12-160 Abby Queale <p>The proposed prosthetic Socket Optimized for Comfort with Advanced Technologies (SOCAT) integrate advanced materials, nanotechnology, electronics, and manufacturing technologies to achieve a prosthetic socket system with an unprecedented degree of multifunctionality and integration to meet the critical needs for advanced prostheses for patients. Despite the significant advances made in the past decade in the area of prosthetics, discomfort and adverse effects on the skin as a result of poor fit, elevated temperatures and moisture accumulation within the prosthetic socket are still a major problem.</p> <p>The proposed SOCAT invention utilizes four enabling technologies augmented with a product integration design to form a holistic above-knee socket system to resolve the issues mentioned above:</p> <ol> <li>Volume/shape change management will be realized with advanced materials that sense and respond to external stimuli, such as pressure changes due to either volume changes as a result of residual limb swelling or muscle tissue shape changes during a gait cycle</li> <li>Pistoning control and skin breakdown prevention will be realized via an innovative interface material embedded with nanoparticles</li> <li>Temperature and sweat control will be achieved by solid state active cooling using an array of miniature thermoelectric devices in combination with nanomaterials and phase change materials; and</li> <li>Lightweight piezoelectric nanofoam pressure sensors and printed electronic temperature and moisture sensors fully embedded in liners will provide the patient with an early warning of adverse situations, such as abnormal pressure suggesting improper gait or pistoning, and allow the practitioner to remotely collect real-time data for subsequent analysis.</li> </ol> <h2>Advantages:</h2> <ul> <li>Fully integrated product design that addresses major concerns of current sockets while minimizing parasitic parts and devices</li> <li>Lightweight, multifunctional material-enabled socket system</li> <li>Adaptive volume change management with coupled sensing/actuation materials</li> <li>Biomimetic materials for anti-microbial function and pistoning control</li> <li>Thermal management and perspiration control with solid state active cooling in conjunction with novel nanomaterials and phase changing materials</li> <li>Whole-field pressure monitoring by innovative lightweight piezoelectric materials</li> <li>Embedded printed electronics interconnects for sensing, wireless communication and local data storage</li> </ul>
Advancing Wound Treatment with Saloplastic Dressings Dr. Joseph Schlenoff 10-019 Dr. Matthieu Dumont <p>The demand for medical wound dressings is universal. Ranging in use from treating minor cuts to traumatic injuries, medical wound dressings prevent infections and save lives. In the case of traumatic injury, current wound dressings often require the application of a variety of materials, such as a combination of wound-filling gels, gauze, tape, and splints. However, Dr. Schlenoff’s research and discovery of saloplastics can decrease the number of necessary materials needed since saloplastic dressings can treat multiple aspects of a wound.</p> <p>The process of creating saloplastics uses salt instead of heat to melt plastics made from blends of charged polymers. By placing layers of positively and negatively charged electrolytes on top of one another, their electrical charges cancel each other out and create a neutrally charged, ultrathin film. These ultra-thin polymer coatings are useful for producing biocompatible surfaces that can be implanted into the human body for medical purposes.</p> <p>Approximately 750,000 Americans suffer strokes each year. Worldwide, that number increases to 20 million people. Primary stroke damage occurs from blood clotting and secondary damage occurs when toxic byproducts, including hemin, are produced from the trauma experienced during a stroke. This condition, known as hemin toxicity, leads to cell damage and cell death that in turn may cause irreparable brain damage or death for the individual.</p> <p>With Dr. Schlenoff’s research, stents used for implantation inside coronary arteries during surgical procedures could be coated with an ultrathin film that prevents cells and proteins from adhering, thus avoiding a narrowing of the arteries and restriction of blood flow.</p> <p><a href="/media/4155/marketing-document-polymer-schlenoff.pdf" target="_blank" title="Marketing document polymer schlenoff.pdf" data-id="7055">Download PDF version</a></p> <h2>Applications:</h2> <ul> <li>First responder scenarios</li> <li>Chronic Wounds</li> <li>Medical practitioners to consumers</li> <li>Military</li> </ul> <h2>Advantages:</h2> <ul> <li>Antibacterial, moldable when wet, and cast-like when dry</li> <li>Low heating temperatures, 45 – 55 degrees C, are needed to soften the material.</li> <li>One material can treat multiple aspects of a wound.</li> <li>Within minutes, the most serious wounds and breaks can be sealed and immobilized.</li> </ul>
Analytical Method for Protein Mapping using Hydrogen Deuterium Exchange Dr. Emmett 06-103 Abby Queale <p>The present invention describes analytical methods for protein and peptide mapping based on hydrogen/deuterium exchange (HDX) with reduced or eliminated back-exchange of deuterium for hydrogen. The methods include the steps of (a) providing a peptide or protein comprising a solvent accessible hydrogen; (b) exchanging the solvent accessible hydrogen for a deuterium; (c) separating the peptide or protein with supercritical fluid chromatography; and (d) analyzing by mass spectrometry the mass of the separated peptide or protein. Supercritical fluid chromatography enables the observation of fast exchanging hydrogen atoms missed using conventional liquid chromatography methods. Using supercritical fluid chromatography instead of high performance liquid chromatography allows the faster exchanging hydrogen atoms previously missed in HDX experiments to now be observable.</p> <p>The information obtained from analyzing the mass of the peptide or protein can be extremely useful in understanding protein confirmation, protein/protein interactions, and protein/ligand interactions as well as characterizing the folding pathway of proteins. This understanding can be used to build models on protein-ligand binding sites to be used in the pharmaceutical industry for intelligent drug design.</p>
Developing a High-Capacity Hemin Scavenger to Treat Stroke Victims Branko Stefanovic 12-047 Brent Edington <p>Fibrosis affects 45% of the population in the USA. It is characterized by excessive synthesis of type 1 collagen and scarring of various organs. This leads to organ insufficiency and death. The process is chronic and progressive and there are no approved drugs that can inhibit collagen synthesis. Aspects of the regulation of type 1 collagen production have been delineated and a drug screening procedure based on disruption of the regulatory pathway has been devised. Using this screening procedure a library of chemicals compounds has been screened and nine compounds that can inhibit collagen synthesis in cultured cells between 50-90% have been found.</p> <p>This is a completely novel approach to finding antifibrotic drugs. If these compounds prove to be effective in animal models and clinical trials, they will be the first chemicals that can directly inhibit collagen production. Since there is no cure for fibrosis, they may represent the first specific antifibrotic drugs.</p>
Identification of Major Cashew and Walnut Allergens Dr. Roux 01-029 and 12-155 Brent Edington <p>Cashews and walnuts are commonly used in snack foods and as an ingredient in a variety of processed foods, such as bakery and confectionary products. For those who are allergic to these nuts, consuming them can lead to reactions ranging from dermatitis to deadly anaphylactic shock. FSU researchers have identified specific amino acid sequences in walnut and cashew proteins that produce allergic reactions in humans.</p> <p>Researchers have identified allergens in cashews, walnuts, pecans, almonds, chestnuts, and pistachios using serum from allergic patients to screen cDNA expression libraries. Once cloned and expressed, the offending proteins are subjected to epitope mapping techniques and mutagenesis to generate a hypoallergenic version. At the same time, researchers are developing polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies to tree nut allergens to be used by the food industry in testing suspected foods for contamination with allergens.</p> <p><a href="/media/3988/roux2.pdf" title="roux2.pdf" data-id="6637">Download PDF Version</a> </p> <h2>Applications:</h2> <ul> <li>Test for cashew and walnut allergies</li> <li>Generate vaccines for patients with nut allergies</li> <li>Development of genetic modifications of the proteins in cashew and walnut plants to generate hypoallergenic plants</li> </ul> <h2>Advantages:</h2> <ul> <li>Previous methods use crude extracts for allergy testing and treatment</li> <li>Better defined reagents for testing and vaccination would reduce the risk of side effects</li> <li>Increase the reliability of allergy tests</li> <li>Hypoallergenic nuts would lessen health risk to allergy sufferers and reduce potential liability of food processors</li> </ul>
Immunoglobulin Peptides Against Heated Bovine Blood Dr. Hsieh 06-097 Brent Edington <p>Transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) agents induce fatal neurodegenerative diseases in mammalian species and humans. Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in cattle, commonly known as mad cow disease, has brought enormous economic consequences since its first incidence in the United Kingdom in 1986. In addition, the emergence of a new variant form of Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (vCJD) in humans in the United Kingdom has been proposed to be possibly linked with BSE. Meat and bone meal, an ingredient of animal feed, contaminated with a TSE agent was believed to be the major vehicle of BSE transmission, according to epidemiological inquiry. To prevent the spread of BSE, the European Union in 1988 banned the inclusion of ruminant-derived proteins in animal feed. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration also introduced the feed ban in 1997 to prohibit the use of proteins derived from mammalian tissues in feeding ruminants</p> <p>Tools that permit enforcement of the meat and bone meal bans to eradicate BSE are becoming increasingly important for compliance with animal byproduct regulation. Furthermore, the accurate labeling of meat products is mandated and monitored by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) as well as by state and local governments.</p> <p>Among the various aspects of the present invention are immunoglobulin peptides which bind an antigen from bovine blood that may be used, for example, in a screening assay to identify or detect exogenous blood. The method comprises combining the sample with an immunoglobulin peptide which binds a thermostable antigen from bovine blood and determining whether any antigen from the sample was bound by the immunoglobulin peptide. This method can be used to determine the presence of bovine blood in a food sample or an animal feed sample.</p>
Novel Application of Melatonin Antagonists in Obstetrical Practice Dr. Olcese 08-058 Brent Edington <p>This is a method for the prevention of pre-term labor that will introduce, intravenously, a melatonin antagonist to women who are predisposed to premature birth. Melatonin antagonists are drugs that do not provoke a biological response themselves, but bind to melatonin receptors, and, therefore, prevent endogenous melatonin itself from binding to the receptor. It is believed that the inhibition of melatonin action will prevent women from beginning labor.</p> <p>Melatonin is a naturally occurring neurohormone found in most animals, including humans. Its role in the body is associated with the maintenance of a biological clock, or circadian rhythm. Besides this function, it is also a powerful antioxidant. Melatonin, or melatonin analogues, are consumed daily by millions of people for sleep induction. However, the application of melatonin in obstetrics represents a completely novel approach to the management of labor.</p> <p><a href="/media/3989/olcese2.pdf" title="olcese2.pdf" data-id="6638">Download PDF Version</a> </p> <h2>Applications:</h2> <ul> <li>Method for using melatonin to delay pre-term labor by targeting mothers who are at risk for premature labor.</li> </ul> <h2>Advantages:</h2> <ul> <li>Delay pre-term labor</li> <li>Save millions of dollars from premature births each year</li> <li>Prevent thousands of work hours for healthcare providers each year</li> <li>No expensive new drug development</li> </ul>
Novel Methods to Regulate Uterine Contractions Dr. Olcese 12-239 Brent Edington <p>The present invention describes a novel method of regulating uterine contractions in pregnant female using light. The method of regulating uterine contractions comprises suppressing a nocturnal endogenous melatonin level of a pregnant female experiencing uterine contractions by exposing the pregnant female during nighttime to a light source emitting visible light. Directing light from a light source positioned about 1 meter from the eyes, emitting predominantly blue light onto the pregnant females eyes between 9 p.m. to 6 a.m., with an intensity of about 10,000 lux of the visible light is sufficient to suppress the pregnant female's endogenous melatonin level.</p> <p>The results reveal that regular nocturnal contractions are suppressed by bright light exposure under these conditions. This finding supports the proposition that melatonin is a key zeitgeber, regulating the onset of human labor and parturition and that light can be used to regulate melatonin levels and, thereby, regulate uterine contractions. Optionally, the light source is adapted to emit light in discrete on/off cycles or pulses. The duration of the pulses and the separation between successive pulses is adjusted to obtain the desired amount of endogenous melatonin suppression.</p> <p>This invention will open new avenues for the management of term and preterm labor.</p>
Prophylactic and Post-acute use of Progesterone and its Enantiomer to Improve Outcomes Associated with Concussion Jacob Van Landingham 13-031 Brent Edington <p>The essential elements of this invention include: 1) nasal delivery of progesterone or its enantiomer for prophylactic use to improve outcomes associated with concussion, 2) the use of both compounds as molecular neuroprotectants and effective treatments post-acutely.</p> <p>An estimated 300,000 sports-related cases of Traumatic Brain Injury's (TBI), of mild (MTBI) to moderate severity, most of which can be classified as concussions, occur each year in the United States. The proportion of these concussions that are repeat injuries is unknown; however, there is an increased risk for subsequent TBI among persons who have had at least one previous TBI. Brain injury causes Lesions that appear and change over time in the prefrontal cortex and its pathways to the older regions of the brain. This can result in the wide spectrum of complex neurobehavioral complaints following MTBI: compulsive and explosive behavior, sensory anomalies, memory loss, as well as behavioral dis-inhibition, domestic violence, and alcohol intolerance. Worse, repetitive head injuries, even minor ones, can have serious repercussions including permanent brain damage or death.</p> <p>Due to the lack of a consistent definition, the economic costs of MTBI are not known, but they are estimated to be very high ($5 billion). These high costs are due in part to the large percentage of hospital admissions for head injury that are due to mild head trauma, however, indirect costs such as lost work time and early retirement account for the bulk of the costs. These direct and indirect costs cause the expense of mild brain trauma to rival that of moderate and severe head injuries.</p> <p>A 1999 study of college football players found that their learning disorders and reduced neuropsychological performance were independently associated with multiple concussions. Verbal learning and memory appeared to be the most sensitive components in athletes with concussions. A survey of retired professional football players found that 60% had suffered at least one concussion during their careers, and 26% reported three or more concussions. Significantly fewer neurological symptoms were reported from players who had no concussions.</p> <p>A growing body of data suggests that those who suffer repetitive head injuries in sports may be at a greater risk for neurodegenerative diseases later in life. The cumulative damage from successive concussions can increase the risk of premature senility, Alzheimer's disease, and Parkinson's disease.</p>
Use of D-serine as an Antagonist of Triheteromeric N-methyl-0-aspartate Receptors Sanjay Kumar 13-144 Brent Edington <p>D-serine, the D-stereoisomer of serine, synthesized in the brain by serine racemase from its L-stereoisomer is considered a co-agonist I co-activator of glutamatergic N-methyl-0-aspartate receptors (NMDARs). However, this action of D-serine seems exclusive to di-heteromeric NMOARs containing subunits GluN1 and GluN2.</p> <p>We have determined that D-serine works as a potent antagonist I inhibitor of GluN3-containing triheteromeric NMDARs that were discovered in our laboratory recently and found to exist in various regions of the brain. The discovery of this seemingly opposite effect on NMDARS has many therapeutic and non-therapeutic advantages including, but not restricted to, the following:</p> <p>1. D-serine, unlike other NMOAR antagonists,may be well-tolerated in the brain, because it is naturally synthesized in the brain</p> <p>2. D-serine's effect seems to be subunit specific (affecting only NMDARs that contain GluN3A or GluN3B whether they be di- or triheteromeric) making it amenable for targeted therapeutics (not all NMDARs would be affected by it in this way)</p> <p>3. D-serine's antagonism of GluN3-containing triheteromeric NMDARs may be important because these receptors appear significantly more permeable 1 selective for calcium, a potent excitotoxicant that underlies cell death under a number of scenarios including epilepsy. Hence blocking these receptors specifically may aid in averting underlying pathology</p> <p>4. D-serine can be used as a tool in basic research for identifying the expression of and determining the location of GluN3-containing triheteromeric NMDARs in the brain </p>
Lipid Multi-Layer Gratings for Semi-Synthetic Quorum Sensors Dr. Lenhert 11-067 Brent Edington <p>The present invention provides a device comprising: a substrate, and a quorum sensor array on the substrate. The quorum sensor array comprises quorum sensors releasing signal molecules in response to one or more environmental signals being sense by the quorum sensors to thereby amplify the one or more environmental signals by causing a signal chain reaction in neighboring quorum sensors of the quorum sensor array, and wherein each of the quorum sensors comprises a lipid multi-layer structure.</p> <p>The present invention provides a method comprising the following steps: (a) detecting with a camera one or more light intensities of light scattered by one or more iridescent microstructures of a sample, and (b) determining a height of each of the one or more iridescent microstructures of the sample based on one or more light intensities detected in step (a) and a calibration profile for the camera, wherein the calibration profile is based on light intensities detected by the camera for light scattered one or more patterned arrays of standard iridescent microstructures of a calibration standard, and wherein each of the patterned arrays of iridescent microstructures comprises iridescent microstructures having the same shape and two or more different heights.</p>
A Convenient Design of Double Resonance MRI Coil Dr. Peter Gorkov 10-066 Abby Queale <p>The present invention describes a four-ring birdcage coil having at least one moveable tuning ring for double resonance MRI. This apparatus includes a low-pass configuration in both channels so that the HF mode only requires a small capacitance for resonance. Therefore it enable easy modification of a single resonance coil into a double resonance coil by incorporation of non-contact coupling rings whose capacitive coupling with the rungs generates enough capacitance to introduce the high-frequency resonance mode. The coil also includes at least one moving ring for broad range tuning in the HF channel. The LF channel is adjusted by a variable capacitor that is not directly connected to the coil, thus the frequency adjustment on each channel is independent. The HF channel is connected to the input cable by coupling capacitor. The LF channel is connected to the input cable by coupling inductor. This alternating driving scheme provides sufficient channel isolation and obviates the need for an external isolation network.</p> <p>This invention enables the production of double resonance coil with simpler procedure but comparable performance. It can be used in multi-frequency Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Additionally, the technique of multi-frequency MRI can correlate the anatomical information obtained from proton density image with the chemical information obtained from heteronuclear image, thus provide deeper insight into the metabolic and pathogenic pathways.</p>
A Robust Method to Measure the Temporal Order of Replication of all Chromosome Segments in a Cell Dr. Gilbert 12-102 Brent Edington <p>Cancers have unique replication timing fingerprints that hold great promise as a novel genre of biomarkers, and despite the heterogeneity in different individual cancers, each cancer more closely resemble their tissue of origin than they do other tissue types. This phenomenon demonstrates the great promise of replication timing profiling to determine tissue of origin for metastatic cancers.</p> <p><span style="font-family: inherit; font-size: 0.875rem; line-height: 1.4;"></span>There are many biomarkers on the market for cancer and most involve tests for chromosome abnormalities while some involve gene expression tests. Currently biomarkers are only partially effective at diagnosis. Our technology provides a completely novel genre of biomarkers that cannot be detected by any other existing method.</p> <p>This technology can provide a completely novel type of tissue of origin test, and queries the entire genome simultaneously and therefore is more comprehensive.</p>
Photosynthetic Transcription Factors that Determine Bundle Cell Fate and Function Hongchang Cui 13-087 Brent Edington <p>Photosynthesis is one of the most important reactions on the earth because its products are the ultimate energy source for all living organisms and the food of the human beings. Depending on the number of carbon atoms in the initial organic compound made in photosynthesis, plants can be grouped into C3 or C4 plants. C4 plants are evolved from C3 plants, but they have several features that make them much more efficient photosynthetically than C3 plants:</p> <ol> <li>The enzyme for C02 fixation, called PEP carboxylase, is not inhibited by oxygen. In contrast, the C02 fixation enzyme in C3 plants, called RUBICO carboxylase, has an oxygenase activity, which reverses the photosynthetic reaction. The oxygenase activity is favored at high light and high temperature, making C3 plants perform even worse in warm area where crop yield potential is high.</li> <li>C02 fixation occurs in the mesophyll cells, whereas C3-type photosynthesis is performed in the bundle sheath (BS) cells, which surround the vascular tissue, using the C02 concentrated by and supplied from mesophyll cells.</li> <li>There are more vascular bundles (veins), hence more BS cells, and a greater number of channels between BS and mesophyll cells, which ensures rapid transport between these two cell types. C4 plants are also efficient in water utilization. Because many important crops are C3 plants, such as rice and wheats, huge resources have been invested to introduce C4 photosynthesis into C3 plants. Although BS cells are also present in C3 plants, they generally contribute little to photosynthesis and this cell type has therefore become a primary target for C3-to-C4 bioengineering. Despite extensive research, until now the mechanism that controls BS cell fate is still unknown.</li> </ol> <p>Our work identified three transcription factors (SCR, SCL23 and SHR) that are required for BS cell fate specification in Arabidopsis, a model C3 plant. SCR and SCL23 are both expressed specifically in BS cells. Though they act redundantly in determining the BS cell fate, they have distinct functions. Because similar genes are present in other plant species, including rice and maize, which is a C4 plant, we believe that similar mechanisms control BSC cell fate determination in all C3 and C4 plants. These bundle sheath cell determinants offer a novel and powerful tool for the C3-to-C4 engineering, which is regarded as a key solution to the demand for food and biomass by a rapidly growing world population.</p>
Stokes Drifters: Very Thin Drifters to Study Ocean Surface Circulation Dr. Nicolas Wienders 17-022 Dr. Matthieu Dumont <p>Florida State University has designed a new instrument which can for the first time measure and monitor the ocean surface circulation within an inch of the surface where specific processes occur (the Stokes Drift). These important processes have never been measured, yet they are responsible for the movement of oil spills and other pollutants (plastic patches, river outflows, and radioactive leaks), the transport of fish eggs and larvae vital to fish life cycles, and the prediction of the movement of red tides to the coast. Existing drifters measure at least 50cm long/deep and are incapable of isolating the circulation at the ocean surface or the effect of the Stokes Drift.</p> <p>The proposed instrument will help calibrate new numerical models including Stokes Drift parameterization and recently designed radars and satellites by providing a very new and unique sampling of ocean surface circulation.</p> <p>The drifters are disks about 6 inches in diameter and small enough to measure the effect of the smallest gravity waves. They are also very thin to isolate the effect of the Stokes Drift at the ocean surface. Powered by batteries and/or solar panels, an accelerometer activates the antennas in clear sight of the satellites at any time.</p> <p>The drifters are about 20 percent buoyant so they are only partially immersed to allow for GPS reception and satellite data transmission while minimizing the wind drag. The drifters will transmit time, position and optional data stream via satellite at user programmable intervals.To ensure the drifters will not be affected by flipping from waves, they have GPS and satellite antennas on both sides.</p> <p><a href="" target="_blank">An educational video about surface currents featuring Dr. Wienders</a></p> <p><a href="" target="_blank" title=""></a></p> <p class="lead"><a href="" target="_blank">View the real time drifter trajectories from our first experiment. </a></p> <p class="lead"><a href="">Experiment testing new drifter design underway in the Gulf of Mexico</a></p> <h2>Applications:</h2> <ul> <li>Federal agencies such as NSF, NOAA, and NASA.</li> <li>State and local agencies such as FWC and DEP</li> <li>Environmental groups</li> <li>Oil companies</li> <li>Fisheries</li> <li>Water management Districts</li> <li>Universities and independent scientists and researchers</li> </ul> <h2>Advantages:</h2> <ul> <li>Small size can mimic the behavior of pollutants or the evolution of river plumes at the ocean surface</li> <li>Minimizes wind drag</li> <li>Solves problem of potential flips with internal antennas on both sides of drifter</li> <li>Cost efficient</li> </ul>
Polymer Ligands for Nanoparticles Conjugation with Biomolecules Dr. Hedi Mattoussi 14-152 Dr. Matthieu Dumont <p>Professor Mattoussi developed polymer ligands that are optimally suited for surface-functionalizing magnetic nanoparticles. The amphiphilic polymers are prepared by coupling several amine-terminated anchoring groups, polyethylene glycol moieties, and reactive groups onto a poly(isobutylene-alt-maleic anhydride) (PIMA) chain. The reaction of maleic anhydride groups with amine-containing molecules is highly-efficient and occurs in one-step. The availability of several dopamine groups in the same ligand greatly enhances the ligand affinity, via multiple-coordination, to the magnetic NPs, while the hydrophilic and reactive groups promote colloidal stability in buffer media and allow subsequent conjugation with target biomolecules. Nanoparticles ligated with terminally reactive polymers have been easily coupled to target dyes and tested in live cell imaging with no measurable cytotoxicity.</p> dopamine,polymer,nanoparticle,ligand
Photo-Induced Phase Transfer of Luminescent Quantum Dots Dr. Hedi Mattoussi 12-207 Dr. Matthieu Dumont <p>A method for the photo-mediated phase transfer of inorganic nanocrystals, such as luminescent quantum dots, QDs, is provided. Irradiation, specifically UV excitation (λ<sub class="style-scope patent-text">ex</sub>&lt;400 nm), promotes the in-situ ligand exchange of hydrophobic quantum dots with hydrophilic ligands and their facile transfer to polar solvents and buffer media. The technique enables transfer of quantum dots and other nanocrystal materials from hydrophobic to polar and hydrophilic solutions.</p> polar solvent,nanoparticle,phase transfer
Polyethylene Glycol Based Oligomers for Coating Nanoparticles Dr. Hedi Mattoussi 12-026 Dr. Matthieu Dumont <p id="p-0013" class="style-scope patent-text">We have developed nanoparticle coatings that are water dispersible, have a strong affinity for binding to magnetic nanoparticles, and can be easily modified for attaching the coating to biological materials. The nanoparticle coatings comprise a polyacrylic acid based backbone onto which PEG-based oligomers are appended by modifying the native carboxyl groups of the PAA backbone. The PEG-based oligomers include functional groups on their terminal ends, which are chosen to provide a certain function. Some of the terminal functional groups bind the coatings to the nanoparticle's surface, while others provide reactive sites for binding other compounds to the coating. The method we developed for making these coatings allows one to tune the number and type of PEG-based oligomers appended to the PAA backbone based on the desired properties of the coating.</p> <p id="p-0014" class="style-scope patent-text">In accordance with a composition aspect of the invention, the nanoparticle coatings comprise repeating polyacrylic acid monomers covalently bound together in an aliphatic chain having a plurality of carboxylic acid functional groups and modified carboxylic acid functional groups extending there from. A first portion of the modified carboxylic acid functional groups are modified by a PEG oligomer having a terminal methoxy functional group and a second portion of the modified carboxylic acid functional groups are modified by a PEG oligomer having at least one terminal catechol group.</p>
Self-Assembled Multilayers to Enhance Photon Upconversion and Solar Cell Efficiency Dr. Kenneth Hanson 15-035 Dr. Matthieu Dumont <p>Photon upconversion (UC), combining two lower energy photons to generate a higher energy excited state, can be used to harness "sub-band gap photons" and reach maximum theoretical solar cell efficiencies of &gt;40%. Molecular photon upconversion, by way of triplet-triplet annihilation (TTA-UC), is particularly appealing because UC is achievable even under low intensity, non-coherent, solar irradiation. Current efforts to harness TTA-UC in solar energy conversion are predominantly based on using UC solution or polymer film as a filter or reflector working in conjunction with a conventional solar cell but increase the cost and complexity of the device.</p> <p>Our technology is capable of facilitating photon upconversion in films of self-assembled bilayers, presented in Tech ID 15-001. The films can be prepared by a step-wise soaking/loading procedure that is amenable to roll-to-roll printing for large scale manufacturing of devices. The self-assembled bilayer strategy is effective at facilitating photocurrent generation from the upconverted state. This technology offers a new class of self-assembled UC solar cells that show promise as a means of passing the maximum theoretical limit for single junction solar cells.</p>
Modulating Electron Transfer Dynamics at Hybrid Interfaces via Self-Assembled Multilayers Dr. Kenneth Hanson 15-001 Dr. Matthieu Dumont <p>Electron transfer at organic-inorganic hybrid interfaces is a critical event in bio/organic electronics, solar energy conversion, electrocatalysis, sensing and other applications. At the interfaces in these devices, the goal is to maximize the rate of electron transfer in one direction (forward electron transfer, FET). Equally important is the inhibition of the back electron transfer (BET). We have introduced the use of a molecular bridge in self-assembled bilayer films as an effective strategy for modulating electron transfer dynamics at the semiconductor-molecule interface. The bilayer films of the general form MO-(X)-Zr-moelcule are composed of a metal oxide electrode (MO; TiO2 or SnO2 for example), a bridging molecule (X), linking ions (Zr, Zn, etc.) and a molecule. One example bilayer with TiO2, a bridging molecules 1, 2 or 3, Zr4+ ions and RuC ([Ru(bpy)2(4,4'-(COOH)2bpy)]2+) is depicted in Figure. This approach offers a simple and modular method for slowing BET between any dye molecule and the semiconductor interface. Additionally, as opposed to other methods of slowing BET, like atomic layer deposition or synthetic modification, the step-wise soaking/loading procedure is amenable to roll-to-roll printing for large scale manufacturing of devices. Controlling electron transfer rates will help to decrease photocurrent leakage and improve device performances.</p>
Monoclonal Antibodies for the Detection of Various Species Including Specific Consumed Meats and Bloods. Yun-Hwa Hsieh 15-199 Brent Edington <p>The monoclonal antibodies developed by Dr. Hsieh detect various species of fish, bovine, equine, chicken, sheep, porcine, bovine blood, porcine blood, chicken blood, turkey blood, bovine spinal column. These can be used in immunoassays to differentiate the source of protein and blood protein.</p>
System and Method of Probabilistic Passwords Cracking Dr. Sudhir Aggarwal 11-189 Dr. Matthieu Dumont <p>Professor Aggarwal and his team have created a  system and method of probabilistic passwords cracking.</p> <p>This technology is a novel password cracking system that generates password structures in highest probability order. Our program, called UnLock, automatically creates a probabilistic context-free grammar (CFG) based upon a training set of previously disclosed passwords.</p> <p>This CFG then allows to generate word-mangling rules, and from them, password guesses to be used in password cracking attacks.</p> <h2>Advantages:</h2> <ul> <li>Effectiveness demonstrated on real password sets</li> <li>Technology capable to crack 36% to 93% more passwords than John the Ripper, a publicly available standard password cracking program.</li> <li>Tested in digital forensic missions</li> </ul>
System and Methods for Analyzing and Modifying Passwords Dr. Sudhir Aggarwal 12-044 Dr. Matthieu Dumont <p>Professor Aggarwal's team developed a system for analyzing and modifying passwords in a manner that provides a user with a strong and usable/memorable password. The user would propose a password that has relevance and can be remembered. The invention would evaluate the password to ascertain its strength. The evaluation is based on a probabilistic password cracking system that is trained on sets of revealed passwords and that can generate password guesses in highest probability order. If the user's proposed password is strong enough, the proposed password is accepted. If the user's proposed password is not strong enough, the system will reject it. If the proposed password is rejected, the system modifies the password and suggests one or more stronger passwords. The modified passwords would have limited modifications to the proposed password. Thus, the user has a tested strong and memorable password.</p>
Sub-seasonal Forecasts of Winter Storms and Cold Air Outbreaks Dr. Ming Cai 16-090 Dr. Matthieu Dumont <p style="font-size: 18px;" class="font_8"> </p> <p class="lead">"Our technology is a dynamics-statistics hybrid model to forecast continental-scale cold air outbreaks 20-50 days in advance beyond the 2-week limit of predictability for weather."</p> <p style="font-size: 18px;" class="font_8"> </p> <p style="font-size: 18px;" class="font_8"><span style="font-size: 18px;">Professor Cai's team has developed a technology that allows them to make Sub-seasonal forecasts for cold air outbreaks in winter season. These forecasts are made on the basis of the relationship of the atmospheric mass circulation intensity and cold air outbreaks. The atmospheric poleward mass circulation aloft into the polar region, including the stratospheric component, is coupled with the equatorward mass circulation out of the polar region in the lower troposphere. The strengthening of the later is responsible for cold air outbreaks in mid-latitudes.</span></p> <p style="font-size: 18px;" class="font_8"><span style="font-size: 18px;">Due to the inherent predictability limit of 1-2 weeks for numerical weather forecasts, operational numerical weather forecast models no longer have useful forecast skill for weather forecasts beyond a lead time of about 10 days. Recently, the research carried out by Professor Cai and his team shows that operational numerical weather forecast models do possess useful skill for atmospheric anomalies over the polar stratosphere in cold seasons owing the models' ability to capture the poleward mass circulation into the polar stratosphere.</span></p> <p style="font-size: 18px;" class="font_8"><span style="font-size: 18px;">They calculate the stratospheric mass transport into the polar region from forecast outputs of the US NOAA NCEP's operational CFSv2 model and use it as our forecasts for the strength of the atmospheric mass circulation. The anomalous strengthening of it is indicative of the high probability of occurrence of cold air outbreaks in mid-latitudes.They further derive a set of forecasted indices describing a state of stratospheric mass circulation to obtain detailed spatial pattern and intensity of the associated cold air outbreak events. </span></p> <p style="font-size: 18px;" class="font_8"><span style="font-size: 18px;">Because cold air outbreak events are accompanied with development of low and high pressure systems and frontal circulations, our forecasts of cold air outbreaks are also indicative of snow, frozen rain, high wind, icy/freezing and other winter storm related hazards besides a large area of below-normal cold temperatures.</span></p> <p><a href="">Forecast website:</a></p> <p><a href="">Professor Cai in the news</a></p> <p> </p>
Systems and Methods for Improving Processor Efficiency Dr. David Whalley 13-101 Dr. Matthieu Dumont <p>Dr. Whalley's team has created  a data cache systems designed to enhance energy efficiency and performance of computing systems. A data filter cache herein may be designed to store a portion of data stored in a level one (L1) data cache. The data filter cache may reside between the L1 data cache and a register file in the primary compute unit. The data filter cache may therefore be accessed before the L1 data cache when a request for data is received and processed. Upon a data filter cache hit, access to the L1 data cache may be avoided. The smaller data filter cache may therefore be accessed earlier in the pipeline than the larger L1 data cache to promote improved energy utilization and performance. The data filter cache may also be accessed speculatively based on various conditions to increase the chances of having a data filter cache hit.</p> <p>Furthermore,  tagless access buffers (TABs) can optimize energy efficiency in various computing systems. Candidate memory references in an L1 data cache may be identified and stored in the TAB. Various techniques may be implemented for identifying the candidate references and allocating the references into the TAB. Groups of memory references may also be allocate to a single TAB entry or may be allocated to an extra TAB entry (such that two lines in the TAB may be used to store L1 data cache lines), for example, when a strided access pattern spans two consecutive L1 data cache lines. Certain other embodiments are related to data filter cache and multi-issue tagless hit instruction cache (TH-IC) techniques.</p>
Thiol-ene polymer metal oxide nanoparticle high refractive index composites Dr. Albert Stiegman 12-228 Dr. Matthieu Dumont <p>For optical applications in general and eyewear in particular, the synthesis of new polymers with refractive indices &gt;1.65 and acceptable Abbe numbers is of considerable importance. Higher refractive index materials will permit smaller, lighter weight lenses to be used and provide a much broader graded index for progressive lenses. The material modification that leads to higher refractive indices is the incorporation of highly polarizable atoms and ions. Incorporating such polarizable groups has been the standard protocol used to develop new high R.I. polymers. The electronic polarizability is a tensor property of an atom or molecule that measures the distortion of the electron cloud in the presence of an applied electric field (which can be an optical field). The more the electron cloud can be distorted, the higher the refractive index. The characteristics of atomic and molecular electronic structure that yield large polarizabilities are well understood and can be predicted from basic chemical principles. In particular, the more electronegative an atom is the less polarizable it will be, hence late first-row elements such as F, O and N tend to yield lower refractive index materials. Better choices are 2<sup class="style-scope patent-text">nd</sup>, 3<sup class="style-scope patent-text">rd </sup>or 4<sup class="style-scope patent-text">th </sup>row main group elements such as S (which is currently used in order to increase the refractive index in many polymeric materials), P, and Sn. From a molecular standpoint, the higher electronegativity of the first row can be overcome by delocalization of the electrons across several atoms. Aromatics are more polarizable than saturated hydrocarbons and compounds such as propylene carbonate and dimethylformamide have high dielectric constants.</p> <p>the present invention comprises a bulk polymer composite comprising a thiol-ene polymer matrix, or a matrix comprising a corresponding polymer derived from a phosphinyl, selenol, or arsinyl monomer, and metal oxide nanoparticles dispersed within the matrix, said nanoparticles being bonded to polymer molecules contained in the matrix. In certain preferred embodiments, the polymer matrix comprises a matrix corresponding to the structure.</p>
Substituted Heterocyclic Mercaptosulfonamide Metalloprotease Inhibitors Dr. Qing-Xiang (Amy) Sang 08-144 Dr. Matthieu Dumont <p>Dr. Sang's team developed a series of substituted heterocyclic mercaptosulfonamide compounds, precursors, and derivatives as well as methods for the preparation of and pharmaceutical compositions comprising these compounds. These compounds are designed to be potent selective inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), including, for example, gelatinases, collagenases, matrilysins, metalloelastase, stromelysin, and membrane-type 1 matrix metalloproteinase. These inhibitors may be used for the control of physiological and pathological processes and disease conditions in which MMPs are believed to play significant functions.</p>
Specimen Preservation Chamber and Method Sanjay Kumar 10-088 Brent Edington <p>The present invention describes a device and method for preserving tissue samples such as brain tissue.</p> <p>The device consists of two independent components: a bubbling chamber that consists of a specialized glass chamber to hold an artificial cerebrospinal fluid (aCSF) and a gas dispersion tube affixed permanently to the glass chamber, to provide a fixed source of 95% 0 2 and 5% C02 for bubbling the aCSF. The second component is a compartmentalized polycarbonate holding platform with a polypropylene screen mesh that houses the tissue samples within the bubbling chamber to support the slices during incubation and retention. The gas introduced into the aCSF circulates within the container, however, the tissue samples are not directly exposed to the gas bubbles as the fine mesh excludes the bubbles from the chambers housing the tissue samples.</p> <p> </p> <p>Many laboratories use acute brain slices for physiological research and these samples are particularly useful for neurophysiological research directed toward understanding human diseases such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and epilepsy. Such work relies on the health/viability of cut slices of brain tissue to gather crucial physiological and pharmacological data using electrophysiological techniques. However, the preservation of brain tissue samples has proven to be particularly difficult owing to the ephemeral nature of the tissue. The present invention provides a simple and cost-effective device and method which can prolong the viability of tissue samples such as brain tissue samples for as long as 6-8 hrs after sectioning. The invention described represents a significant improvement over similar commercially and non-commercially available devices both in terms of the ease of use and, more importantly, in lengthening the time during which the cut slices stay viable for electrophysiology.</p>
Antibody Biomarker Specific for Mitotic Cells Myra Hurt and Raed Rizkallah 11-048 Brent Edington <p>An isolated monoclonal antibody that has a specific binding affinity to a polypeptide comprising the amino acid sequence HTEGKP phosphorylated at the threonine residue. The antibody may be used as a biomarker for mitotic cells. Proliferation biomarkers are of indispensable value in cell cycle research. More importantly, many of these markers have been translated into valuable cancer prognostic and diagnostic tools, particularly those used to assess the mitotic index of a cellular mixture.</p>
System and method for Generating a Benchmark Dataset for Real noise Reduction Evaluation Dr. Adrian Barbu 15-046 Dr. Matthieu Dumont <p>Often images taken with smartphones or point-and-shoot digital cameras come out noisy due to lack of sufficient lighting. This low-light noise problem is widespread, being present in all of the smartphones in the world, more than 1 billion total. This problem generates in consumers disappointment and frustration with the quality of the images taken in low light. While a number of commercial denoising packages are already available on the market, the majority of them are trained on images corrupted by artificial noise, rather than trained on real low-light noisy images. Since artificial noise has different characteristics than real noise, these packages do not perform as well as a denoising algorithm trained on images corrupted by real noise as we have created.</p> <p>                We have developed a fully automatic state of the art algorithm (RENOIR) for denoising smartphone and digital camera images which have low-light noise problems. The RENOIR algorithm could be either; be sold directly to the public as a standalone application or could be licensed to smartphone or digital camera manufacturers to be embedded in their devices.</p> <p> </p>
Direct Conversion of Phenols into Amides and Esters of Benzoic Acid Dr. Igor Alabugin 10-128 Dr. Matthieu Dumont <p>Dr. Alabugin and his team have designed a method is for the preparation of an aromatic carboxylic acid aryl ester or an N-aryl aromatic carboxamide. The method comprises contacting an O,O-diaryl thiocarbonate or an O-aryl-N-aryl thiocarbamate with a reactant that regioselectively reacts with sulfur, which contact causes an O-neophyl rearrangement, thereby forming either the aromatic carboxylic acid aryl ester or the N-aryl aromatic carboxamide, respectively.</p>
Route to Synthetic Analogues of Rocaglamide and Aglafoline using Cascade Transformations initiated by Oxy-Cope Rearrangement of Bis-Alkynes Dr. Igor Alabugin 11-043 Dr. Matthieu Dumont <p>Dr. Alabugin and his team have developed a method for preparing a cyclobutene compound or a cyclopentenone. The method comprises contacting an α,β-diketone with a metal acetylide at a temperature below 0° C. to thereby form a reaction mixture comprising a bis-alkyne precursor. The bis-alkyne precursor rearranges into a bis-allenic intermediate, which undergoes further rearrangement into the cyclobutene compound or the cyclopentenone compound as the temperature of the reaction mixture increases from below 0° C. to above 0° C.</p>
Stereo Controlled Synthesis of (E,Z)-Dienals via Tandem Rh(i) Catalyzed Propargyl Claisen Rearrangement Dr. Igor Alabugin 14-160 Dr. Matthieu Dumont <p>A novel Rh(I)-catalyzed approach to synthesizing functionalized (E,Z) dienal compounds has been developed via tandem transformation where a stereoselective hydrogen transfer follows a propargyl Claisen rearrangement. Z-Stereochemistry of the first double bond suggests the involvement of a six-membered cyclic intermediate whereas the E-stereochemistry of the second double bond stems from the subsequent protodemetallation step giving an (E,Z)-dienal.</p>
Traceless directing groups in radical cascades: from oligoalkynes to fused helicenes without tethered initators Dr. Igor Alabugin 15-081 Dr. Matthieu Dumont <p>Dr. Alabugin and his team have developed a traceless directing group in a radical cascade. The chemo- and regioselectivity of the initial attack in skipped oligoalkynes is controlled by a propargyl alkoxy moiety. Radical translocations lead to the boomerang return of radical center to the site of initial attack where it assists to the elimination of the directing functionality via β-scission in the last step of the cascade. In some aspects, the reaction of the present invention is catalyzed by a stannane moiety, which allows further via facile reactions with electrophiles as well as Stille and Suzuki cross-coupling reactions. This selective radical transformation opens a new approach for the controlled transformation of skipped oligoalkynes into polycyclic ribbons of tunable dimensions.</p>
Intelligent Wi-Fi Packet Relay Protocol Dr. Zhenghao Zhang 13-089 Dr. Matthieu Dumont <p>L2Relay is a novel packet relay protocol for Wi-Fi networks that can improve the performance and extend the range of the network. A device running L2Relay is referred to as a relayer, which overhears the packet transmissions and retransmits a packet on behalf of the Access Point (AP) or the node if no acknowledgement is overheard. L2Relay is ubiquitously compatible with all Wi-Fi devices. L2Relay is designed to be a layer 2 solution that has direct control over many layer 2 functionalities such as carrier sense. Unique problems are solved in the design of L2Relay including link measurement, rate adaptation, and relayer selection. L2Relay was implemented in the OpenFWWF platform and compared against the baseline without a relayer as well as a commercial Wi-Fi range extender. The results show that L2Relay outperforms both compared schemes.</p>
Methods of Constructing Polyolefins having Reduced Crystallinity Dr. Alamo 09-166 Robby Freeborn-Scott <p>The invention describes a family of polyolefins characterized by chain-walking defects of the type that add extra backbone carbons per monomer.</p> <p>These polyolefins display a large decrease in crystallinity relative to polyolefins known in the art. Specifically, the reduction in crystallinity is much greater than for earlier polypropylenes with a matched content of stereo or 1-alkene type defects. The claimed polyolefins can be an alkene-based homopolymer, or an alkene-based copolymer and can be made by a diimine-based catalyst or by a late metal catalyst. The defects in the polyolefin backbone are generated by a chain walking mechanism in which three or more carbons per monomer are added to the polymer backbone instead of two, as in conventional polymerization or copolymerization methods of alpha olefins.</p> <h1>Applications/Advantages:</h1> <ul> <li>Plastic wrapping</li> <li>Thin films</li> <li>Co-extrusion layers or molded parts in the absence of polymer blending or copolymerization</li> <li><span class="small">The cost of materials production can be reduced</span></li> </ul>
Method for Locating Phase to Ground Faults in DC Distribution Systems Michael (Mischa) Steurer 08-040 Robby Freeborn-Scott <p>Electrical direct current (DC) distribution systems are operated without any of the phases grounded in order to prevent a phase-to-ground fault, the most common type of faults, to cause interruption of service. While theoretically such an ungrounded DC system can be operated with one phase grounded through a fault for an extended period of time, it is essential to find the fault location quickly in order to prevent any secondary phase to ground fault on the other phase to cause a disruptive phase-to-phase fault.</p> <p>The present invention describes a method for locating ground faults in an ungrounded or high-resistance grounded power distribution system having a power supply including high-speed switched power electronics (PE). The method includes utilizing wavelet analysis using Multi-Resolution Analysis (MRA) as a signal processing tool for recognition of characteristic features in the voltage signal. The voltage signal contains characteristic information in the high frequency range above the switching frequencies of the PE converters which allows for localization of the fault.</p> <p>In the future, the Invention can potentially simplify and speed up the phase-to-ground protection on converter dominated ungrounded DC and AC systems significantly. The Invention can be implemented as a computational component within a new version of a digital ground fault protection relay.</p>
Tumor Drug Resistance Measured by Sodium Diffusion Dr. Schepkin 12-106 Abby Queale <p>This invention is a non-invasive, comprehensive and individualized evaluation of tumor resistance using sodium and/or diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The method includes conducting a sodium and/or diffusion MRI on a tumor of a subject and on a normal region of the subject- for example, the normal region in brain being contralateral to the tumor. When the images of the MRI procedures have been obtained, the indicias (i.e., sodium and/or diffusion) are measured and analyzed. These indicias are compared between the tumor region and normal region. A low level of the indicia in the tumor region, relative to the level of indicia in the normal region, indicates a higher/increased tumor resistance to a drug.</p> <p>Currently, a biopsy and Positron emission tomography (PET) are the conventional technologies used to deliver information on tumor resistance prior to therapy. The evaluation can be performed prior to therapy and can help select a strategy of treatment but also help in evaluating the efficacy of an agent for the treatment of cancer in a subject. The invention can be used in the brain glioma model but is contemplated for use in different types of tumors in most parts of the human body in addition the agent may be carmustine, though other tumor types and agents are contemplated by the invention. The level of tumor resistance can be determined reproducibly in a relatively short amount of time, for example less than thirty minutes, and the results can be used immediately to create individualized therapy.</p> <p>The invention allows clinicians to avoid ineffective therapies, which may be more harmful than useful or come up with the other more appropriate alternatives. It can facilitate a separation of the effects due to metabolic changes in the tumor at the beginning of therapy from the effects introduced by drug intervention.</p>
Genome Capture and Sequencing to Comprehensively Map Chromatin Structure in Complex Genomes Dr. Jonathan Dennis 14-044 Brent Edington <p>This invention brings significant improvement to our ability to query the chromatin structure of select important regions of the entire human genome. Utilizing a unique sequencing strategy, the invention offers a solution-based sequence capture method enabling the enrichment of the 2000 bp surrounding the transcription start site of 25,464 human open reading frames. This enrichment reduces the sequence space of the human genome from 3.4 Gb in total to 50 Mb of transcription start sites, a 98.5% reduction. Additionally, the enrichment is analogous to that achieved for well-documented exome sequencing experiments. This sequence capture approach will allow researchers to multiplex chromatin structure analyses in Illumina HiSeq2500 lanes, thereby opening this strategy for a wide range of diagnostic and prognostic indicators in human disease.</p> <h2>Applications:</h2> <ul> <li>Identify stages in the progression of cancer</li> <li>Identify host response in viral infection (HIV and KSHV)</li> <li>Define cryptic effects of drugs of abuse (amphetamines, cocaine, and nicotine)</li> </ul> <h2>Advantages:</h2> <ul> <li><span>Allows for the targeted analysis of specific areas of interest in complex genomes</span></li> <li><span>Provides a cost effective strategy for querying multiple samples in a single reaction</span></li> <li><span>Provides an extremely cost effective way to screen patient samples </span></li> <li><span>Opens a new field of biomarker development: distribution of nucleosomes</span></li> <li><span>Nucleosome distribution mapping is independent of genotype and gene expression</span></li> </ul>
Detecting Interaction of CFTR Polypeptides Dr. Teem 08-009 Brent Edington <p>Cystic fibrosis (CF) is the most common genetic disease of Caucasians in North America, occurring at a frequency of approximately 1 in 2500 births. The disease results from defective function of the gene encoding the Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) protein in a variety of tissues, including the pancreas and the lung epithelium.</p> <p>The present invention describes materials and methods for detecting the interaction of CFTR proteins. The method can be used to determine whether one CFTR NBD1 polypeptide interacts with a second CFTR NBD1 polypeptide using a yeast dual hybrid assay. The subject methods can be used to determine whether mutations to the CFTR polypeptide reduce or eliminate dimerization of the CFTR polypeptides. The present methods can also be used to screen and identify revertant mutations that restore dimerization of a mutant CFTR polypeptide, as well as mutations that enhance dimerization and CFTR activity greater than that of wildtype protein.The subject invention also provides materials and methods for efficiently identifying and screening for compounds, drugs and other such compositions that facilitate proper dimerization of the CFTR polypeptides and would be candidate agents for use in treating patients having CF. </p> <h2>Advantages:</h2> <ul> <li>The use of a yeast growth bioassay is fast and inexpensive in comparison to current screening procedures that involve mammalian cells and assays for CFTR channel activity</li> <li>Can be used to evaluate a large number of compounds in a high throughput format</li> </ul>
Impedance Matching in NMR Probe with an Adjustable Segmented Transmission Line Chunqi Qian 09-152 Brent Edington <p>The present invention describes the use of a pair of dielectric slugs in transmission line as impedance transformers for a wide range of load impedance. Impedance matching between the RF probe and the spectrometer is a standard requirement for NMR probes. Both lumped element and branched transmission line methods are in wide use. Here we propose to use a segmented transmission line structure. It relies upon reflections between transmission lines of different impedances that are serially connected to match the impedance of a coil or resonator to the characteristic impedance of the NMR spectrometer. Two quarter-wave length dielectric slugs are placed within a coaxial transmission line. Adjustment of the positions of the slugs allows the variable tuning and matching needed for NMR probes, eliminating the need for variable capacitors and inductors.</p> <h2>Advantages:</h2> <ul> <li>A successful prototype demonstrates this approach outperforms existing technologies as it can match both capacitive and inductive impedance, as compared to matching only one of the two.</li> </ul>
Quantitative Analysis of Metabolic Mixtures by 2D 13C-Constant-Time TOCSY NMR Spectroscopy Rafael Bruschweiler 13-204 Matthieu Dumont <p>Quantification of metabolite concentrations is a key task in metabolomics studies.</p> <p>Significant peak overlaps in 1D NMR spectra of metabolomics samples prevent straightforward quantification through 1D peak integrals.Using uniformly 13C-labeled organisms, the 2D NMR 13C-13C constant-time (CT) TOCSY experiment provides high-resolution information about individual metabolites that allows their identification via database searching or, in the case of novel compounds, through the reconstruction of their backbone-carbon topology.</p> <p>FSU researchers demonstrated how CT-TOCSY spectra can also be utilized for quantification purposes. The methods are demonstrated for carbohydrate and amino-acid mixtures.</p>
The Spot Method for Detecting Compromised Computers in a Network Zhenhai Duan 09-148 Matthieu Dumont <p>Threats to computer network security are increasing, particularly regarding the “botnet” scenario where computers in a network are infected by malware programs (e.g., viruses, spyware, worms) that enable third parties to take control of the machines without the owners’ knowledge. Compromised computers, also known as “zombies,” can markedly decrease the efficiency of a network.</p> <p>Current malware detection programs are only capable of detecting known malware agents; however, new malware is continuously being developed so that malware detection programs are chronically behind and require frequent updates. Additionally, most detection methods do not allow for the global monitoring of machines on a network.</p> <p>Unlike the current malware detection programs that focus on the point of infection, Dr. Duan has developed a new program, SPOT, that focuses on the number of outgoing messages that are originated or forwarded by each computer on a network to identify the presence of compromised machines. SPOT uses three algorithms that were specifically developed for the system. The first algorithm is based on the percentage of spam messages that originate or are forwarded from an internal machine. The second is based on the number spam messages that originate or are forwarded from an internal machine. The third is based on a statistical method called the sequential probability ratio test (SPRT). Importantly, SPOT analyses the total number of messages sent by a machine rather than only analyzing the rate at which they are sent to thwart spammers from purposely slowing the rate of message transmission in order to work around the system. The SPOT system enables individual networks to globally monitor computers on their networks and to automatically and accurately detect and efficiently remove compromised computers from their networks in an online manner. This novel detection method is applicable to a wide range of settings in which computer networks play an essential role.</p> <p><a href="">Download PDF Version</a> </p> <h2><span>Applications:</span></h2> <ul> <li>Computer security industry.</li> <li>needing computer security (e.g., government agencies, financial institutions, research laboratories).</li> </ul> <h2>Advantages:</h2> <ul> <li>May be incorporated into new or added to existing networks at low cost.</li> <li>Only a single copy of the SPOT software is needed to protect a network.</li> <li>Fills security holes left by existing malware detection programs that focus only on the point of intrusion.</li> <li>May be used in combination with other malware detection programs.</li> <li>Detects compromised computers quickly and accurately, with low false positive and false negative rates.</li> </ul> password,spot,computers
Homeless Shelter Infant Cradle Dr. Pable 08-168 Abby Queale <p>The present invention describes a cradle designed to be used for infants of families who reside in homeless shelters. This cradle design solves the problem of homeless families nurturing their infants in bed which creates a smothering hazard. The cradle, used in the context of an extremely small bedroom, has a unique construction that permits it to be pulled up close alongside the bed and allows the infant to be nurtured while the caregiver is in bed. Many shelters utilize prison-style beds with a unique under-bed storage unit that this work accommodates, allowing the cradle to be placed directly alongside the bed.</p> <p>The cradle's third prototype has been completed and the cradle has been placed in its end location (a local homeless shelter) that enabled a check for suitable dimensions and weight.This furniture object potentially represents a small, but potentially lifesaving improvement to homeless shelter family living dormitories.</p> <h2>Applications:</h2> <ul> <li>The potential scope of its use is vast, with the Department of Housing and Urban Development reporting 95,000 family beds in homeless shelters and an additional 3,000 family beds in transitional shelters nationwide (The 2nd Annual Homeless Report to Congress, March 2008).</li> </ul> <p> </p>
Variable Height Interactive Kiosk 10 Dr. Helzer & Dr. Bowermeister 08-080 Brent Edington <p>The present invention describes a kiosk that is field installed and is capable of allowing a person to interact with a program, such as the Medicaid program, or communicate directly with a counselor for the program, so that the person may enroll, change health plans, review benefits, etc., within the program from a remote location.</p> <p>This kiosk allows a user to navigate through a Medicaid process via a touch screen monitor facilitated by an onscreen navigator employing ladder logic. The kiosk has a housing to which a bracket that holds the monitor and a keyboard is attached, the bracket capable of sliding up and down and tilting back and forth. A user initially identifies him or herself to the system via a card reader and confirms identity via a biometric reader. Once within the system, the user navigates via the monitor through the assistance of an onscreen navigator that is set up using ladder logic. At any point during the process, a counselor may be called via a telephone attached to the housing. Once all data is collected for a user, the internal processor transmits the data to a central server.</p> <p>The variable height interactive kiosk 10 allows the user's application to be submitted to the appropriate agency for processing in real time and with a high degree of certainty of receipt. Should a subcomponent of the overall application system fail, the variable height interactive kiosk 10 provides a level of redundancy so that such failures can be cured immediately upon identification of the failure, possibly without the user ever knowing of the failure.</p> <p> </p>
Simple, Accurate and Fast Web-Based Analysis Tool for the Stock Market Dr. Piyush Kumar 12-193 Matthieu Dumont <p>The present invention describes a novel system and method of aggregating and predicting stock rankings. A financial data model based on a neighborhood model, this invention allows users to predict the trend of a continuous time series, given the knowledge of other similar time series. It also solves another proximal problem of Rank Aggregation, which is, given a set of rankings based on some parameters, to come up with an optimal ranking that procures the earning capability of a ticker as the primary pivot. To achieve this, each ticker is projected as a point on a high dimensional space.</p> <p>The system and method then uses a ranking optimization method to predict the ranking of each stock based on percentage change in price. The current invention facilitates investors trading by using a novel methodology to predict stock rankings and providing a neighborhood of related stocks, while having an easy to use interface.</p> <h2>Advantages:</h2> <ul> <li>Ranks stock tickers registered at NASDAQ based on different market parameters, or within a given a sector, or as charts where instead of the price of a ticker its rank is shown at different hours of the day</li> <li>Predicts pricing trends</li> <li>Provides recommendation based on portfolio and budget, and short term prediction with reason (i.e. why we have put ticker X at rank 1)</li> <li>The entire web interface (including the visualizations) will be implemented using HTML5/CSS3 so that it stays accessible from any mobile device (including Apple devices)</li> </ul> <p> </p>
Analysis of Mixtures with High Complexity by NMR Drs. Bruschweiler and Bingol 12-012 Matthieu Dumont <p>Identification and quantification of analytes in complex solution-state mixtures are critical procedures in many areas of Chemistry, Biology and Molecular Medicine. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a unique tool for this purpose providing a wealth of atomic-detail information without requiring extensive fractionation of the samples. Our technology involves three new12-19 multidimensional-NMR based approaches that are geared toward the analysis of mixtures with high complexity at natural 13C abundance, including ones encountered into metabolomics. Common to all three approaches is the concept of the extraction of consensus 1D spectral traces or consensus 2D planes followed by clustering, which significantly improves the capability to identify mixture components that are affected by strong spectral overlap.</p> <p> </p>
Automated Extraction of Bio-entity Relationships from Literature Dr. Zhang 12-065 Matthieu Dumont <p>The current invention discloses an automated and standardized software application, system, and method of extracting relationships, for example bio-entity relationships, in text or literature.</p> <p>The long-standing need for an improved, automated and more efficient text mining procedure is now met by a new and useful computer-implemented software application. The software is accessible from a non-transitory, computer-readable media and provides instructions for a computer processor to extract textual relationships or semantic information from non-annotated data by natural language processing and graph theoretic algorithm.</p> <h2>Advantages:</h2> <ul> <li>The present invention may address one or more of the problems (high incidence of error and high cost of text mining), and deficiencies (low efficiency and poor organization/standardized format) of the prior art.</li> </ul> <h2> Applications:</h2> <ul> <li>Building biomedical databases, search engines, knowledge bases, or any other applications that may use organized relationships of content within literatures.</li> </ul>
PetroOrg Software Yuri Corilo 13-093 Abby Queale <p>EXCLUSIVELY LICENSED</p> <p><span style="font-family: inherit; font-size: 0.875rem; line-height: 1.4;">Software specifically designed to process, assign, organize and visualize elemental composition of petroleum and its derivatives samples acquired by high resolution mass spectrometry.</span></p>
Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry Methodology Dr. Marshall 08-181 Abby Queale <p>The present invention discloses a method of enhanced speciation of both positive and negatives species in an analyte. Briefly, the technology is a method to produce efficient gas phase ions of both polar and nonpolar species through deprotonation with the Tetramethylammonium hydroxide and through silver cationization with the reagent silver triflate. The method can include producing a first analyte solution comprising an analyte composition and an effective amount of silver triflate, and analyzing the first analyte solution with an electrospray ionization mass spectrometer. The method can also include producing a second analyte solution comprising a portion of the analyte composition and an effective amount of a compound of formula I, and analyzing the second analyte solution with an electrospray ionization mass spectrometer. The compound of formula I is [NX+][OH−], where X is a linear, branched, or cyclic C1-C10 alkane; an aryl; a heterocyclic aromatic; or a heterocyclic moiety.</p> <h2>Advantages:</h2> <ul> <li>Easy to implement </li> <li>The reagent allows for more uniform deprotonation of acidic moieties</li> <li> Enables the detailed characterization of nonpolar species that are not efficiently ionized in the conventional electrospray ionization process </li> </ul> <h2>Applications:</h2> <ul> <li>Detailed speciation of acidic species in petroleum and quantitation of those species identified</li> </ul> <p> </p> <p> </p>
Photodynamic Resolution of Racemic Compounds having Axial Chirality Dr. Kenneth Hanson 17-025 Dr. Matthieu Dumont <p><span>Enantioselective synthesis is the cornerstone of modern synthetic chemistry and a crucial step in the production of fine chemicals like food additives, fragrances, natural products, and pharmaceuticals. </span></p> <p><span>One of the most utilized ligands/ catalysts for these enantioselective reactions is 1,1' - bi-2-napthol ("BINOL"). The most common methods to synthesize these complexes, however, result in the formation of a racemic mixture of R and S isomers. Unfortunately, since only a single isomer of BINOL is needed, the racemic mixture is typically purified through chromatography or recrystallization to achieve the desired isomer, while the other half of the reaction mass is discarded. </span></p> <p><span>The present invention proposes the use of photoisomerization as an alternative strategy to generate enantiomerically pure BINOL. Due to excited state proton transfer (ESPT) BINOL can planarize and isomerize upon photoexcitation. We have invented the use of bulky chiral auxialiary groups to increase the rotational barrier of relaztion selectively for one BINOL atropisomer as a means of preferentially generating one of the BINOL isomers. The identity of the auxiliary group determined both the direction of rotation and the extent of enantiomeric excess observed. </span></p> <h2><span>Advantages:</span></h2> <ul> <li><span>Photoisomerization can generate a racemic mixture and then preferentially photoconvert to only one of the isomers</span></li> <li><span>This strategy does not waste 50 percent of the product</span></li> <li><span>Can be done on large scale with minimal solvent</span></li> </ul> <h2><span>Applications:</span></h2> <ul> <li><span>Chemical companies that sell or use BINOL (Sigma, VWR, Merck, etc.)</span></li> </ul>
Dual-Fluid Jet Nozzle for Generating Sharp Boundaries between Jets of Fluids Dr. Markus Huettel 16-107 Dr. Matthieu Dumont <p>Dr. Markus Huettel and Alireza Merikhi have developed a device and method for rapid assessment of sensor response times as the sensor is switched rapidly between two or more testing fluids discharged from a multi-fluid jet nozzle. An embodiment of the novel device is a dual-fluid jet nozzle that ejects two distinct jets of testing fluid at the same velocity through a single nozzle discharge aperture divided by a sharp edged boundary wall, which effectively create a single jet stream containing two fluids separated by a sharp boundary. An embodiment of the novel device may be configured to discharge more than two jets of fluid to create a jet stream containing multiple fluids separated by sharp boundaries. A sensor tip is first exposed to a first testing fluid and then rapidly exposed to a second testing fluid. The sensor’s output may then be assessed to determine its response time.</p>
Metal Halide Perovskite Phosphors in LEDs for Full Color Display and Solid State Lighting Biwu Ma 17-009 Robby Freeborn-Scott <p>Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) are used widely in solid state lighting, electronic displays, bio-imaging, and photovoltaic applications.  A cheaper, more efficient LED device can impact multiple markets.  Some of the primary applications include television displays, mobile device displays, medical applications, solid state lighting, and energy applications.</p> <p>This LED technology comprises two components—an LED device and the process of manufacturing that device.  The LED device comprises earth-abundant materials. The manufacturing process takes place at room temperature using simple starting materials and common organic solvents in a single container. The color of the LEDs can be tuned. </p> <p>In addition, this technology focuses on using phosphors to get the desired color and intensity of light. Organic/inorganic perovskite materials are abundant, non-toxic, and inexpensive.  Thus, by using these materials to create phosphors, the cost of the LED device is reduced significantly. This is especially true as our technology approaches 100% conversion of the base LED energy to the phosphor.</p>
Alkylamine-Gold Nanoparticle Monolayers having Tunable Electrical and Optical Properties Daniel Hallinan 16-068 Robby Freeborn-Scott <p>The unique physical and chemical properties of most traditional materials are largely determined by the spatial arrangement of the constituent building blocks (i.e. atoms) relative to one another.  When the scale of the building blocks extend to the range outside that of atomic elements (e.g. nanoparticles), the 'artificial solids' composed of such nanoparticles exhibit unique properties different from their bulk counterparts. In particular, monolayer two-dimensional (2D) artificial solids, serving as the structural basis for more complicated nanostructures, display distinct collective optical, electrical, and catalytic properties, thus finding vast prospective applications in high-performance solar cells, electrogenerated chemilumines, chemical sensors, transistors, integrated microcircuitry, batteries, capacitors, and thermolectrics. Akin to traditional materials, the physical and chemical properties of artificial solids are not only dependent on the elementary nanoparticle size and shape, but as importantly on the interparticle separation and the periodic arrangement of the constituents.</p> <p>FSU researchers have successfully prepared monolayer gold nanoparticle (Au NP) films using a water/organic solvent self-assembly strategy. A new approach, “drain to deposit”, is demonstrated most effective to transfer the Au NP films from a liquid/liquid interface to various solid substrates while maintaining their integrity. The interparticle spacing was tuned from 1.4 nm to 3.1 nm using different length alkylamine ligands. The ordering of the films increased with increasing ligand length. The surface plasmon resonance and the in-plane conductivity of the Au NP films both exhibit an exponential dependence on the particle spacing. These findings show great potential in scaling up the fabrication of high-performance optical and electronic devices based on metallic nanoparticle superlattices.</p> <p>In addition, these FSU researchers have developed a three phase system for depositing monolayer gold nanoparticle films. Using this three-phase system, centimeter-scale monolayer gold nanoparticle (Au NP) films have been prepared that have long-range order and hydrophobic ligands. The system contains an interface between an aqueous phase containing Au NPs and an oil phase containing one of various types of amine ligands, and a water/air interface. As the Au NPs diffuse to the water/oil interface, ligand exchange takes place which temporarily traps them at the water/oil interface. The ligand exchanged particles then spontaneously migrate to the air/water interface, where they self-assemble, forming a monolayer under certain conditions. The spontaneous formation of the NP film at the air/water interface was due to the minimization of the system Helmholtz free energy. However, the extent of surface functionalization was dictated by kinetics. This decouples interfacial ligand exchange  from interfacial self-assembly, while maintaining the simplicity of a single system. The interparticle center-to-center distance was dictated by the amine ligand length. The Au NP monolayers exhibit tunable surface plasma resonance and excellent spatial homogeneity, which is useful for surface-enhanced Raman scattering. The “air/water/oil” self-assembly method developed here not only benefits the fundamental understanding of NP ligand conformations, but is also applicable to the manufacture of plasmonic nanoparticle devices with precisely designed optical properties.</p> <h1>Applications and Advantages</h1> <ul> <li>Batteries <ul> <li>Electric car</li> <li>Laptop</li> <li>Mobile device</li> <li>Other electric vehicles and locomotion devices</li> </ul> </li> <li>Increases reliability of batteries</li> <li>Increases the performances of batteries</li> <li>Reduces the possibility of catastrophic failure of devices due to battery failure</li> </ul> <p> </p> <p> </p>
Method of Treating Multiple Sclerosis with Anti-K6 Antibody Michael Blaber 03-013 Brent Edington <p>This invention is based on the discovery that modulators of kallikrein 6 can alter pathogenesis of inflammatory cell mediated diseases both within the central nervous system and in the periphery. As a result, modulators of kallikrein 6 can aid in the treatment and prevention of inflammatory conditions such as MS, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, and asthma. An antibody having specific binding affinity for kallikrein 6 reduced the degree of demyelination and reduced behavioral defects in animal models of multiple sclerosis.</p> multiple sclerosis,,rheumatoid arthritis,lupus,and asthma
Computer Software that Reduces Known Risk Factors for Anxiety, Depression, and Related Issues Dr. Norman B. Schmidt 15-175 Dr. Matthieu Dumont <p>According to the World Health Organization anxiety and related issues, including addictions and mood problems as well as suicide, represent some of the most prevalent and disabling conditions across all physical and mental health disorders. As such, there is a clear public health need to more effectively prevent, mitigate and treat these issues.</p> <p>Despite their prevalence and impairing nature, many of these problems respond remarkably well to treatment. It sounds almost too good to be true, but decades long conditions can be effectively removed in a few weeks with proper treatment. Our computer delivered interventions are even briefer – only about 50 minutes long. Despite their brevity, we have found that these interventions have considerable and long lasting positive benefits. Specifically, these brief treatments reduce the targeted risk factor by about 30% and these reductions are durable for as long as two years. Currently, we have two computer interventions - one focuses on stress sensitivity and the other on social isolation. These constructs have a considerable empirical foundation and are implicated as critical mechanisms involved in anxiety and mood problems.</p> <p>Our work in this area combines three key tasks: (1) identification of malleable risk factors, (2) developing interventions for these risk factors, and (3) using technology to facilitate delivery of the interventions.</p> <p>Technology is increasingly used to assist medical professionals. In regard to risk factors, our approach has been to develop interactive computer programs that guide participants through the information and skills needed to correct the problem of interest. These computer programs are brief (under one hour) and are readily disseminated via the web.</p> <p><a href="" target="_blank">More on Dr. Schmidt</a></p> <p> </p>
Additive Manufacturing of a Wireless Ceramic High Temperature and Pressure Sensor Cheryl Xu 17-004 Robby Freeborn-Scott <p>Maintaining situational awareness of the weapon environment is desirable for developing the next generation of robust missile and munition (M&amp;M) systems that can withstand the extreme acceleration, temperature, and pressure conditions that are presented by traditional fighter and hypersonic aircraft. In addition, tracking the temperature and pressure of high temperature turbines used in turbojets both for aircraft and energy production is highly desirable.  Conventional techniques for remotely monitoring munition assets are primarily performed by proximate environmental monitoring by fuel sensors, accelerometers, surface acoustic wave sensors, chemical resistors, and temperature sensors, which unfortunately are limited to storage and transportation purposes. In addition, conventional temperature testing for M&amp;M surveillance is performed over a limited temperature range, e.g., -55 °C to 125 °C.</p> <p>Conventional temperature sensors used in the evaluation of M&amp;M systems and turbine systems include thermocouples, thermistors, resistance thermometers, quartz thermometers, which all include a metallic coil inductor. However, these temperature sensors have certain drawbacks. For example, these temperatures sensors cannot be used in high temperature environments (e.g., 800 °C to 1400 °C) for prolonged periods of time due to oxidation of the metallic coil inductor, or can only be used under wired measurement conditions, and therefore are not suitable for in-flight monitoring. As a result, these temperature sensors can provide only limited evaluation of these high temperature and pressure systems.</p> <p>Conventional pressure sensors used in these applications includes passive pressure sensors based on resistive or capacitive sensing mechanisms. However, these pressure sensors have certain drawbacks. For example, wire interconnection is required to interrogate these sensors, and these sensors cannot operate effectively in high temperature environments. Moreover, pressure sensors that utilize a patch antenna operate within a limited temperature range, e.g., -55 °C to 125 °C, because of the metallic wire used with the patch antenna.</p> <p>The technology developed at FSU comprises a temperature and pressure sensor which includes a ceramic coil inductor having ceramic material and a relatively high volume fraction of carbon nanotubes. The combination leverages the remarkable electrical and mechanical properties (stiff and strong) of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and the thermal properties (temperature sensitivity) of ceramic materials.  </p> <p>Generally, the temperature sensors comprise a ceramic coil inductor that is formed of a ceramic composite and a thin film polymer-derived ceramic (PDC) nanocomposite having a dielectric constant that increases monotonically with temperature.  In general, the pressure sensors comprise a ceramic coil inductor formed of a ceramic composite, which has carbon nanotubes or carbon nanofibers, or a combination of carbon nanotubes and carbon nanofibers dispersed in a ceramic matrix, and a polymer-derived ceramic (PDC) nanocomposite. In some embodiments, the ceramic matrix comprises a polymer-derived ceramic (PDC) material.</p> <h2>Advantages</h2> <ul> <li> <p class="lead"><span class="small">The ability to provide real-time, in-flight monitoring of systems that operate in high temperature and pressure environments</span></p> </li> <li> <p class="lead"><span class="small">The ability to maintain safety and effectiveness of critical parts and materials without the need for extensive nondestructive evaluation (NDE) (for temperature sensors), thereby reducing cost and time</span></p> </li> <li> <p class="lead"><span class="small">On-demand tracking and assessing of the status of systems over extended periods, based upon changing conditions</span></p> </li> </ul> <p> </p>
Precision Polystyrene-sulfonate (PSS) Dr. Justin G. Kennemur 17-034 Dr. Matthieu Dumont <p>Recent research in the Kennemur Group has discovered a methodology for making a polystyrene-polyethylene-type copolymer analog .The reduction in phenyl branch periodicity for our system dramatically reduces the glass transition temperature (<em>T</em>­<sub>g</sub>) from 110 °C (PS) to ~17 °C (H<sub>2</sub>-P4PCP) and remains amorphous; this makes our system prone to improved softening and flexibility at ambient temperatures. Furthermore, due to the precise and diluted spacing of the phenyl branches, we envisioned that the full sulfonation (i.e. one sulfonate functionality per phenyl branch) of this polymer would create a new materials that rivals PSS due to the enhanced flexibility of the native polymer. Here it should be noted that ethylene and styrene monomers can be copolymerized to form ethylene-styrene copolymers (for example Dow INDEX ESI Interpolymers), however, the catalysts used are complex, styrene incorporation is not precise, and it is very difficult to achieve high styrene content due to the differences in reactivity between ethylene and styrene. </p>
Materials and Methods for Cryopreserved Bone Contstructs Teng Ma 11-011 Robby Freeborn-Scott <p>The technology developed includes materials and methods for cryo-preservation of HCG-cell constructs. In one embodiment, porous HCG scaffolds are provided in a perfusion bioreactor having perfusion chambers that can contain the HCG scaffolds, cells are then seeded in the HCG scaffolds in the perfusion bioreactor, cell culture media is perfused through and the bioreactor operated so as to allow for cell seeding and growth in the HCG scaffold. After a suitable period of time, the cell culture media is removed and the HCG containing cells (HCG-cell constructs) can be washed with a suitable buffer, such as phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). The HCG-cell constructs are then perfused with a suitable cryo-preservation fluid transversely across the HCG-cell constructs in the bioreactor. The cryo-preservant can comprise one or more of the following: DMSO, trehalose, glycerol, ethylene glycol, and serum for cell culture (e. g., fetal bovine serum (FBS)). In one embodiment, the HCG-cell constructs are perfused for a suitable period of time with cryo-preservant fluid using transverse flow of the fluid in the bioreactor at a suitable flow rate. The HCG-cell constructs (or the perfusion chambers containing them) are then removed from the bioreactor and placed in a cryo-preservant media and maintained at increasingly colder temperatures until temperatures reach about  -80° C. The frozen HCG-cell constructs (or the chambers containing them) can then be stored at a suitable cryogenic temperature (e.g., in liquid nitrogen) until needed. When needed, frozen HCG-cell constructs can be removed from cold storage and thawed using suitable means (e. g., 37°C. water bath). Cells contemplated for use in the presentinvention include stem cells, such mesenchymal stem cells.Cells can be animal cells, such as mammalian cells or human cells.</p>
Central Executive Training for ADHD Dr. Michael Kofler 16-106 Dr. Matthieu Dumont <p>Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a complex, chronic, and potentially debilitating disorder of brain, behavior, and development that affects approximately 5.4% of school-aged children at an annual U.S. cost of illness of over $42 billion. Medication and behavioral treatment are effective for reducing symptoms, but they are considered maintenance therapies because their benefits disappear within minutes to hours after treatment is stopped. Clearly, novel treatments are needed.</p> <p> </p> <p>Central Executive Training (CET) is a novel, evidence-informed, computerized training protocol developed based on recent advancements in clinical and neuropsychological science. It differs fundamentally from existing, capacity-based “working memory training” programs. Each of CET’s 9 training games implement advanced algorithms to adapt based on the child’s performance and build capabilities across three, empirically-identified functions of the midlateral prefrontal cortex. These 3 functions involve dual-processing, continuous updating, and temporal ordering, and are collectively known as the brain’s ‘central executive.’</p> <p> </p> <p>Central executive abilities are targeted in CET based on fMRI evidence of significant cortical underdevelopment in these areas in children with ADHD. Importantly, our previous work has shown that hyperactivity and inattentive symptoms are most pronounced in children with ADHD when they are engaged in activities that challenge their underdeveloped central executive abilities. In fact, several studies have found that children with ADHD do not show attention deficits or hyperactivity during conditions with minimal central executive demands.</p> <p> </p> <p>Our preliminary data show that CET is superior to the current gold standard psychosocial treatment (behavioral parent training) for improving working memory in children with ADHD. Our data also show that CET is superior to the gold standard for reducing hyperactivity symptoms measured using high-precision actigraphs that sample children’s movement 16 times per second. CET was equivalent to the current gold standard for reducing ADHD symptoms based on parent report. A randomized clinical trial of CET is underway.</p> ADHD
Twisted chiral cycloalkynes and remote activation of click reactivity Dr. Igor Alabugin 17-043 Dr. Matthieu Dumont <p>Professor Alabugin's team has developped cycloalkynes with a twisted polyaromatic backbone to add axial chirality to the click chemistry toolbox. The “twisted and bent” cyclodecyne structural motif can be intertwined with dormant electronic effects to open a conceptually new way to control click reactivity. Although endocyclic heteroatoms can provide dual stabilization to the cycloalkyne via hyperconjugative (direct) and conjugative (remote) effects, these effects are weakened by the geometric constraints imposed by the twisted backbone. Structural reorganization in the transition state (TS) removes these constraints and unlocks the power of remote electronic effects for selective TS stabilization.</p> <p>The chiral cyclodecynes can be prepared <strong>on gram scale in an enantiopure form</strong> and purified by recrystallization. Experimental kinetics confirm that these twisted cyclodecynes can be more reactive towards azides than activated cyclononynes and approach the reactivity of cyclooctynes.</p>
Mutations of the Rhodopsin Gene in Zebrafish and uses of the Mutations James Fadool 17-038 Brent Edington <p>The invention involves isolation and use of zebrafish having novel genetic mutations in the rhodopsin genes dealing with retinal disease to serve as a model for human retinal disease. Rhodopsin is a protein receptor expressed in the light sensitive cells of the retina responsible for initiation of vision. Nearly 100 spontaneous mutations in the human rhodopsin genes are associated with inherited photoreceptor degeneration, retinitis pigmentosa, progressive retinal degeneration, low vision and blindness for which there are currently no cures. The novel zebrafish models were generated to produce known disease causing mutations in the zebrafish rhodopsin genes. DNA sequencing revealed the novelty of the isolated zebrafish mutations. Analysis of the retinal phenotypes associated with the novel alleles of zebrafish rhodopsin genes revealed that specific mutations were associated with phenotypes that mimic photoreceptor defects and degeneration observed in humans. These zebrafish models provide novel tools for investigating the cellular consequences of expression of mutated forms of rhodopsin, and are useful for genetic, small molecule, and chemical screens, or molecular manipulations with the goal of discovering compounds, genes, or treatments that may alter, slow, reverse or prevent the photoreceptor defects.  </p>
Economic Analysis System Julie Harrington 15-197 Brent Edington <p><strong>Citrones</strong> and <strong>Citronem</strong>  products are software supported Multiplier Matrix files,  based on economic business establishment variables, using standard business sector classifications such as the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS), or Standard Industrial Classification System (SIC), per geographic region (e.g., Nation, State, County, Zip Code, Congressional District, etc.).</p> <p><strong>Citrones</strong> and <strong>Citronem</strong>  products enable users to conduct economic and business research, such as industrial operations(IO) research, industrial clusters analyses and economic impact analyses (including direct, indirect and induced impacts) and economic forecasting, among other areas. The products provide a level of inter-industry detail that currently is not available in the market. For example, the typical economic impact model software product generates about 1,056 multipliers. However, when compared with <strong>Citrones</strong> and <strong>Citronem</strong>, which generates approximately 1.35 million multipliers, the there is a much higher resolution or level of inter-industry detail at the six digit level. The granular level of readily applicable and accessible multipliers with allow for exponentially greater detail and higher quality results for any economic impact analyses. The Multiplier Matrix, is available in a user friendly format (e.g. EXCEL, SAS and SPSS software). <strong>Citrones </strong>and <strong>Citronem</strong> is based on the largest sample of national establishments’ data available, and will easily compete (with an expected market advantage) with any product in its category in the current marketplace.</p>
Treatment of Zika Virus Infections Using Alpha-Glucosidase Inhibitors Gary Ostrander and Eric Holmes 16-105 Brent Edington <p>The Zika virus is a Flavivirus that is spread to humans through mosquito bites. It is presently a major human health concern. When pregnant women are infected the virus can be transferred to the baby and result in microcephaly and other sever brain problems. Infections can also result in Guillain-Barre syndrome in adults and children, a neurological syndrome that can cause temporary paralysis. There are presently no vaccines or medications capable of preventing or treating Zika virus infections.</p> <p>Castanospermine is an inhibitor of α- and β- glucosidases which catalyze the cleavage of individual glucosyl residues from various glycoconjugates, including complex carbohydrates and glycoproteins. Castanospermine interferes with viral replication and infection that is dependent on glucosidase activity. Evidence of castanospermine antiviral activity has been reported in various Flavivirus and has been demonstrated by our researchers to be an anti-Zika virus drug.</p>
Identifying Cell and Disease-Specific Replication Timing Signatures David Gilbert 16-102 Brent Edington <p>Methods for identifying and classifying differences between biological samples are based on replication timing data. By comparing replication timing data for a test sample(s) to replication timing data for already characterized samples, one can identify differences and profile any new cell type or disease including various cancers. These new methods allow for detection of all the changes between distinct samples, many of which would escape detection by previous methods that discard any features showing any intra-sample variation. This method also has the ability to use replication timing to identify novel biomarkers not detected by other methods.</p>