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Bright Light-Emitting Diodes Based on Organometal Halide Perovskite Nanoplatelets Dr. Hanwei Gao 16-021 Garrett Edmunds <p>As LED technology advances, there is a need for cost effective materials with incredible performance. Solution-processable electronic materials have attracted great attention for the low-cost, scalable fabrication of lightweight, flexible devices. Recently, earth-abundant organometal halide perovskites that can be solution processed have emerged as a new class of semiconductors for photovoltaic devices. However, the performance of perovskite-based LEDs (PeLEDs) reported to date has not reached the level of performance typically associated with organic or quantum dot based LEDs that share similar device architecture and operating mechanisms. </p> <p>FSU researchers have fabricated bright light-emitting diodes (LEDs) based on solution-processable organometal halide perovskite nanoplatelets. These ligand-capped nanoplates are stable in moisture which allows the perovskite-based LEDs to be fabricated without an inert-gas glovebox. This novel technology demonstrates a new pathway toward optoelectronic devices based on solution-processable materials. Nanoscale organic-inorganic halide perovskites are a new class of semiconductors with desirable characteristics for optoelectronic devices.</p> <h2><strong>Advantages</strong></h2> <ul> <li>Low-cost</li> <li>High-performance</li> <li>Low temperature processing</li> <li>Tunable optical band gap</li> <li>Easily fabricated</li> </ul>
Solution-Processed, Bright Light-Emitting Diodes Based on CsPbBr3 Perovskite Dr. Hanwei Gao 16-113 Garrett Edmunds <p>Optoelectronics is the combined used of electronics and light. Solution-processed halide perovskites have shown great potential as the building blocks for the next generation of low-cost, high-performance optoelectronics and the next generation of LEDs. LED technology is rapidly advancing and there is a need for new materials with remarkable performance. </p> <p>One novel solution is LEDs that use MAPbBr3 as the emitter. These LEDs are high performing but are inherently unstable. Dr. Gao and his team have created all inorganic perovskites which are more stable both thermally and chemcially. This new material does not limit the performance of LEDs and shows the highest brightness among all perovskite LEDs demonstrated thus far. Furthermore, the synthesis creates films with incredibly small grain sizes which improves the smoothness of the films. This new material has the potential to revolutionize LEDs.</p> <h2 id="advantages"><strong>Advantages</strong></h2> <ul> <li>Excellent performance including brightness and efficiency</li> <li>Low-cost</li> <li>High-stability</li> </ul>
Stimulus Sensitive Multi-functional Biomedical Adhesives Dr. Hoyong Chung 17-042 Garrett Edmunds <p>Functional polymers can be synthesized to have different useful properties through the designed placement of various organic functional groups. Bottlebrush polymers are a type of functional polymer with multiple applications such as replacements for hydrogels, templates for carbon nanotubes, and medical applications.</p> <p>Currently biocompatible polymers are used as coatings on biomedical devices, as micro- and nanoparticles, and even for targeted drug delivery. These polymers can respond to different stimuli but even with various polymers available, it can be difficult to find one polymer that meets multiple requirements in a cost effective manner.</p> <p>An FSU inventor synthesized novel biocompatible polymers. These materials are highly functional and hydrophilic and have tunable properties. They are strong adhesives on multiple surfaces but can also be easily detached. The biomedical adhesives have the potential to greatly improve the medical industry.</p> <h2><strong>Advantages and Applications</strong></h2> <ul> <li>Tunable properties such as stiffness</li> <li>Enhanced adhesion properties on universal surfaces</li> <li>Easily cleaved to decrease adhesion</li> <li>Highly hydrophilic</li> <li>Biocompatible</li> <li>Can be used for</li> <ul> <li>localized drug delivery</li> <li>coatings on biomedical devices</li> <li>biomedical adhesive</li> </ul> </ul>
Stimulus Triggered Recyclable Catalysts Dr. Hoyong Chung 17-006 Garrett Edmunds <p>N-heterocyclic carbene ("NHC") compounds are often used as supporting ligands in homogeneous organometallic catalysts. NHC-based catalysts can catalyze a wide range of reactions, including metathesis reaction, Suzuki reactions, Negishi coupling reactions, Buchwald-Hartwig amination reactions, and organo-catalytic reactions among many others.</p> <p>This invention shows that host-guest interactions can be used to recover/recycle well-defined organometallic catalysts. The host-guest interaction is a strong molecular recognition (non-covalent bonding) based on supramolecular chemistry. The N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) is an excellent supporting ligand for homogeneous organometallic catalysis. Various azobenzene-tagged NHCs are proposed to test the resulting catalyst's activity and recover/recycle capability. The basic principle is that a homogeneous catalyst can be prepared with NHC ligand that has azobenzene group. After a designated chemical reaction, the catalyst can be recovered by 13-cyclodextrin (CD) via host-guest reaction . Note that the catalyst having azobenzene group doesn't engage to CD, if there is no stimulus. Thus, the catalyst can be selectively and conveniently recovered by external stimulus. Those external stimulus includes light and electricity. Also the azobenzene-tagged NHCs can be used in organo-catalytic reactions.</p> <p>Previously, there were two main approaches to recycle/recover the catalyst. The first approach is immobilization of a heterogeneous tag on a catalyst structure. This method allows for easy separation (filtration), but it suffers from severely low catalytic activity. The second strategy is having a switchable tag on a homogeneous catalyst to recover the catalyst in a heterogeneous state (solid) after a desired chemical reaction. This method requires costly processes to trigger phase changes.</p> <h2>Advantages</h2> <ul> <li>Catalyst is homogeneous</li> <li>Phase changes are not necessary</li> <li>Easy recovery process</li> <li>Repeatedly reusable</li> <li>Cost efficient</li> </ul>
Lignin-Based Nanoparticles and Smart Polymers Dr. Hoyong Chung 15-122 Garrett Edmunds <p>Smart polymers are materials that are designed to have advanced functionality, enabling a host of new applications. The next challenge in this field is to develop classes of smart polymers that possess multiple complementary functions. Examples include stimulus-responsive materials that are self-healing and pressure-sensitive adhesives that form the basis for nanolithography.</p> <p>Dr. Chung created numerous approaches to developing these materials while incorporating natural, renewable resources, such as lignin, and leveraging advances in polymer chemistry, such as ruthenium metathesis catalysts. These novel materials can offer significant improvements over current production methods of smart polymers and the application of lignin-based materials.  Applications are nearly limitless with properties such as self-healing, shape-memory functionality, and responsiveness to external stimuli while taking advantage of biodegradable, readily available resources.</p>
Tensile Test Fixture Dr. Raphael Kampmann 18-010 Garrett Edmunds <p>Concrete reinforced with steel bars is one of the most common materials used in construction. While steel bars provide increased structural integrity to accommodate the tensile stresses in concrete, steel reinforcement is susceptible to corrosion and this deterioration is often not visible and can lead to structural failure.</p> <p>Various fiber reinforced polymer bars, such as carbon, glass, and basalt fiber reinforced polymer bars are increasingly being used instead of steel bars to reinforce concrete. These fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) materials have a high tensile strength in the direction of the fibers, but are weak in the transverse direction. These materials must be tested for tensile strength via fundamental materials science tests in which a specimen is subjected to a controlled tensile load until failure. This tensile strength test is necessary to quantitatively measure important engineering properties. It is difficult to test FRP materials in tension because the material cannot be clamped directly as this would crush the fibers.</p> <p>Currently, FRP materials are encased by anchors to be tested with traditional grips (clamping mechanism). Aligning the anchors can be difficult and time consuming, and each specimen requires a dedicated setup procedure for each test run. In addition, the anchors at the specimen end require a large grip opening, often beyond the standard capabilities in certifying laboratories.</p> <p>An FSU inventor created a tensile test fixture for quick testing of materials with low traverse strength. The novel tensile test fixture can be mounted in any universal testing machine, such as a two-part load frame, and quickly aligned for repeated testing and reliable tensile test results. Alignment of the first test specimen ensures that all consecutive test specimens are identically aligned within the tensile test fixture and no further alignment is required. This novel tensile test fixture greatly improves testing of materials with low strength in the transverse direction.</p> <h2><strong>Advantages</strong></h2> <ul> <li>Works with universal testing machines</li> <li>Requires one alignment only</li> <li>Does not require each test material to be anchored</li> </ul>
High Frequency Pulsed Microjet Actuation William Oates 10-045 Michael Tentnowski <p>Flow control theory and actuator development have been the subject of intense research for more than a decade for applications on various aircraft structures including fixed wings, cavity flow, rotor blades, and impinging jets.</p> <p>The present invention comprises a piezoelectric actuator for varying the throat geometry of a microjet nozzle, thereby varying the characteristics of the microjet produced by the microjet nozzle. The inventive device is capable of producing pulsed flow and also rapidly variable flow in order to provide active control. To our knowledge, most of the actuators that are presently available suffer from a limited dynamic range, insufficient control authority, very high mass flow, complexity, size/weight and/or robustness. Piezoelectric materials, in particular, are used in stack actuator configurations for high bandwidth nanoprecision control applications which makes it ideal for actively throttling an array of microjets. The direct conversion of electrical energy to mechanical energy provides unique capabilities when coupled to an actively deforming supersonic nozzle.</p> <h2>Applications:</h2> <ul> <li>The proposed actuator can be incorporated into a wide variety of known flow control systems and because it is so responsive in the frequency domain, an active control system (using feed-back and/or feed-forward control loops) can be used. The control system can even vary the frequency in real time in order to disrupt unwanted isolations in the flow.</li> <li>This invention should be of interest to a whole array of aerospace and aviation stakeholders who are actively pursuing Active Flow Control for the current and Next Generation of air and space vehicles. These include commercial aircraft manufacturers, e.g. Boeing, Airbus and Gulfstream, the US Dept of Defense (DARPA, Air Force, Navy and the Army) Military and NASA.</li> </ul>
Intelligent Wi-Fi Packet Relay Protocol Dr. Zhenghao Zhang 13-089 Michael Tentnowski <p>L2Relay is a novel packet relay protocol for Wi-Fi networks that can improve the performance and extend the range of the network. A device running L2Relay is referred to as a relayer, which overhears the packet transmissions and retransmits a packet on behalf of the Access Point (AP) or the node if no acknowledgement is overheard. L2Relay is ubiquitously compatible with all Wi-Fi devices. L2Relay is designed to be a layer 2 solution that has direct control over many layer 2 functionalities such as carrier sense. Unique problems are solved in the design of L2Relay including link measurement, rate adaptation, and relayer selection. L2Relay was implemented in the OpenFWWF platform and compared against the baseline without a relayer as well as a commercial Wi-Fi range extender. The results show that L2Relay outperforms both compared schemes.</p>
Methods of Constructing Polyolefins having Reduced Crystallinity Dr. Alamo 09-166 Garrett Edmunds <p>The invention describes a family of polyolefins characterized by chain-walking defects of the type that add extra backbone carbons per monomer.</p> <p>These polyolefins display a large decrease in crystallinity relative to polyolefins known in the art. Specifically, the reduction in crystallinity is much greater than for earlier polypropylenes with a matched content of stereo or 1-alkene type defects. The claimed polyolefins can be an alkene-based homopolymer, or an alkene-based copolymer and can be made by a diimine-based catalyst or by a late metal catalyst. The defects in the polyolefin backbone are generated by a chain walking mechanism in which three or more carbons per monomer are added to the polymer backbone instead of two, as in conventional polymerization or copolymerization methods of alpha olefins.</p> <h1>Applications and Advantages:</h1> <ul> <li>Plastic wrapping</li> <li>Thin films</li> <li>Co-extrusion layers or molded parts in the absence of polymer blending or copolymerization</li> <li>The cost of materials production can be reduced</li> </ul>
The Spot Method for Detecting Compromised Computers in a Network Zhenhai Duan 09-148 Michael Tentnowski <p>Threats to computer network security are increasing, particularly regarding the “botnet” scenario where computers in a network are infected by malware programs (e.g., viruses, spyware, worms) that enable third parties to take control of the machines without the owners’ knowledge. Compromised computers, also known as “zombies,” can markedly decrease the efficiency of a network.</p> <p>Current malware detection programs are only capable of detecting known malware agents; however, new malware is continuously being developed so that malware detection programs are chronically behind and require frequent updates. Additionally, most detection methods do not allow for the global monitoring of machines on a network.</p> <p>Unlike the current malware detection programs that focus on the point of infection, Dr. Duan has developed a new program, SPOT, that focuses on the number of outgoing messages that are originated or forwarded by each computer on a network to identify the presence of compromised machines. SPOT uses three algorithms that were specifically developed for the system. The first algorithm is based on the percentage of spam messages that originate or are forwarded from an internal machine. The second is based on the number spam messages that originate or are forwarded from an internal machine. The third is based on a statistical method called the sequential probability ratio test (SPRT). Importantly, SPOT analyses the total number of messages sent by a machine rather than only analyzing the rate at which they are sent to thwart spammers from purposely slowing the rate of message transmission in order to work around the system. The SPOT system enables individual networks to globally monitor computers on their networks and to automatically and accurately detect and efficiently remove compromised computers from their networks in an online manner. This novel detection method is applicable to a wide range of settings in which computer networks play an essential role.</p> <h2><span>Applications:</span></h2> <ul> <li>Computer security industry.</li> <li>needing computer security (e.g., government agencies, financial institutions, research laboratories).</li> </ul> <h2>Advantages:</h2> <ul> <li>May be incorporated into new or added to existing networks at low cost.</li> <li>Only a single copy of the SPOT software is needed to protect a network.</li> <li>Fills security holes left by existing malware detection programs that focus only on the point of intrusion.</li> <li>May be used in combination with other malware detection programs.</li> <li>Detects compromised computers quickly and accurately, with low false positive and false negative rates.</li> </ul> password,spot,computers
Portable Sterilization System Bruce Locke and Radu Burlica 06-142 Garrett Edmunds <p>This sterilization system offers a portable, faster, more effective way to sterilize almost anything. A plasma reactor converts water into hydrogen peroxide and other oxidative/reductive species through a high voltage electrical discharge in the plasma region. The reactor utilizes water and an AC power supply to make it suitable for small and medium scale use.</p> <p><a data-id="6106" href="/media/3828/locke2.pdf" title="Locke2.pdf">Download PDF Version</a> </p> <h2>Applications:</h2> <ul> <li>Sterilization of food, hospital equipment, and other items</li> <li>Destruction of harmful pollutants in gases and water</li> </ul> <h2>Advantages:</h2> <ul> <li>Fast and effective on-site sterilization</li> <li>Self-contained unit allows for portability</li> <li>Requires only electricity and water and gas supply</li> </ul>
Pulsed Gliding Arc Electrical Discharge Reactors Dr. Bruce Locke 06-142 Garrett Edmunds <p>Gliding arc discharges have been investigated as a potential technology for gas phase pollution treatment and for liquid phase pollution treatment. Ultimately, the practical use of gliding arc technology to promote chemical transformations, such as the removal of organic pollutants in water or the generation of hydrogen peroxide, other reactive oxygen species, or reactive nitrogen species for treatment of potentially contaminated foods, depends on the efficiency that can be achieved.</p> <p>The present invention describes a plasma gliding arc discharge reactor that is useful for chemical transformations in liquids and gases. The reactor may include a housing having a plurality of divergent electrodes, a power supply connected to the electrodes delivering pulsed power to the reactor, and a nozzle that directs a mixture of a carrier gas and a liquid to a region between the divergent electrodes, thereby generating plasma in the region. The nozzle can include a first inlet for receiving the carrier gas, a second inlet for receiving the liquid and a mixing chamber that is configured to mix the carrier gas and the liquid prior to being directed to the region.</p>
System and Method of Probabilistic Passwords Cracking Dr. Sudhir Aggarwal 11-189 Michael Tentnowski <p>Professor Aggarwal and his team have created a  system and method of probabilistic passwords cracking.</p> <p>This technology is a novel password cracking system that generates password structures in highest probability order. Our program, called UnLock, automatically creates a probabilistic context-free grammar (CFG) based upon a training set of previously disclosed passwords.</p> <p>This CFG then allows to generate word-mangling rules, and from them, password guesses to be used in password cracking attacks.</p> <h2>Advantages:</h2> <ul> <li>Effectiveness demonstrated on real password sets</li> <li>Technology capable of cracking significantly more passwords in the same number of guesses as compared to publicly available standard password cracking systems.</li> <li>Tested in digital forensic missions</li> </ul>
System and Methods for Analyzing and Modifying Passwords Dr. Sudhir Aggarwal 12-044 Michael Tentnowski <p>Professor Aggarwal's team developed a system for analyzing and modifying passwords in a manner that provides a user with a strong and usable/memorable password. The user would propose a password that has relevance and can be remembered. The invention would evaluate the password to ascertain its strength. The evaluation is based on a probabilistic password cracking system that is trained on sets of revealed passwords and that can generate password guesses in highest probability order. If the user's proposed password is strong enough, the proposed password is accepted. If the user's proposed password is not strong enough, the system will reject it. If the proposed password is rejected, the system modifies the password and suggests one or more stronger passwords. The modified passwords would have limited modifications to the proposed password. Thus, the user has a tested strong and memorable password.</p>
Wireless Temperature Sensor for High-Temperature Environments Cheryl Xu 18-043 Garrett Edmunds <p>Existing temperature sensors such as thermocouples, optical-based non-contact sensors, and piezoelectric sensors have their own advantages, but they cannot operate wirelessly. Functional electronics such as batteries, chips, and wires cannot operate at high temperatures furthering the problem. There is a need for high temperature sensors that can wirelessly transmit data to monitor dynamic systems.</p> <p>FSU researchers created a wireless temperature sensor which can measure temperatures of at least 1000 °C. This novel sensor can collect measurements in harsh conditions such as high temperatures (e.g., 700 °C to 1,800 °C), elevated pressures (e.g., 200 psi to 50,000 psi), corrosive environments, and environments including radiation. The novel device is generally made up of a conductive material, a dielectric material, and a ground plane and can be manufactured in any shape. This wireless sensor has the potential to revolutionize the space industry, defense industry, and engineering.</p> <p><strong>Advantages</strong></p> <ul> <li>Wireless sensing in high temperatures, elevated pressure, corrosive environments, and radiation environments</li> <li>The ability to provide real-time, in-flight monitoring of systems that operate in ultra-harsh conditions</li> <li>Small profile</li> <li>Easy manufacturing and rapid prototyping</li> </ul>
The Soret Effect in Polymer-Electrolyte-Based Electrochemical Cells Daniel Hallinan 16-088 Garrett Edmunds <p>The Soret effect arises when a temperature gradient is imposed on a multi-component system, inducing a concentration gradient. There is no comprehensive theory of the Soret effect that applies to all the systems that have been studied. Polymer electrolytes are a novel and interesting system in which to study the Soret effect due to the dissimilar properties of polymers and salts.</p> <p>Polymer electrolytes provide a system in which the mobility of the components are dramatically different and in which the species solvating the ions (polymer segments) cannot transfer with the ion. This can lead to large partial molal free energy of transfer for ions in polymer electrolyte. In addition, the solid nature of polymer electrolytes precludes convection, which is a vexing source of error in thermal diffusion studies. Studies on polymer blends have found unexpectedly large Soret coefficients near a phase transition. With complex phase diagrams, polymer electrolytes provide an avenue to study this phenomena. In addition, the Soret effect in dry polymer electrolytes could potentially be used to convert waste heat into electricity and improve the efficiency of electrochemical cells.</p> <p>This technology describes measuring the Soret coefficient in a dry polymer electrolyte by determining the concentration gradient that develops in an imposed temperature gradient. The concentration gradient may be determined using various methods including an electrochemical approach and by magnetic resonance imaging. Transient studies may be used to determine the thermal diffusion coefficient, providing another way to calculate the Soret coefficient. Consideration is given to higher order effects such as non-constant transport parameters by determining the temperature dependence of both thermal mass diffusion and thermal energy diffusion.</p>
Simple, Accurate and Fast Web-Based Analysis Tool for the Stock Market Dr. Piyush Kumar 12-193 Michael Tentnowski <p>The present invention describes a novel system and method of aggregating and predicting stock rankings. A financial data model based on a neighborhood model, this invention allows users to predict the trend of a continuous time series, given the knowledge of other similar time series. It also solves another proximal problem of Rank Aggregation, which is, given a set of rankings based on some parameters, to come up with an optimal ranking that procures the earning capability of a ticker as the primary pivot. To achieve this, each ticker is projected as a point on a high dimensional space.</p> <p>The system and method then uses a ranking optimization method to predict the ranking of each stock based on percentage change in price. The current invention facilitates investors trading by using a novel methodology to predict stock rankings and providing a neighborhood of related stocks, while having an easy to use interface.</p> <h2>Advantages:</h2> <ul> <li>Ranks stock tickers registered at NASDAQ based on different market parameters, or within a given a sector, or as charts where instead of the price of a ticker its rank is shown at different hours of the day</li> <li>Predicts pricing trends</li> <li>Provides recommendation based on portfolio and budget, and short term prediction with reason (i.e. why we have put ticker X at rank 1)</li> <li>The entire web interface (including the visualizations) will be implemented using HTML5/CSS3 so that it stays accessible from any mobile device (including Apple devices)</li> </ul> <p> </p>
Reproducible Random Number Generation using Unpredictable Random Numbers Michael Mascagni 16-103 Michael Tentnowski <p>The use of random numbers in simulation is widespread, and is crucial in a large number of applications. In simulation, it is equally important that applications using random numbers are reproducible. The requirement of reproducibility is important for many reasons:</p> <ol> <li>Code development and debugging would be nearly impossible without reproducible random numbers</li> <li>Many simulation applications require absolute reproducibility in certification situations, such as those mandated by the Nuclear Regulator Commission</li> <li>Publication in many journals now has a code reproducible mandate, such as the ACM Transactions on Mathematical Software.</li> </ol> <p>This has led to many new, and very capable random numbers designed primarily for cryptographic use, and hence are unpredictable, to be deemed inadequate for simulation purposes. One such generator, the Intel digital random number generator (DRNG) is of particular note, and served as Dr. Mascagni’s inspiration.</p> <p>In the Scalable Parallel Random Number Generators (SPRNG) library that Dr. Mascagni developed, one has the capability to produce independent full-period random number streams based on parameterization. The parameter can be thought of as a very long integer, and SPRNG currently assigns parameters to steams. One can use an unpredictable RNG to produce the parameters in SPRNG, and by augmenting the SPRNG RNG data structure, this can be done in a reproducible way. The reproducibility will be of the so-called forensic type, and reproducing the results will require the use and design of extra software to collect the parameters used in a computation, and to stage a new computation with the same parameters.</p> <h2>Advantages:</h2> <ul> <li>All current Intel and AMD processors have an interface to the RdRAND function, which produces the unpredictable random values. Thus, this would provide a reproducible generator for a wide variety of machines, and would permit parallel and distributed computing without the need for message passing, as the Native RdRAND function can be used independently.</li> </ul>
Phase-Shifted Square Wave Modulation Method for Isolated Modular Multilevel DC/DC Converter Hui (Helen) Li 18-008 Michael Tentnowski <p>This invention provides a phase-shifted square wave modulation method for isolated modular multi-level DC/DC (IM2DC) converters. In the present invention, one square wave based modulation waveform with the same frequency and magnitude is applied to each cell of an isolated modular multi-level DC/DC converter and compared with a triangular carrier waveform to generate the gate signals. With the phase-shifted angle of the carrier waves, higher equivalent switching frequency can be achieved. Both full-bridge (FB) and half-bridge (HB) cells are allowed as the single cell.</p> <p>This technology can be implemented to reduce the DC inductor size due to higher equivalent switching frequency. In addition, the required capacitor energy can be reduced, which decreases the capacitor size since they are dedicated to smooth the high switching frequency ripples only. Moreover, a high efficient power transfer capability can be achieved with the square wave compared to conventional sinusoidal waveforms.</p> <p>In addition, this invention proposes a novel phase-shifted square wave modulation technique aiming at reducing passive components and devices sizes for single-phase and three-phase IM2DC applications in HVDC/MVDC systems. In various embodiments a square wave based modulation waveform is applied to each cell of IM2DC and compared to the phase-shifted carrier waveforms to generate device gate signals. Thus, higher equivalent switching frequency will be achieved and square wave based arm and AC link waveforms will be generated. The power flow of IM2DC is controlled by a phase shift angle of the square modulation waveforms between HVS and LVS. Compared to the conventional phase-shift sinusoidal method, the converter cell capacitors can be reduced significantly since they are required to smooth out the high switching frequency ripple components only. In addition, lower TDR can be achieved due to the higher power transferring capability of square waves. Both proposed method and quasi-two-level modulation can achieve low TDR and small cell capacitor size, however, the present invention can allow smaller DC inductors due to the multi-cell phase-shifted characteristics.</p>
MultiSense: A Highly Reliable Wearable-Free Fall Detection System Dr. Zhenghao Zhang 18-015 Michael Tentnowski <p class="lead"><span class="small">Professor Zhang and his team have developed A reliable fall detection system has tremendous value to the well-being of seniors living alone. We design and implement MultiSense, a novel fall detection system, which has the following desirable features. First, it does not require the human to wear any device, therefore convenient to seniors. Second, it has been tested in typical settings including living rooms and bathrooms, and has shown very good accuracy. Third, it is built with inexpensive components, with expected hardware cost around $150 to cover a typical room. Therefore, it has a key advantage over the current commercial fall detection systems which all require the human to wear some device, as well as over academic research prototypes which have various limitations such as lower accuracy. The high accuracy is achieved mainly by combining senses from multiple types of sensors that complement each other, which includes a motion sensor, a heat sensor, and a floor vibration sensor. Roughly speaking, the activities confusing to some sensors are often not confusing to others, and vice versa; therefore, combining multiple types of sensors can bring the performance to a level that can meet the requirements in practice.</span></p>
Method for Producing Composite Powder for Dry Process Electrode for Electrochemical Devices Jian-ping (Jim) Zheng 15-235 Garrett Edmunds <p>This novel technology is directed to a low cost and high performance electrode for an energy storage device or an energy storage system and the method for making that device. The types of energy storage devices that can incorporate such electrode include ultracapacitors, lithium ion capacitors, batteries, fuel cells and hybrid cells which are the combination of the above devices. The types of energy storage systems that can incorporate such a low cost and high performance electrode are the energy storage system that uses at least one of the above devices.</p> <p>This technology comprises a binder composition and a method of making a composite powder for a dry process electrode and a method of producing an electrode. Both of these methods can be used for electro-chemical devices. The binder composition includes bulk polymer, polymer solution, and polymer suspension. The method comprises: 1) making electrode composites including an active material, a carbonaceous conductor and binder wherein the working ranges for each include, by weight, about 70-97% for the active materials, about 0-10% for the conductive material additives, and about 2-20% binder material through solvent-free or solvent assistant process; 2) making uniformly mixed, ready-for-press electrode composite powders comprising of an active material, a carbonaceous conductor and binder using a high speed mixer; 3) form a free-standing continuous electrode film by pressing the uniform mixed powder together through the gap between two roller of a roll-mill, and 4) calendering the electrode film onto a substrate, such as a collector.</p>
Leakage Current Suppression Solutions for Photovoltaic Cascaded Multilevel Inverter Application Hui (Helen) Li 13-176 Michael Tentnowski <p>The cascaded multilevel inverter is considered to be a promising alternative for the low-cost and high-efficiency photovoltaic (PV) systems. However, the current leakage issue, resulting from the stray capacitances between the PV panels and the earth, needs to be solved for the cascaded inverter to be reliably applied in PV application.</p> <p>The proposed technologies solve the leakage current issue in PV cascaded multilevel inverter by using passive filters. It can retain the simple structure of the inverter and does not complicate the associated control system.  The system is a photovoltaic cascaded inverter, including inverter modules, which have both an AC and a DC side.  In addition, the system includes a common DC-side choke coupled to the DC-side of each of the inverter modules and a common mode AC-side choke coupled to the AC-side of each of the inverter modules.</p> <p> </p>
Fast Electromechanical Disconnect Switching Chamber with Integrated Drive Mechanism Michael (Mischa) Steurer 14-117 Michael Tentnowski <p>The technology developed is a fast electromechanical switch with the drive mechanism integrated into the switching chamber. The integration of the drive mechanism allows for much faster contact travel and therefore faster switching operation.</p> <p>The proposed invention uses a vacuum or pressurized gas chamber with internal piezoelectric-actuator driven contacts for an electrical switch that can provide ultra-fast voltage. It fills a need for use in hybrid breaker applications.</p> <h2>Advantages:</h2> <ul> <li>Compact</li> <li>Low loss</li> <li>Does not need high current pulses</li> <li>Can be automatically reset</li> <li>Simple and fast</li> </ul>
Fast Dynamic Parallel Approximate Neighbor Search Data Structure Using Space Filling Curves Piyush Kumar 16-096 Michael Tentnowski <p>The nearest neighbor search (NNS) is a technique that is used in computing to optimize the amount of time it takes to accurately locate one data point in relation to another data point in a dataset that is organized so that distances between points are measured in Euclidian space. Increasingly, NNS computation is becoming a key sub-task in many algorithms and applications that are used to process, organize, cluster, learn, and understand massive data sets, such as those used in the automotive, aerospace, and geographic information system (GIS) industries.</p> <h2>The Problem:</h2> <p>The NNS algorithm works well for small data sets, but it is too time-consuming to implement with large data sets. The approximate nearest neighbor (ANN) search, an alternative to NNS, improves search time and saves memory by estimating the nearest neighbor, without guaranteeing that the actual nearest neighbor will be returned in every case. Two limitations of this method are that it is difficult to make an ANN algorithm dynamic (i.e., allows for insertions and deletions in the data structure) or to parallelize it (i.e., use multiple processors to speed up queries).</p> <h2>The Solution:</h2> <p>Dr. Kumar and his research team are developing a novel, practical, and theoretically-sound method that will solve the NNS problem in lower dimensional spaces. Specifically, the researchers are creating an approximate k-nearest neighbor algorithm, based on Morton Sorting of points, to create a software library for approximate nearest neighbor searches for Euclidian spaces. The library will use multi-core machines efficiently (parallel) and enable the insertion and deletion of points at run time (dynamic). This new algorithm delivers the search results with expected logarithmic query times that are competitive with or exceed Mount’s approximate nearest neighbor (ANN) search.</p> <h2>Advantages:</h2> <ul> <li>Speed on multicore machines</li> <li><span>Minimum spanning tree computation</span></li> </ul>
Fast Compression and Estimation of the Channel State Information (CSI) with Sparse Sinusoid Approximation for Broadband Wireless Networks Zhenghao Zhang 16-079 Michael Tentnowski <p>CSIApx is a very simple algorithm for the compression of the Channel State Information (CSI) of OFDM systems. The algorithm is guided by rigid mathematical findings and has with bounded performance. It is very suitable to be implemented in hardware because it involves only a small number of complex multiplications, similar to that of a digital FIR filter. In the illustrated embodiment CSIApx has been extensively tested with both experimental data and the Wi-Fi channel model, and the results confirm that while dramatically reducing the computation complexity, CSIApx still significantly outperforms the existing solutions both in compression ratio and accuracy, in nearly all cases.</p> <p>Accordingly, the present invention provides an improved system and method for compressing the CSI for OFDM that is accurate and computationally easy to implement.</p> <p> </p> <h2>Applications:</h2> <ul> <li>Computer systems</li> </ul> <h2>Advantages:</h2> <ul> <li>Extremely simple</li> <li>Compressed CSI consists of small range of 5 or less complex numbers</li> <li>Easy to quantize and transmit</li> <li>Based on rigid mathematical foundations</li> <li>Resilient against the disturbance of noise</li> </ul>
Derivative Reference-Based Method for Detection of Instability in Power Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulation James Langston 16-084 Michael Tentnowski <p>Hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) is a form of simulation wherein a hardware device is interfaced to a digital real-time simulator (DRTS), which models the system that the hardware is intended to be connected to in the real world. HIL simulations offer a method to test physical devices under real time operating conditions. Various scenarios can be tested in a controlled environment to evaluate the performance of the device under test (DUT) before it is connected to the actual physical system.</p> <p>Most HIL simulations are closed-loop meaning that the response of the device is fed back to the DRTS. One type of closed-loop HIL is a Power HIL (PHIL). PHIL simulations involve interfacing the DRTS with a power device such as a motor, generator, transformer, inverter, etc. (DUT). The DRTS and the DUT exchange power over the PHIL interface. In some instances, a digital to analog (D/A) converter, which is included as part of the DRTS provide analog signals scaled down to electronic levels within ±10Vpk, ±10mA. In other instances, digital signals may be exchanged. These voltage levels are well below the operating voltage/current range of the DUT, therefore amplifiers and/or actuators are required in PHIL simulations to scale the signals sent from the DRTS to the DUT.</p> <p>Due to the closed-loop nature of PHIL simulations and the natural delays in the feedback loops, instability is often a problem, and can lead to damage and/or destruction of the equipment involved in the tests. Very little has been published regarding protection methods designed to detect instabilities in PHIL systems. Some of the proposed methods to detect these oscillations include over/under frequency protection and harmonic distortion-based protection.</p> <p>The invention provides a method for detecting instability in a PHIL simulation. The PHIL includes a RTS, a DUT, and an amplifier electrically connected between the RTS and the DUT. The method includes computing in a RTS a magnitude of a time-derivative of reference quantities and applying a low pass filter thereto. The method also includes comparing an output from the low pass filter to a threshold for detection of oscillations of the reference quantities. When oscillations are detected a mitigating step is applied to the DUT. The invention includes other variations of a similar concept.</p>
Combined Gas-Liquid Plasma and Bioreactor Remediation of Liquids and Gases Bruce Locke and Youneng Tang 17-018 Garrett Edmunds <p>An increasing number of types and vast amounts of different complex organic compounds into the natural environment. Of these compounds, the emerging contaminants, those typically not regulated or routinely monitored by government agencies, include a wide range of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), and other compounds that cannot be degraded or removed in conventional drinking water and wastewater treatment processes. Many of these compounds can have adverse effects on the environment, animal, and human health (e.g., endocrine disruption), even at low concentrations. For example, widespread release of antibiotics has led to the evolution of antibiotic resistant bacteria which reduce our capability to manage infectious diseases. Such compounds are released into drinking water, ground water, and wastewater from hospitals, water treatment plants, and distributed sources such as septic field and edge agricultural runoff. Many of these compounds are not readily biodegradable, some are highly persistent in the environment, some may accumulate in the food chain, and some may degrade into more hazardous compounds causing further environmental and health issues. Approximately 700 emerging pollutants, including their metabolic and degradation products, are listed in Europe.</p> <p>Biological reactors offer significant energy efficiency, but require significant residence times, on the order of days or weeks, in order to fully degrade some contaminants. Also, biological reactors are incapable of degrading some toxic organic compounds, or are incapable of completely degrading some organic contaminants to mineralized products. Plasma reactors that only treat liquid contaminants combined with biological reactors are incapable of degrading gas phase contaminants. Such combined systems also are not readily adaptable to changing contaminant composition streams.</p> <p>In order to solve these issues, this novel technology uses a mixture comprising liquid water, a gas and organic compounds, which are injected into a non-thermal gas-liquid plasma discharge reactor to generate a flowing liquid film region with a gas stream flowing alongside. A plasma discharge is propagated along the flowing liquid film region. During this process, water is<br />dissociated and reactive species such as hydroxyl radicals, hydrogen peroxide, and nitrogen oxides are formed. The organic compound reacts with the reactive species such as hydroxyl radicals and hydrogen peroxide present in the flowing liquid film region and in the flowing gas stream to produce organic compound dissociation products. Some of the organic compound dissociation products and nitrogen oxides are transferred to a bioreactor for further degradation. The nitrogen oxides are used as nutrients for bacteria in the bioreactor. The combination of the two reactors saves energy and time on the process of degrading the compounds, thereby cutting costs. Additionally, the increased efficiency of the system is far greater than the addition of the two individual reactors.</p>
Cashtags: Prevent Leaking Sensitive Information through Screen Display An-I Andy Wang 15-091 Michael Tentnowski <p>Mobile computing is the new norm. As people feel increasingly comfortable computing in public places such as coffee shops and transportation hubs, the risk of exposing sensitive information increases. While solutions exist to guard the communication channels used by mobile devices, the visual channel remains, to a significant degree, open. These solutions aim only to prevent the visual leakage of password entries. However, once the uses has been successfully authenticated, all accessed sensitive information is displayed in full view.  No existing mechanism allows arbitrary data to be marked as sensitive. Shoulder surfing is becoming a viable threat in a world where sensitive information from images can be extracted with modest computing power.</p> <p>In response, we present Cashtags: a system to defend against attacks on mobile devices based on visual observations. The system allows users to access sensitive information in public without the fear of visual leaks. This is accomplished by intercepting sensitive data elements before they are  displayed on screen, then replacing them with non-sensitive information. In addition, the system provides a means of computing with sensitive data in a non-observable way.</p>
Alkylamine-Gold Nanoparticle Monolayers having Tunable Electrical and Optical Properties Daniel Hallinan 16-068 Garrett Edmunds <p>The unique physical and chemical properties of most traditional materials are largely determined by the spatial arrangement of the constituent building blocks (i.e. atoms) relative to one another.  When the scale of the building blocks extend to the range outside that of atomic elements (e.g. nanoparticles), the 'artificial solids' composed of such nanoparticles exhibit unique properties different from their bulk counterparts. In particular, monolayer two-dimensional (2D) artificial solids, serving as the structural basis for more complicated nanostructures, display distinct collective optical, electrical, and catalytic properties, thus finding vast prospective applications in high-performance solar cells, electrogenerated chemilumines, chemical sensors, transistors, integrated microcircuitry, batteries, capacitors, and thermolectrics. Akin to traditional materials, the physical and chemical properties of artificial solids are not only dependent on the elementary nanoparticle size and shape, but as importantly on the interparticle separation and the periodic arrangement of the constituents.</p> <p>FSU researchers have successfully prepared monolayer gold nanoparticle (Au NP) films using a water/organic solvent self-assembly strategy. A new approach, “drain to deposit”, is demonstrated most effective to transfer the Au NP films from a liquid/liquid interface to various solid substrates while maintaining their integrity. The interparticle spacing was tuned from 1.4 nm to 3.1 nm using different length alkylamine ligands. The ordering of the films increased with increasing ligand length. The surface plasmon resonance and the in-plane conductivity of the Au NP films both exhibit an exponential dependence on the particle spacing. These findings show great potential in scaling up the fabrication of high-performance optical and electronic devices based on metallic nanoparticle superlattices.</p> <p>In addition, these FSU researchers have developed a three phase system for depositing monolayer gold nanoparticle films. Using this three-phase system, centimeter-scale monolayer gold nanoparticle (Au NP) films have been prepared that have long-range order and hydrophobic ligands. The system contains an interface between an aqueous phase containing Au NPs and an oil phase containing one of various types of amine ligands, and a water/air interface. As the Au NPs diffuse to the water/oil interface, ligand exchange takes place which temporarily traps them at the water/oil interface. The ligand exchanged particles then spontaneously migrate to the air/water interface, where they self-assemble, forming a monolayer under certain conditions. The spontaneous formation of the NP film at the air/water interface was due to the minimization of the system Helmholtz free energy. However, the extent of surface functionalization was dictated by kinetics. This decouples interfacial ligand exchange  from interfacial self-assembly, while maintaining the simplicity of a single system. The interparticle center-to-center distance was dictated by the amine ligand length. The Au NP monolayers exhibit tunable surface plasma resonance and excellent spatial homogeneity, which is useful for surface-enhanced Raman scattering. The “air/water/oil” self-assembly method developed here not only benefits the fundamental understanding of NP ligand conformations, but is also applicable to the manufacture of plasmonic nanoparticle devices with precisely designed optical properties.</p> <h1>Applications and Advantages</h1> <ul> <li>Batteries <ul> <li>Electric car</li> <li>Laptop</li> <li>Mobile device</li> <li>Other electric vehicles and locomotion devices</li> </ul> </li> <li>Extremely precise detection of compounds</li> <li>Increases reliability of batteries</li> <li>Increases the performances of batteries</li> <li>Reduces the possibility of catastrophic failure of devices due to battery failure</li> </ul> <p> </p> <p> </p>
Additive Manufacturing of a Wireless Ceramic High Temperature and Pressure Sensor Cheryl Xu 17-004 Garrett Edmunds <p>Maintaining situational awareness of the weapon environment is desirable for developing the next generation of robust missile and munition (M&amp;M) systems that can withstand the extreme acceleration, temperature, and pressure conditions that are presented by traditional fighter and hypersonic aircraft. In addition, tracking the temperature and pressure of high temperature turbines used in turbojets both for aircraft and energy production is highly desirable. Conventional techniques for remotely monitoring munition assets are primarily performed by proximate environmental monitoring by fuel sensors, accelerometers, surface acoustic wave sensors, chemical resistors, and temperature sensors. These are limited to storage and transportation purposes and typically have a limited temperature range, e.g., -55 °C to 125 °C.</p> <p>Conventional temperature sensors used in the evaluation of M&amp;M systems and turbine systems include thermocouples, thermistors, resistance thermometers, quartz thermometers, which all include a metallic coil inductor. Due to the oxidation of the metallic coil inductor, these temperature sensors cannot be used in high temperature environments for prolonged periods of time and can only be used under wired measurement conditions.</p> <p>Conventional pressure sensors used in these applications include passive pressure sensors based on resistive or capacitive sensing mechanisms. These sensors also require a wire interconnection and they cannot operate effectively in high temperature environments. Moreover, pressure sensors that utilize a patch antenna operate within a limited temperature range, e.g., -55 °C to 125 °C, because of the metallic wire used with the patch antenna.</p> <p>The technology developed at FSU comprises a wireless temperature and pressure sensor which includes a ceramic coil inductor having ceramic material and a relatively high volume fraction of carbon nanotubes. The combination leverages the remarkable electrical and mechanical properties (stiff and strong) of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and the thermal properties (temperature sensitivity) of ceramic materials. </p> <p>Generally, the temperature sensors comprise a ceramic coil inductor that is formed of a ceramic composite and a thin film polymer-derived ceramic (PDC) nanocomposite having a dielectric constant that increases monotonically with temperature and the pressure sensors comprise a ceramic coil inductor formed of a ceramic composite, which includes carbon nanotubes and/or carbon nanofibers.<span> This novel technology has the potential to revolutionize the space industry, defense industry, and engineering.</span></p> <h2>Advantages</h2> <ul> <li> <p class="lead"><span class="small">The ability to provide real-time, in-flight monitoring of systems that operate in high temperature and pressure environments</span></p> </li> <li> <p class="lead"><span class="small">The ability to maintain safety and effectiveness of critical parts and materials without the need for extensive nondestructive evaluation (NDE) (for temperature sensors), thereby reducing cost and time</span></p> </li> <li> <p class="lead"><span class="small">On-demand tracking and assessing of the status of systems over extended periods, based upon changing conditions</span></p> </li> </ul> <p> </p>
Active Flow Control for Wall-Normal Columnar Vortex Kunihiko Taira 18-004 Michael Tentnowski <p>Flow control is often employed to diminish the appearance of vortices or alter the characteristics of vortices in a liquid. For example, in a sump pump, the emergence of submerged vortices may degrade pump performance. If the submerged vortices are sufficiently strong, these vortices can include strong low pressure cores, which can entrain air/vapor along their vortex cores. If such hollow-core vortices are engulfed by the pump, they can cause unbalanced loading and vibration, leading to undesirable noise and possible structural failure. Strong wall-normal vortices appear inside and outside of many fluid-based machines as well as in natural settings, including tornadoes and hurricanes.</p> <p>There have been numerous attempts to introduce passive vortex control techniques to prevent the generation of the aforementioned vortices or alter their pressure distributions. Yet passive control techniques do not offer the ability to adaptively adjust the control efforts to unsteady flow conditions (beyond design conditions). Moreover, some passive control devices are difficult to manufacture. Thus, these past efforts have shortcomings in offering reliable techniques to modify the pressure distribution of these vortices. Designing a more efficient and flexible vortex control strategy remains a challenge.</p> <p>This invention is directed to spreading the core region of a coherent wall-normal vortex and alleviating the low-pressure in the core in a flow field. Such vortices are ubiquitous in nature and engineering systems, ranging from hydrodynamic/aerospace applications to nature, such as hurricanes and subsurface vortices. Many passive control techniques exist for wall-normal vortices, but none include active flow control methods that can be applied in an adaptive manner. In order to solve this problem, this technology introduces forcing input (e.g., fluid jet and suction) near the core region of the vortex to destabilize the local<br />flow and spread the core region. This in turn lowers the local angular velocity and increase the core pressure of the vortex. The increase of the pressure has engineering benefits because low pressure at the core can create detrimental engineering effects for vortices in air and liquids. In some instances, the forced input follows a sinusoidal form in time and in a co-rotating/counter-rotating direction for effective breakup of the vortex.</p> <p>The invention provides a more adaptive technique than passive controls for alleviating the low-pressure effect of the vortex core using active flow control techniques. That is, the method of control provides a vortex control technique and device for vortices in different flow conditions. In order to achieve this, two different types of control strategies are disclosed based on co-rotating and counter-rotating mass injection and suction from the wall surface on which the vortex resides. The control strategy is employed on the wall where the vortex core is pinned and the mass injection/suction device is placed underneath the surface. The control input is adjusted with its frequency, amplitude, and direction of mass injection/suction.</p>
A Method of Producing Extracellular Metal or Metalloid Nanoparticles Using a Bioreactor Youneng Tang 18-031 Michael Tentnowski <p>Metals and metal ions are essential trace elements for humans and animals. However, when presenting in water at high concentrations, they are often toxic and can cause diseases such as hair loss and reproductive failure. Consequently, metal and metal ion contamination represent a potential health hazard. A major cause of contamination in water is the disposal of agricultural drainage. Selenium (Se) is one such element, and can be used to exemplify the hazards of metal and metal ion contamination. The maximum contaminant level set by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for Se in drinking water is 50 μg Se/L.</p> <p>Thus, this technology is directed to bio-electrochemical reactors, methods of reducing metal ions in contaminated medium to extracellular metal or metalloid nanoparticles, and methods and devices for separating the extracellular metal or metalloid nanoparticles from the bacteria. For example, the bio-electrochemical reactor is used as a selector to select only bacteria that<br />produce extracellular metal or metalloid nanoparticles from an electrode inoculum comprising a highly diverse mixed culture. As a result, the bio-electrochemical reactors described serve as an effective means for removing and separating metal ions from contaminated water.</p>
Metal Halide Nanotubes, Devices, and Methods Biwu Ma 18-009 Garrett Edmunds <p>Since the discovery of carbon nanotubes, materials with tubular structures have attracted scientific interest because of their  intriguing physical and/or chemical properties. Besides carbon nanotubes, a number of synthetic tubular structures such as metal oxides, polymers, metal organic frameworks (MOFs) etc. have been developed over the last decades, which show promising applications in various areas, ranging from gas separation and storage, to catalysts, and drug delivery.</p> <p>Organic-inorganic metal halide hybrids have received research attention for their exceptional optical and/or electronic properties with useful applications in a variety of optoelectronic devices, including photovoltaic cells, light emitting diodes, photodetectors, and lasers. The structural tunability of this class of materials can enable the formation of various types of crystal structures by using appropriate organic and inorganic components, ranging from three- (3D), to two- (2D), one- (1D), and zero-dimensional (0D) structures on the molecular level.</p> <p>This technology comprises organic metal halide hybrids having a 1D tubular structure, and facile solution processing methods for preparing the metal halide hybrids. For example, the metal halide crystals provided herein may include an array of 1D nanotube structures. In some embodiments, the methods provided herein including simple bottom up solution self-assembly processes.</p> <h2 class="lead">Applications</h2> <ul> <li>Gas storage</li> <li>Ion selection</li> <li>Catalysts</li> <li>Sensors</li> <li>Molecular machines</li> </ul> <h2 class="lead">Advantages</h2> <ul> <li>They have optical response and relatively good quantum yield.</li> <li>The solution-based preparation of these phosphors at room temperature is easy and cost effective.</li> <li>Their crystals are bulk-assembly of the nano-structures therefore exhibit the intrinsic properties of an individual nanotube.</li> <li>They have multiple potential applications such as gas storage, ion selection, catalyze, sensing, molecular machines, and so on.</li> <li>They have relatively good thermal and photostability.</li> </ul> <p class="lead"> </p>
Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Bulk Quantum Materials and Methods Biwu Ma 17-036 Garrett Edmunds <p>Various types of light emitting materials have been developed, including organic and polymeric emitters, transition metal complexes, rare-earth doped phosphors, nanocrystals, and organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites.</p> <p>Organic-inorganic metal halide hybrids are a class of crystalline materials that may have unique structures and/or permit the tenability of one or more properties. Metal halide polyhedra can form three- (3D), two- (2D), one- (1D), and zero-dimensional (0D) structures surrounded by organic moieties. The decreased dimensionality of the inorganic structures can lead to the emergence of unique properties. For example, unlike narrow emissions with a small Stokes shift that has been observed in typical 3D metal halide hybrids, broadband photoluminescence with a large Stokes shifts has been realized in corrugated-2D, 1D, and 0D metal halide hybrids, likely due to exciton self-trapping or excited state structural deformation.</p> <p>This invention comprises a bulk quantum material. In some embodiments, the bulk quantum material includes two or more photo- and/or electro-active species; and a wide band gap organic network comprising a plurality of organic cations; wherein each of the two or more photo- and/or electro-active species are (i) disposed in the wide band gap organic network, and (ii) isolated from each other. In some embodiments, the two or more photo- and/or electro-active species comprise two or more metal halide species.</p>
Perovskite Based Charge Transport Layers for Thin Film Optoelectronic Devices Biwu Ma 16-097 Garrett Edmunds <p>Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) are used widely in solid state lighting, electronic displays, bio-imaging, and photovoltaic (PV) applications.  A cheaper, more efficient LED device can impact multiple markets.  Some of the primary applications include television displays, mobile device displays, medical applications, solid state lighting, and energy applications.</p> <p>This LED technology comprises two components—an LED device and the process of manufacturing that device.  The LED device comprises earth-abundant materials. The manufacturing process takes place at room temperature using simple starting materials and common organic solvents in a single container. The color of the LEDs can be tuned.</p> <p>Typically, thin film optoelectronic devices, such as LEDs and PVs, are configured with a layered structure. This includes a photoactive (either light emitting or light harvesting) layer sandwiched between charge transport layers that contact with electrodes.  These charge transport layers play a crucial role in efficiency of the entire device.</p> <p>This technology uses perovskite materials to create cost effective, efficient charge transport layers.</p>
Metal Halide Perovskite Phosphors in LEDs for Full Color Display and Solid State Lighting Biwu Ma 17-009, 16-109 Garrett Edmunds <p>Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) are used widely in solid state lighting, electronic displays, bio-imaging, and photovoltaic applications.  A cheaper, more efficient LED device can impact multiple markets.  Some of the primary applications include television displays, mobile device displays, medical applications, solid state lighting, and energy applications.</p> <p>This LED technology comprises two components—an LED device and the process of manufacturing that device.  The LED device comprises earth-abundant materials. The manufacturing process takes place at room temperature using simple starting materials and common organic solvents in a single container. The color of the LEDs can be tuned. </p> <p>In addition, this technology focuses on using phosphors to get the desired color and intensity of light. Organic/inorganic perovskite materials are abundant, non-toxic, and inexpensive.  Thus, by using these materials to create phosphors, the cost of the LED device is reduced significantly. This is especially true as our technology approaches 100% conversion of the base LED energy to the phosphor.</p>
Drugs for the Treatment of Zika Virus Infections Hengli Tang 16-114 Brent Edington <p>The Zika virus is a Flavivirus that is spread to humans through mosquito bites. It is presently a major human health concern. When pregnant women are infected the virus can be transferred to the baby and result in microcephaly and other sever brain problems. Infections can also result in Guillain-Barre syndrome in adults and children, a neurological syndrome that can cause temporary paralysis. There are presently no vaccines or medications capable of preventing or treating Zika virus infections.</p> <p>Various libraries of known compounds have been screened for their ability to inhibit Zika virus infections. A collection of compounds has been identified which have activity against Zikda virus replication and growth. These compounds have been assessed and ranked according to efficacy in test assays and suitability as therapeutic compounds.</p>
Transparent Armored Windows and Walls Using Novel Materials Such As Steel, Concrete and Wood Alexey Kovalev 13-166 Michael Tentnowski <p>Presently, transparent bulletproof windows and walls are made of multilayers of glass. These structures can withstand the impact of the small armor like guns and even the impact of the standard military light personal weapon from a certain distance, yet the hardness and antiballistic properties of these structures are limited by the hardness of the glass.</p> <p>The proposed inventions use the known hardness of much stronger materials: steel, concrete, special plastics, etc. to protect against the impact of ballistic and types of weapons. The thickness of the proposed walls is not limited and can be made arbitrarily large, with only moderate attenuation in the optical transparency. The invention is not limited to optical frequencies and can be used in the full electromagnetic spectrum with any materials and lenses. For example, lenses can be transparent only for the microwave radiation or for only a narrow band of the electromagnetic spectrum. The novel feature is a special combination of optical and constructive elements which provide both protection and transparency.</p> <h2>Advantages:</h2> <ul> <li>Can be used whenever both the safety and large field of view is required</li> <li>Provide much better protection while retaining visibility</li> <li>Structural elements can be made from any materials, depending on the purpose (including wood, paper, or any other material)</li> <li>All dimensions are flexible and not fixed in absolute or relative terms to each other</li> <li>Modular design allows for easy deployment in the field and portability</li> <li>Less expensive alternative to retrofitting existing structures to support the weight of ballistic glass</li> <li>Ideal for school hardening </li> </ul>
Materials Genome Software to Accelerate Discovery of New Materials Jose Mendoza-Cortes 18-012 Garrett Edmunds <p>The creation of a material genome can accelerate the discovery of new materials in much the same way the human genome is accelerating advances in gene therapy. It often takes 15-20 years to transfer advanced materials from the laboratory to the marketplace. Our predictive software utilizes unique databases of predicted materials to drastically accelerate the discovery of new materials by allowing users in research and industry to synthesize and characterize only the most promising compounds for the desired application in lieu of experimental trial and error on thousands candidates or even more. Genomes and predictive algorithms for energy storage and light capture materials have been developed. This technology is primed to be commercialized as a software as a service (SaaS).</p>
Voltage Profile Based Fault Detection Michael (Mischa) Steurer 13-147 Michael Tentnowski <p>Fault location in a traditional power system is a challenging task. Electric power flows only in one direction: from the substation to the various loads. Therefore, when a severe short circuit fault occurs, there is a current rise with voltage sag near the faulted node or line and everything else that is downstream. If the fault protection system responds adequately it isolates the assumed faulted areas which are all the nearby and downstream customers of the actual faulted area.</p> <p>In a system containing distributed resources (DRs), most fault location technologies ignore the presence of DRs by assuming either low DRs penetration or no power injection from DRs during a fault. The few technologies that consider the presence of DRs have not considered a current limited system when a fault occurs.</p> <p>As the amount of local generation (PV, microturbines ... ) is increasing, the existing distribution systems fault location methods do not always apply because of various reasons including cost, complexity of the system due to mesh-like system topology, and bidirectional power flow. This FSU invention takes advantage of the system topology, the presence of the controllable voltage source convertors (VSCs), and the change of the voltage profile with the presence of the fault. Using the VSCs to help locate the fault will help overcome the issue of relying on the measured value of voltage when the voltage has completely collapsed in a section because of a fault in the distribution system. Instead of hindering the fault location process, the VSCs are used to help support the voltage, locate the fault, and provide fast restoration.</p>
Space Efficient Photobioreactor System Jose Vargas 10-090 Michael Tentnowski <p>The continued use of petroleum-derived fuels is now widely seen as unsustainable. Presently available biofuels can be substituted for petroleum-derived fuels without the need for extensively modifying existing internal combustion engines.</p> <p>The present invention describes a microalgae-based bio-fuels production system in a space efficient photo-bioreactor. The bioreactor grows microalgae in a tall array of transparent flooded tubes. A nutrient media is circulated through the tubes. The array is configured to maximize the amount of sunlight falling upon each tube so that growth of the microalgae is as uniform as possible. Gassing/degassing systems are attached to the array of tubes at appropriate locations. These introduce carbon dioxide and remove oxygen. Cooling systems are preferably also provided so that the circulating media can be maintained at a desired temperature. Microalgae are harvested from the photo-bioreactor. The microalgae are filtered and dried. Lipids are then extracted from the microalgae. These lipids are made into biodiesel through a trans-esterification process and can be used to make other products as well.</p> <h2>Advantages:</h2> <ul> <li>Compact microalgae cultivation in a high productive manner</li> <li>Reduces the need for land since it has the potential to provide higher biomass production density than traditional systems of microalgae biomass production</li> <li>The modular conception allows for the gradual implementation of the system for in situ biofuel production wherever it is needed</li> </ul>
Sharing Cyrogenic Cooling Systems Between Large and Auxiliary Devices Sastry Pamidi 13-040 Michael Tentnowski <p>Cryo-cooled or super-cooled power applications are increasing in popularity because they are typically lower in weight and volume, and more efficient than traditional power applications. Cryocooling is well suited to superconducting technologies (e.g., high-speed accelerators, wind power and flywheel applications) that need to be kept at cryogenic temperatures in order to function.</p> <p>Currently, the cost of cryocoolers is prohibitively high for small applications, in part, because cryocoolers are primarily designed for large devices. Additionally, cryocooling systems are suboptimum in their design because they 1) are based on a “use-or-lose” model that wastes cooling power that is not fully utilized and 2) cannot be shared between critical devices.</p> <p>A potential solution to these two issues involves a new design by Dr. Sastry Pamidi that enables cryogenic sharing of “waste” cooling between a large superconducting device and smaller devices in close proximity that also benefit from cryocooling. In it basic form, the invention is an add-on heat exchanger that is attached to an existing cryocooler through which a controllable flow of helium gas is circulated to “steal” excess cooling power from the device. The helium circulation system enables the productive use of excess cooling power and also eliminates the need for resistive heaters that are typically used to maintain required operating temperatures in cryocooled devices. Importantly, this exchanger will make it easier to run auxiliary devices under cryogenic environments without the need for each device to have its own dedicated cryocooler, thus reducing costs and improving the efficiency of operation as well as creating new opportunities for using cryogenics.</p> <h2>Applications:</h2> <ul> <li>Aerospace</li> <li>Cryogenic equipment manufacturing</li> <li>Military</li> <li>Power grid</li> <li>Transportation</li> <li>Research laboratories</li> <li>Universities, national labs, and hospitals</li> </ul> <h2>Advantages:</h2> <ul> <li>Enables sharing of cryocooling between a large device and smaller devices to minimize or eliminate the cooling waste produced by “use-or-lose” cryogenic methods</li> <li>Multiple devices can be cooled by a single cryocooler, rather than each device requiring its own cooler</li> <li>Improves energy efficiency and reduced cost of operation</li> <li>Creates new opportunities for using cryogenics in smaller devices and applications</li> <li>May be designed into new cryocoolers or added on to existing cryocoolers</li> <li>Compact design</li> <li>Vacuum tight</li> <li>Low pressure drop</li> <li>Highly efficient due to maximum heat transfer</li> <li>Simple design and manufacturing</li> <li>Optimal for a gas having low viscosity</li> </ul>
Organic Chemical Synthesis using Plasma Reactors with Liquid Organic and Liquid Water Bruce Locke 13-153 Garrett Edmunds <p>Electrical discharge plasma contacting liquid phases has been studied for a wide range of chemical, biomedical, environmental, and Materials synthesis applications.  The present invention utilizes a gas-water-organic plasma reactor for the conversion of alkanes into functionalized products (alcohols, aldehydes, etc.) using a pulsed plasma reactor with liquid water and flowing carrier gas. Hydrogen peroxide is also generated conjunction with the functionalized products.</p> <h1>Applications</h1> <ul> <li>Agriculture</li> <li>Healthcare</li> <li>Sanitization</li> <li>Waste water degradation</li> </ul>
Methods for Implementing Stochastic Anti-Windup PI Controllers Emmanuel Collins 08-019 Michael Tentnowski <p>In the present invention, different circuit-based implementations of stochastic anti-windup PI controllers are provided for a motor drive controller system. The designs can be implemented in a Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA) device. The anti-windup PI controllers are implemented stochastically so as to enhance the computational capability of FPGA. The invention encompasses different circuit arrangements that implement distinct anti-windup algorithms for a digital PI speed controller. The anti-windup algorithms implemented by the circuit arrangements can significantly improve the control performance of variable-speed motor drives.</p> <p>Compared with the existing technologies, the stochastic PI controller provides an efficient implementation approach that uses straightforward digital logic circuits but has the advantage of significantly reducing the circuit complexity. Therefore, the present invention notably improves the performance of the stochastic PI controller and saves digital resources in a motor drive control system. The immediate and/or future applications are motor drive controllers for induction motor systems, and more particularly, proportional-integral (PI) controllers. The use of the invention will increase the market of FPGA since the capability will be largely increased and the cost will be relatively reduced.</p>
Method of Mitigating Backlash of Mechanical Gear Systems Using a Damper Motor Michael "Mischa" Steurer 08-018 Michael Tentnowski <p>The technology developed comprises a torque damper motor connected to the output side of a mechanical gear system. The damper motor, along with its associated control system, mitigates backlash problems, reduced torsional resonance, and provides improved output torque control. In the preferred embodiment, the damper motor is powered by a power electronics-based variable speed drive. The damper motor can be significantly less powerful than the overall rating of the gear system (typically 5-10% of the overall rating) while still providing the enhanced performance.</p> <p>The invention can be applied to any rotating system having a gear train. The invention eliminates or at least mitigates many of the problems inherent in rotating gear systems. As one example, the invention could be used with many types of torque creating devices other than steam turbines, electric motors, and compressors. Likewise, although a was described in detail, the invention is equally applicable to speed-decreasing gear trains as well as speed-increasing gear train.</p>
Method for Locating Phase to Ground Faults in DC Distribution Systems Michael (Mischa) Steurer 08-040 Michael Tentnowski <p>Electrical direct current (DC) distribution systems are operated without any of the phases grounded in order to prevent a phase-to-ground fault, the most common type of faults, to cause interruption of service. While theoretically such an ungrounded DC system can be operated with one phase grounded through a fault for an extended period of time, it is essential to find the fault location quickly in order to prevent any secondary phase to ground fault on the other phase to cause a disruptive phase-to-phase fault.</p> <p>The present invention describes a method for locating ground faults in an ungrounded or high-resistance grounded power distribution system having a power supply including high-speed switched power electronics (PE). The method includes utilizing wavelet analysis using Multi-Resolution Analysis (MRA) as a signal processing tool for recognition of characteristic features in the voltage signal. The voltage signal contains characteristic information in the high frequency range above the switching frequencies of the PE converters which allows for localization of the fault.</p> <p>In the future, the Invention can potentially simplify and speed up the phase-to-ground protection on converter dominated ungrounded DC and AC systems significantly. The Invention can be implemented as a computational component within a new version of a digital ground fault protection relay.</p>
Inflatable Solar Energy Collector Apparatus Ian Winger 09-128 Garrett Edmunds <p>Solar energy collector design composed of various mirror and lens combinations have been proposed, with significant attention being paid to the concentrating power of the lens or mirror. These solutions typically involve expensive coated glass surfaces and the weight of the components requires substantial mechanical actuators to move them so that they can accurately track the sun's motion across the sky. While functional, the prior art systems are expensive and complex.</p> <p>The present invention is an inflatable solar energy collector using two elongated and pressure-stabilized air chambers with a trough-shaped reflecting surface in between. The curvature of the reflecting surface is created by adjusting the differential pressure between the two air chambers and the device can be configured to provide a focal point outside the air chambers or inside the air chambers. For the version using the external focal point an external energy receiver is appropriately positioned. For the version using the internal focal point, the receiver is mounted inside one of the air chambers. The collector is preferably adjustable in azimuth to accurately track the sun's motion across the sky and is able to operate efficiently without the need for altitude adjustment, although altitude adjustment may also be optionally provided. The invention preferably incorporates a novel energy receiver in which stagnant air is entrapped and used as an insulator.</p> <p>This light-weight solar concentrator is of interest as the infrastructure required to support and rotate it is reduced compared to more massive concentrators. Parabolic troughs need to be rotated about only one axis to track the sun throughout the year and concentration power of troughs is sufficient to reach reasonable temperatures. This invention would therefore provide a solar concentrating device made of inexpensive materials and is relatively light and simple.</p>
Dendritic Cooling Layer Generator for Printed Circuit Boards (PCB's) Juan Ordonez 12-088 Michael Tentnowski <p>Managing the heat generated in electronics continues to be challenge. This is especially true as electronic devices are getting smaller and smaller while becoming more and more powerful. This is true for almost all electronic components, including printed circuit boards (PCBs).</p> <p>The current technology includes a dendritic cooling layer that has non-intuitive dendritic structures that minimize peak temperature. Another embodiment of the invention includes a dendritic cooling layer that is compatible with current PCB fabrication techniques. In some instances, the dendritic cooling layer that has an adjustable tolerance to meet fabrication limits.</p> <p>The innovative technology generates a dendritic high conductivity path suitable for PCBs and identifies a process to manufacture the high conductivity layer compatible to those used in PCB construction. The methodology produces the geometry of a cooling layer for a multilayer PCBs following constructal theory principles.</p> <h2>Advantages:</h2> <ul> <li>Compatible with current PCB fabrication techniques and methods</li> <li>Unintuitive dendritic structures </li> <li>Adjustable tolerance to meet fabrication limits</li> </ul>
Adaptive Control of Air Flow Using a Piezoelectric Controlled Pulsed Micro-jet Actuator William Oates 10-045 Michael Tentnowski <p>Traditionally, structures and systems used to influence air flow include mechanical and/or servo-hydraulic actuators that rotate an aileron or rotor blade to mitigate the loss of lift from separated flow. More recently, active flow control systems in the form of bench-top demonstrations have been successful alternatives to controlling air flow; however, these applications are limited in their effectiveness because their designs are unable to effectively handle the performance variations that occur across different aircraft structures and operating conditions. Namely, these active flow systems are limited to a narrow frequency band and subsonic flow applications.</p> <p>A solution to the limitations mentioned above involves the design of a piezoelectric microjet actuator that integrates smart materials into a microjet to produce broadband pulsed flow with high actuation forces that can be adjusted in real-time.  This pulsed flow is able to better prevent stall scenarios and reduce noise on a case-by-case and as-needed basis for a wide variety of aircraft types. The actuator operates effectively under subsonic and supersonic conditions.  IN addition, the adaptive structures inherent in the actuator’s design reduce the parasitic load on the jet engine to ½% or less of the main flow field. The result of this design is a lighter, smaller, more efficient, and less complex air flow actuator that improves aircraft agility and efficiency while reducing noise.</p> <h2>Applications:</h2> <ul> <li>Aerospace</li> <li>Automotive</li> <li>Military</li> </ul> <h2>Advantages:</h2> <ul> <li>Improves agility and efficiency, reduces noise</li> <li>Can adjust air pulsations in real-time to prevent/reduce stall scenarios</li> <li>Has a built-in feedback loop that enables air to be pulsed at different frequencies</li> <li>Produces high actuation forces (kN) and broad bandwidth (quasi-static to approximately 10kHz) at small displacements</li> <li>Capable of pulsing subsonic and supersonic flows</li> <li>Actuator is less complex in design and smaller in size and weight</li> <li>Can work in compact aerodynamic structures, such as rotor blades and rockets</li> </ul>
A Single-Phase Single-Stage Grid-Interactive Inverter with Wide Range Reactive Power Compensation Dr. Liu and Dr. Li 11-131 Michael Tentnowski <p>In this invention, a novel single-phase single-stage grid-interactive inverter based on a discrete Fourier Transform Phase Locked Loop technique is developed to separate the real and reactive power between different energy sources/storages. The hybrid modulation technique and sophisticated power allocation strategy are developed for the power generation system to achieve wide range reactive power compensation and enhance energy conversion efficiency. One distributed energy source and two energy storages are interfaced to the inverter with three cascaded H -bridge cells used to investigate the performance of the proposed system. Different energy source/storages with wide voltage change range can be directly connected in the invention and the single-stage energy conversion can be implemented. The present invention can integrate distributed energy sources/storages in one cascaded inverter. Due to the absence of DC-DC converter, single-stage energy conversion can be achieved. The hybrid modulation technique and power allocation strategy corresponding to the proposed system are developed to achieve the wide range reactive power compensation, voltage boost function, and the optimized power management.</p> <p>The proposed single-phase single-stage grid-interactive inverter is particularly suitable to meeting the increasing distributed power generation needs. It can facilitate to interface different distributed renewable energy sources or storages such as wind power, solar power, battery, fuel cell, Ultra-capacitor and so on. The switching loss will be decreased due to the cascaded structure and hybrid modulation technique.</p> <h2>Advantages</h2> <ul> <li>The multilevel AC output voltage will reduce the AC filter size, improve power quality and enhance the system reliability</li> <li>The transformerless structure will lead to lower cost and lighter weight, in addition to facilitating high power application</li> </ul>
A Self-Balanced Modulation and Magnetic Rebalancing Method for Parallel Multi-level Inverters Hui (Helen) Li 16-098 Michael Tentnowski <p>A power inverter which can provide sinusoidal voltage or current is the key apparatus in the field of electrical machine drive and utility interface, such as in renewable energy generation systems and energy storage power conditioning systems. In order to achieve a higher power rating, each phase of the inverter may be constructed of paralleled phase legs. If two paralleled legs are connected to an output terminal by a magnetic coupling device, such as an "inter-phase transformer", or a "multi-winding autotransformer", or an "inter phase inductor", the output terminal of each phase will have a multilevel staircase waveform, which is closer to the desired sinusoidal waveform. Therefore, the inverter will require smaller magnetic components while still providing the benefit of higher dynamic response.</p> <p>The technology developed provides a finite state machine (FSM) based modulation method for parallel multi-level inverters. Within this invention, a modulation waveform is fed into a comparator to compare with carrier waveforms. Then, a digitized ideal waveform is generated, and the digitized ideal waveform is fed into a finite state machine (FSM) module to generate a switching pattern for each switch of the parallel multi-level inverter.</p>
1MHz Scalable Cascaded Z-Source Inverter Using Gallium Nitride (GaN) Device Dr. Hui (Helen) Li 11-127 Michael Tentnowski <p>Currently, implementation of photo-voltaic (PV) systems into power grids is limited.  The reason for the limited use of PV systems in power grids is that the interface between the grid and the PV source very inefficient.  These inefficiencies are caused by module mismatch, orientation mismatch, partial shading, and maximum power point (MPPT) inefficiencies.  This technology provides a scalable cascaded Z-source inverter which can integrate distributed renewable energy sources and/or storages having a wide voltage range. The inverter uses a low voltage Gallium Nitride (GaN) device, which can be used to facilitate modular structure.  The GaN transistor is able to facilitate this structure due to ultra-high frequency, a small AC filter, and a DC electrolyte capacitor.  A comprehensive Z-source network design has been developed based on an innovative equivalent AC circuit model for the single phase photovoltaic system.  The invention is also suitable for hybrid renewable energy sources/storages application in wide system operation range.  A flexible and reliable control system is developed to improve the photovoltaic energy harvesting capability.</p> <h2><strong>Advantages</strong></h2> <ul> <li>Single energy conversion and boost function can be achieved simultaneously</li> <li>Independent maximum power point tracking for each Z-source inverter module can implement an efficient photovoltaic energy conversion</li> <li>This inverter is immune to shoot-through faults especially operating at high switching frequency and enhance the system reliability</li> <li>The scalable cascaded Z-source inverter is able to interface flexibly with different distributed renewable energy sources or storages in a wide voltage range, including: <ul> <li>wind power</li> <li>solar power</li> <li>battery</li> <li>fuel cell</li> <li>ultra-capacitor</li> </ul> </li> </ul> <h2><strong>Applications</strong></h2> <ul> <li>Photo-voltaic systems</li> <li>Plug-in electric hybrid vehicle</li> <li>Motor drives</li> <li>Uninterruptible power supply</li> </ul> <p> </p>
Repurposed Use of the Alkaloids Emetine and Cephaeline to Treat Zika Virus Infection Hengli Tang 18-017 Brent Edingtn <p>Zika virus (ZIKV), a mosquito-borne flavivirus, has re-emerged and spread across the Western Hemisphere in the past year. A large outbreak started in Brazil in late 2014 and is a growing public health concern. Currently, active transmission has been reported in 58 countries and territories globally. About 20% of ZIKV infected individuals develop symptoms, which mostly resemble symptoms caused by other arboviruses, such as dengue viruses or chikungunya virus. Unlike these viruses, however, ZIKV causes congenital defects, including microcephaly, and is also associated with Guillain-Barré syndrome in infected adults.</p> <p> </p> <p>The present invention concerns the novel use of emetine compounds for the treatment or prevention of Flavivirus infections, such as Zika virus infections. Emetine compounds have been FDA approved for use against amoebiasis and has been shown to have some anti-viral activity against other viruses.</p> <p> </p>
Nuclear waste recycling technology Professors Kenneth Hanson and Thomas Albrecht-Schmitt 17-054 Garrett Edmunds <p> </p> <p>Professor's Hanson's team has developed a Wavelength Selective Separation of Metal Ions Using Electroactive Ligands</p> <p>Given the similarity in atomic radius and binding affinities, separating lanthanides and actinides using chelating agents or ion exchange resins can sometimes be challenging. In contrast, lanthanide and actinide atoms/complexes have unique and narrow absorption features that may be useful for photochemical separations. With this in mind, we have recently introduced an entirely new photochemical separation strategy that relies on chemical transformations of the coordinating ligand, rather than the metal ion. Briefly, a ligand functionalized with an electroactive moiety is bound to metal ions in solution. Then, upon wavelength selective excitation of one of the coordination complexes, photoinduced electron transfer to/from the redox active group causes an irreversible reaction that chemically transforms the ligand. The differences in solubility, size, reactivity, etc. between the initial and reacted complexes, and not the properties of the metal ions, can then be used for separations.</p> <p> </p> <p>Learn more:</p> <p><a href=";d=DwMFaQ&amp;c=HPMtquzZjKY31rtkyGRFnQ&amp;r=WPBE5mf0vyLaRUqjuwH1sg&amp;m=MQjoWzcpnez0b0aZ3YIlyJ7Uz1TbxLBMySloV6JInok&amp;s=u0YgoTniS-4wPurrN-ptl6Dhkr6PjtRPfxURJVfDefw&amp;e=">!divAbstract</a></p> <p><a href=""></a></p>
Monoclonal Antibodies for the Detection of Various Species Including Specific Consumed Meats and Bloods. Yun-Hwa Hsieh 15-199 Brent Edington <p>The monoclonal antibodies developed by Dr. Hsieh detect various species of fish, bovine, equine, chicken, sheep, porcine, bovine blood, porcine blood, chicken blood, turkey blood, bovine spinal column. These can be used in immunoassays to differentiate the source of protein and blood protein.</p>
Comprehensive, Genome-Wide Epigenetic Fingerprinting by Replication Profiling David Gilbert 07-106 Brent Edington <p>This is a procedure for typing cells (cancer cells, stem cells, any kind of cells) based upon the order of replication of chromosome segments. In brief, cells from any source are pulse-labeled with 5-bromo-2deoxyuridine, sorted into early and late S-phase of the cell cycle by flow cytometry and the DNA replicated in each temporal compartment of S-phase is differentially labeled and hybridized to a DNA array consisting of evenly spaced probes from the entire genome. Using customized algorithms, the resulting data (ratio of each probe sequence replicated in early vs. late S-phase) can be converted into a form that can segment the genome and identify the order of replication of chromosome segments characteristic for a cell type. An alternative, if the cell line is difficult to label metabolically, is to sort cells into S-phase and G1-phase populations, hybridize differential labeled DNA from these sorted populations, and determine the ratio of each probe sequence in S vs G1. This provides similar data that can be evaluated by the same computational conversion.</p> <h2>Advantages:</h2> <ul> <li>More comprehensive (covers the entire genome)</li> <li>Less expensive (covers the entire genome for less than 1/20th what is needed for existing profiling methods)</li> <li>Much easier to interpret- the informative data for each cell line is distilled down to combinations of only about 1,000-2,000 segments of the genome that uniformly identify each cell type</li> <li>Measures very different properties of cells than any other method</li> <li>Focuses the analysis on the proliferating population of cells, which is particularly useful for stem cell and cancer technologies.</li> </ul>
A Peptide Building Block for P-trefoil Protein Architecture Dr. Blaber 10-114 Brent Edington <p>Protein folding is a poorly understood science, and therefore, protein engineering has yet to realize the functional potential inherent in proteins. Development of a useful "structural toolkit" for de novo protein design is a highly desirable, yet unrealized goal of the field.</p> <p>A novel 42 amino acid polypeptide sequence has been designed that spontaneously assembles into a homo-trimer, forming a thermostable P-trefoil protein architecture. The polypeptide can also be ligated, to form three identical repeating sequences within a single polypeptide, which also spontaneously folds into a thermostable P-trefoil protein architecture. The peptide is thus useful for either de novo design, rational design, or directed evolution of novel proteins based upon the P-trefoil architecture. The Invention represents an initial successful example of the development of a useful peptide building block for a common protein architecture (the P-trefoil).</p> <p>The peptide sequence was designed using a novel approach, and as a consequence there are an extremely limited number of useful related "building blocks" in protein design. The idea of a "structural toolkit" for protein design is largely conceptual; the current Invention is arguably one of the first successful examples.</p>
Antibody Biomarker Specific for Mitotic Cells Myra Hurt and Raed Rizkallah 11-048 Brent Edington <p>An isolated monoclonal antibody that has a specific binding affinity to a polypeptide comprising the amino acid sequence HTEGKP phosphorylated at the threonine residue. The antibody may be used as a biomarker for mitotic cells. Proliferation biomarkers are of indispensable value in cell cycle research. More importantly, many of these markers have been translated into valuable cancer prognostic and diagnostic tools, particularly those used to assess the mitotic index of a cellular mixture.</p>
Evaporative Edge Lithography (EEL) of a Liposomal Drug Microarray for Cell Migration Assays Dr. Lenhert 13-035 Brent Edington <p>The proposed invention is capable of producing linear lipid multilayer nanostructures along the edge of a stencil. The thickness of these lipid films is controlled that results in controlling dosage of material that is taken up by cells cultured over these areas. Unlike other migration assays, this approach makes it possible to screen different compounds and dosages on the same surface, with scalability for high throughput screening microarrays to assay for cell migration. Additionally, the drug or small molecules encapsulated will only be delivered to cells at the edge of the stencil because of the precipitation properties which can be important to selectively affect the migrating cells at the edge from non-migratory cells. This invention utilizes lipids as the bio compatible patterning materials, which have been used previously to create surface supported monolayers mainly to detect functionality in reconstituted proteins and to measure membrane diffusion. </p> <p>Creating bio-compatible films with defined features is important for materials research as these patterned surfaces can give rise to cellular responses such as differentiation, migration, alignment, and other cellular mechanisms. This research is important for biomedical applications such as implants, stents, and other devices surgically implanted in humans.</p>
Photosynthetic Transcription Factors that Determine Bundle Cell Fate and Function Hongchang Cui 13-087 Brent Edington <p>Photosynthesis is one of the most important reactions on the earth because its products are the ultimate energy source for all living organisms and the food of the human beings. Depending on the number of carbon atoms in the initial organic compound made in photosynthesis, plants can be grouped into C3 or C4 plants. C4 plants are evolved from C3 plants, but they have several features that make them much more efficient photosynthetically than C3 plants:</p> <ol> <li>The enzyme for C02 fixation, called PEP carboxylase, is not inhibited by oxygen. In contrast, the C02 fixation enzyme in C3 plants, called RUBICO carboxylase, has an oxygenase activity, which reverses the photosynthetic reaction. The oxygenase activity is favored at high light and high temperature, making C3 plants perform even worse in warm area where crop yield potential is high.</li> <li>C02 fixation occurs in the mesophyll cells, whereas C3-type photosynthesis is performed in the bundle sheath (BS) cells, which surround the vascular tissue, using the C02 concentrated by and supplied from mesophyll cells.</li> <li>There are more vascular bundles (veins), hence more BS cells, and a greater number of channels between BS and mesophyll cells, which ensures rapid transport between these two cell types. C4 plants are also efficient in water utilization. Because many important crops are C3 plants, such as rice and wheats, huge resources have been invested to introduce C4 photosynthesis into C3 plants. Although BS cells are also present in C3 plants, they generally contribute little to photosynthesis and this cell type has therefore become a primary target for C3-to-C4 bioengineering. Despite extensive research, until now the mechanism that controls BS cell fate is still unknown.</li> </ol> <p>Our work identified three transcription factors (SCR, SCL23 and SHR) that are required for BS cell fate specification in Arabidopsis, a model C3 plant. SCR and SCL23 are both expressed specifically in BS cells. Though they act redundantly in determining the BS cell fate, they have distinct functions. Because similar genes are present in other plant species, including rice and maize, which is a C4 plant, we believe that similar mechanisms control BSC cell fate determination in all C3 and C4 plants. These bundle sheath cell determinants offer a novel and powerful tool for the C3-to-C4 engineering, which is regarded as a key solution to the demand for food and biomass by a rapidly growing world population.</p>
Selective Dopamine D4 Receptor Agonists for the Treatment of Working Memory Deficits Pradeep G. Bhide 14-038 Brent Edington <p>Dopamine is a critical regulator of working memory, a mechanism for short-term information storage. Deficits in working memory occur in diseases with dopamine imbalance such as ADHD, schizophrenia and Parkinson’s Disease. However, a targeted treatment for working memory deficits is not available. In rodent models with working memory deficits, we show that selective activation of the dopamine D4 receptor (D4R) improves working memory. Based on these findings we propose that drugs that selectively activate the D4 receptor are novel class drugs for the treatment for working memory deficits.</p> <p>D4R is found in abundance in the frontal cortex and hippocampus, brain regions that regulate working memory function. We examined two rodent models with working memory deficits, a prenatal nicotine exposure mouse model and the spontaneously hypertensive rat model. In both the models, activity and expression of the D4R are significantly decreased in the frontal cortex. Although dopamine D2 receptors expression and activity are also decreased in the frontal cortex of these models, improvements in working memory produced by psycho-stimulant administration were accompanied by increases in the activity of only the D4R and not the D2 receptor. Therefore, it can be concluded that selective increase in frontal cortical D4R activity is associated with improvement of deficient working memory.</p> <p>Dopaminergic drugs that activate or antagonize multiple dopaminergic receptors or that produce global increases in brain dopamine content have failed as effective treatments for working memory deficits because of their pleotropic actions. Our discovery suggests that drugs that selectively target the D4 receptor and improve its function are effective treatments for working memory deficits.</p>
Folding Nucleus Symmetric Expansion Michael Blaber 14-163 Brent Edington <p>The present technology is a novel method and design strategy for the efficient design of de novo proteins. This invention uses experimental or computation methods to identify an amino acid sequence that defines a folding nucleus of a protein that belongs to a symmetric protein architecture. Next, a complete amino acid sequence for the target architecture is generated by expanding the folding nucleus sequence by the intrinsic symmetry. The resulting protein will have robust folding properties that can tolerate subsequent mutational introduction of novel function. This process is an efficient means to create novel protein scaffolds with robust folding properties.</p> <h2>Advantages:</h2> <ul> <li>Leverages knowledge of naturally-evolved proteins for application in the design of novel proteins</li> <li>Uses a simple algorithm that permits design of the complete protein</li> <li>Produces a protein with highly-redundant folding potential- a protein that can therefore tolerate substantial mutational change and still yield a foldable protein.</li> </ul>
TrkB Receptor Antagonist for Treatment of Cognitive Inflexibility Pradeep G. Bhide 15-137 Brent Edington <p>Cognitive flexibility is the ability to execute multiple mental tasks simultaneously, to switch from one task to the next easily, and to restructure knowledge and strategy to tackle changing tasks. Deficits in cognitive flexibility are associated with multiple psychiatric conditions including schizophrenia, autism spectrum disorder and ADHD. Despite its critical role in normal mental function, and despite its well documented associated impairment, drugs that selectively target and improve cognitive flexibility are not available.</p> <p>The present technology shows that excess brain derived growth factor (BDGF) is associated with deficits in cognitive flexibility and that ANA-12 is an effective treatment for cognitive ability.</p>
Monoclonal Antibodies Specific for 4,6-Diamino-5-(Formylamino) Pyrimidine Gary Ostrander and Eric Holmes 16-019/ 18-016 Brent Edington <p>The present invention describes monoclonal antibodies that are specific for 4,6-Diamino-5-(formylamino)pyrimidine. This structure, also known as FAPY-A, is formed in DNA bases by single electron oxidation reactions caused primarily by oxygen free radicals. Damage to DNA of this sort, along with its alternate product 8-hytdroxy-pyrimidine derivatives, can result in mutations from misreading if not first repaired. In the case of free radical oxidations of the DNA base Adenine, FAPY-A and 8-OH-A formed under more oxidative redox conditions. These different reaction products and their expression in biological tissues seems to correlate well with precancerous and cancerous changes in tissues. Thus, detection of FAPY-A and 8-OH-A via immunoassay may provide important future cancer risk information to individuals. Detection of FAPY-A in populations of various species can also act as an indicator of environmental damage.  </p>
Identifying Cell and Disease-Specific Replication Timing Signatures David Gilbert 16-102 Brent Edington <p>Methods for identifying and classifying differences between biological samples are based on replication timing data. By comparing replication timing data for a test sample(s) to replication timing data for already characterized samples, one can identify differences and profile any new cell type or disease including various cancers. These new methods allow for detection of all the changes between distinct samples, many of which would escape detection by previous methods that discard any features showing any intra-sample variation. This method also has the ability to use replication timing to identify novel biomarkers not detected by other methods.</p>
Fusicoccane Derivatives and Methods Prof. James Frederich 17-039 Garrett Edmunds <p>Fusicoccanes are a family of natural products containing a characteristic 5-8-5 carbocyclic nucleus. Certain of these natural products, namely fusicoccin (FC) and cotylenin (CN), have attracted considerable interest for their anticancer activity. These molecules cooperate with the cytokine interferon-alpha to induce apoptosis in cancer cells with negligible toxicity to healthy cells.</p> <p>Professor Frederich and his team have developed a short and flexible photochemical process to prepare the core of these diterpenes and a range of non-natural variants. This synthetic chemistry provides direct access to functional structures with valuable applications in biomedical research and drug development.</p> <p>In the news:</p> <p><a href=""></a></p> <p><span><a href=";d=DwMFaQ&amp;c=HPMtquzZjKY31rtkyGRFnQ&amp;r=WPBE5mf0vyLaRUqjuwH1sg&amp;m=gds5bbavh_mOdw_HPOAn-28dTWw1TVDSjNLAhAIdhfg&amp;s=YwFs1A7P4BnsXk0ndHmTkrtzEkJGOnu34P3vz9tJhDg&amp;e=">Breakthrough synthesis strategy could mean a wave of new medicinal compounds</a></span></p> <p><span><a href=";d=DwMFaQ&amp;c=HPMtquzZjKY31rtkyGRFnQ&amp;r=WPBE5mf0vyLaRUqjuwH1sg&amp;m=gds5bbavh_mOdw_HPOAn-28dTWw1TVDSjNLAhAIdhfg&amp;s=wihplsHAdfgWkE8eGtsvfmv-mG2oqhmU0B6p4xbHTlQ&amp;e=">Innovative synthetic technique opens door to a new world of cutting-edge medicinal compounds</a></span></p> <p> </p>
Tumor Drug Resistance Measured by Sodium Diffusion Dr. Schepkin 12-106 Michael Tentnowski <p>This invention is a non-invasive, comprehensive and individualized evaluation of tumor resistance using sodium and/or diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The method includes conducting a sodium and/or diffusion MRI on a tumor of a subject and on a normal region of the subject- for example, the normal region in brain being contralateral to the tumor. When the images of the MRI procedures have been obtained, the indicias (i.e., sodium and/or diffusion) are measured and analyzed. These indicias are compared between the tumor region and normal region. A low level of the indicia in the tumor region, relative to the level of indicia in the normal region, indicates a higher/increased tumor resistance to a drug.</p> <p>Currently, a biopsy and Positron emission tomography (PET) are the conventional technologies used to deliver information on tumor resistance prior to therapy. The evaluation can be performed prior to therapy and can help select a strategy of treatment but also help in evaluating the efficacy of an agent for the treatment of cancer in a subject. The invention can be used in the brain glioma model but is contemplated for use in different types of tumors in most parts of the human body in addition the agent may be carmustine, though other tumor types and agents are contemplated by the invention. The level of tumor resistance can be determined reproducibly in a relatively short amount of time, for example less than thirty minutes, and the results can be used immediately to create individualized therapy.</p> <p>The invention allows clinicians to avoid ineffective therapies, which may be more harmful than useful or come up with the other more appropriate alternatives. It can facilitate a separation of the effects due to metabolic changes in the tumor at the beginning of therapy from the effects introduced by drug intervention.</p>
Treatment of Zika Virus Infections Using Alpha-Glucosidase Inhibitors Gary Ostrander and Eric Holmes 16-105 Brent Edington <p>The Zika virus is a Flavivirus that is spread to humans through mosquito bites. It is presently a major human health concern. When pregnant women are infected the virus can be transferred to the baby and result in microcephaly and other sever brain problems. Infections can also result in Guillain-Barre syndrome in adults and children, a neurological syndrome that can cause temporary paralysis. There are presently no vaccines or medications capable of preventing or treating Zika virus infections.</p> <p>Castanospermine is an inhibitor of α- and β- glucosidases which catalyze the cleavage of individual glucosyl residues from various glycoconjugates, including complex carbohydrates and glycoproteins. Castanospermine interferes with viral replication and infection that is dependent on glucosidase activity. Evidence of castanospermine antiviral activity has been reported in various Flavivirus and has been demonstrated by our researchers to be an anti-Zika virus drug.</p>
A Method for Coating REBCO Superconductor Tape with a Thin Resistive Layer Dr. Jun Lu 18-042 Michael Tentnowski <p>Available for licensing is a simple, scalable oxidation process that improves industrial magnet design and performance.</p> <p>Rare earth barium copper oxide (REBCO) is a high temperature superconductor. REBCO wire holds the promise of making very high field magnets which find commercial applications in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), the food and drug industry, as well as applications in large international research facilities such as particle accelerators.</p> <p>Usually, magnet coils are made by winding insulated conductor wires. Due to the unique properties of REBCO wire, a coil made by insulated REBCO is prone to damage in magnet operation. Therefore, a no-insulation coil technology has been developed recently taking advantage of the fact that the resistive short circuit does not interfere the superconducting current path. Removing insulation results in very high efficiency and allows scientists and engineers to design extremely high field magnets that are exceptionally compact.</p> <p>However, a coil with no insulation has the drawbacks of longer magnet charging times and a higher consumption rate of expensive cryogen, such as liquid helium. This is directly related to its low contact resistance (Rc) between adjacent turns in the coil made by commercial REBCO conductors. In order to mitigate the issues of no-insulation magnets, it is critically important to control turn-to-turn contact resistance.</p> <p>Dr. Jun Lu at the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory has developed a process for oxidizing REBCO wire surface to achieve a controllable turn-to-turn contact resistance. With this technology, magnets can be charged quickly, and have low cryogen consumption. Meanwhile, it retains the advantage of the no-insulation coil technology which leads to very high magnetic field, coil self-protection and a very compact magnet design.</p>
Removing Water Solubility Problems in Petroleum Crude Oils/Organic Matrices Ryan Rodgers 12-205 Michael Tentnowski <p>The technology creates a new stationary phase that separates compounds based upon their interaction with water. Water-active species are "problem" species in organic matrices because they are often responsible for emulsion formation/stabilization in chromatography. This technology provides an easy and quick way to isolate water-active species that currently does not exist.</p> <p>The technology has already been applied to separate interfacially active species from petroleum crude oils/organic matrices.</p> <p>Most stationary phases in chromatography are based upon silica, alumina, or polymers to allow for the retention of compounds. However, no current commercially available stationary phase is based upon the interaction of compounds with water, because water has not been immobilized as a stationary phase.</p> <p>Immobilized water on silica gel creates a consistent product that can be reproduced. Since the stationary phase is created at room temperature (22-25°C), there are no difficulties with creation, storage, and usage of the stationary phase. The stationary phase has a long shelf-life (4+ years) and could be produced in bulk and stored until use, thus making it desirable for commercialization.</p>
A System for Remotely Removing Magnets from Metal Plates Jeff Whalen 17-035 Michael Tentnowski <p>Available for licensing is a system for the remote detachment of magnets from metal plates by applying a modulated magnetic field. No physical contact, heat, or any other applied force is necessary to remove magnets other than the produced magnetic field. The user maintains control of this novel electromagnet system by switching the power supply on and off.</p>
Twisted chiral cycloalkynes and remote activation of click reactivity Dr. Igor Alabugin 17-043 Garrett Edmunds <p>Professor Alabugin's team has developped cycloalkynes with a twisted polyaromatic backbone to add axial chirality to the click chemistry toolbox. The “twisted and bent” cyclodecyne structural motif can be intertwined with dormant electronic effects to open a conceptually new way to control click reactivity. Although endocyclic heteroatoms can provide dual stabilization to the cycloalkyne via hyperconjugative (direct) and conjugative (remote) effects, these effects are weakened by the geometric constraints imposed by the twisted backbone. Structural reorganization in the transition state (TS) removes these constraints and unlocks the power of remote electronic effects for selective TS stabilization.</p> <p>The chiral cyclodecynes can be prepared <strong>on gram scale in an enantiopure form</strong> and purified by recrystallization. Experimental kinetics confirm that these twisted cyclodecynes can be more reactive towards azides than activated cyclononynes and approach the reactivity of cyclooctynes.</p> <p> </p> <p><a rel="noopener noreferrer" href="" target="_blank" title="Read the article">Read the article</a></p>
Thiol-ene polymer metal oxide nanoparticle high refractive index composites Dr. Albert Stiegman 12-228 Garrett Edmunds <p>For optical applications in general and eyewear in particular, the synthesis of new polymers with refractive indices &gt;1.65 and acceptable Abbe numbers is of considerable importance. Higher refractive index materials will permit smaller, lighter weight lenses to be used and provide a much broader graded index for progressive lenses. The material modification that leads to higher refractive indices is the incorporation of highly polarizable atoms and ions. Incorporating such polarizable groups has been the standard protocol used to develop new high R.I. polymers. The electronic polarizability is a tensor property of an atom or molecule that measures the distortion of the electron cloud in the presence of an applied electric field (which can be an optical field). The more the electron cloud can be distorted, the higher the refractive index. The characteristics of atomic and molecular electronic structure that yield large polarizabilities are well understood and can be predicted from basic chemical principles. In particular, the more electronegative an atom is the less polarizable it will be, hence late first-row elements such as F, O and N tend to yield lower refractive index materials. Better choices are 2<sup class="style-scope patent-text">nd</sup>, 3<sup class="style-scope patent-text">rd </sup>or 4<sup class="style-scope patent-text">th </sup>row main group elements such as S (which is currently used in order to increase the refractive index in many polymeric materials), P, and Sn. From a molecular standpoint, the higher electronegativity of the first row can be overcome by delocalization of the electrons across several atoms. Aromatics are more polarizable than saturated hydrocarbons and compounds such as propylene carbonate and dimethylformamide have high dielectric constants.</p> <p>the present invention comprises a bulk polymer composite comprising a thiol-ene polymer matrix, or a matrix comprising a corresponding polymer derived from a phosphinyl, selenol, or arsinyl monomer, and metal oxide nanoparticles dispersed within the matrix, said nanoparticles being bonded to polymer molecules contained in the matrix. In certain preferred embodiments, the polymer matrix comprises a matrix corresponding to the structure.</p>
D-Serine as a Modulator of Epileptic Seizures, Seizures, and Neurological Disorders Sanjay Kumar 13-144 Brent Edington <p>Researchers at Florida State University Medical School have determined that D-serine can be used to modulate the onset and severity of seizures resulting from epilepsy or other neurological disorders.</p> <p> </p> <p>Dr. Kumar and his associates have recently discovered that certain brain cells express receptors to which D-serine is an antagonist. D-serine essentially shuts off the ion channels that these receptors regulate. Because these receptors are located in regions of the brain associated with neurological disorders such as seizures and epilepsy, D-serine may be used to treat such neurological disorders. D-serine can be used to modulate the regulation of ion channels and prevent the onset of and severity of seizures. This technology involves artificially administering a composition of D-serine to select regions of a patient’s brain having epilepsy or other neurological disorders causing seizures and reducing the severity or onset of seizures.</p> Epilepsy,Seizures,Neurological Disorders
Antifouling Coatings for Ion Exchange Resins Professor Joseph Schlenoff 17-053 Garrett Edmunds <p>Ion exchange resins are widely used for water polishing and purification (e.g. removal of heavy metals). This FSU invention provides a way to rapidly add a coating of nontoxic polymer to an existing anion exchange resin. This coating reduces fouling by algae, other microorganisms, and more, extending the life of the resin and making it easier to clean the resin bed by backflushing.</p> <p>The coating is produced by negative polyelectrolytes, which interacts with the positively charged resin and forms a thin film on the surface of the resin bead. Because the positive charge at the surface of the bead is substantially reduced, or even switched to negative, potential fouling materials interact less strongly with the resin surface.</p> <p>The molecular weight of the negative polyelectrolyte is selected to be sufficiently high such that it does not absorb into the resin bead. Thus, an ultrathin film of complex is limited to the surface of the bead. The bead capacity is not diminished and the amount of material consumed is on the order of a few mg per square meter of resin surface.</p> <p>The polyelectrolyte is water soluble and of low toxicity. Beads can be treated in situ or they can be pretreated in a batch during a typical washing step.</p> water,filter,water purification,potable water,ion exchange resin,antifouling
Microfluidic Sample Preparation Device for Electron Microscopy Dr. Michael Roper and Dr. Scott Stagg 15-230 Garrett Edmunds <p>Cryogenic electron microscopy (cryoEM) is quickly becoming a routine method in the determination of high-resolution structures of biological molecules. However, for most samples before cryoEM data can be collected, the sample quality and heterogeneity must first be characterized using negative staining. Conventionally, EM grids are prepared by hand and, as such, variability is introduced due to user-to-user differences. The variability of the staining can have large effects on the final stained sample, ultimately hindering the resolution, image processing, and data analysis.</p> <p>A microfluidic platform is presented for preparing negatively stained grids for use in transmission electron microscopy (EM). The microfluidic device is composed of glass etched with readily fabricated features that facilitate the extraction of the grid post staining and maintains the integrity of the sample. The device allows for sealing of an electron microscopy grid, facile and reproducible delivery of a sample, followed by delivery of subsequent solutions that could be negative stains or other biological samples. The device houses the EM grid in an outlined chamber with an access point below the grid for gentle and easy recovery of the EM grid. The fluid is directed to the grid using the integrated channels of the microfluidic system.</p> <p>Utilization of this device simultaneously reduced environmental contamination on the grids and improved the homogeneity of the heavy metal stain needed to enhance visualization of biological specimens as compared to conventionally prepared EM grids.</p> <p>High-magnification images from grids prepared by the microfluidic system showed similar image qualities as those prepared by hand. With this methodology for housing the grid, opportunities are abound for more integrated systems using elastomeric materials for incorporation of valving and other microfluidic features. For example, this system can subsequently be complemented with gradient generators or multianalyte perfusion and reaction timers to study both multivariable interactions as well as reaction kinetics. This proof of principle paves the way for future added layers of complexity that can be used to uniquely investigate structural biology dynamics.</p> <p>Results have been published in Analytical Chemistry (Roper, 2016, American Chemical Society Publications) and led to multiple requests by research groups offering to beta test the prototype.</p> <h2>Advantages:</h2> <ul> <li>User friendly</li> <li>Reproducibility</li> <li>Parallel/high throughput</li> <li>Straightforward manufacturing</li> </ul> <p>For further reading, please visit:</p> <p><a href=""><strong></strong></a><strong> <br /></strong></p> <p><a href=""><strong></strong></a></p> <p><video alt="" width="400" controls="controls"> <source src="/media/4180/rs4-fin.mp4" type="video/mp4" /> Your browser does not support HTML5 video. </video></p>
Central Executive Training for ADHD Dr. Michael Kofler 16-106 Michael Tentnowski <p>Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a complex, chronic, and potentially debilitating disorder of brain, behavior, and development that affects approximately 5.4% of school-aged children at an annual U.S. cost of illness of over $42 billion. Medication and behavioral treatment are effective for reducing symptoms, but they are considered maintenance therapies because their benefits disappear within minutes to hours after treatment is stopped. Clearly, novel treatments are needed.</p> <p> </p> <p>Central Executive Training (CET) is a novel, evidence-informed, computerized training protocol developed based on recent advancements in clinical and neuropsychological science. It differs fundamentally from existing, capacity-based “working memory training” programs. Each of CET’s 9 training games implement advanced algorithms to adapt based on the child’s performance and build capabilities across three, empirically-identified functions of the midlateral prefrontal cortex. These 3 functions involve dual-processing, continuous updating, and temporal ordering, and are collectively known as the brain’s ‘central executive.’</p> <p> </p> <p>Central executive abilities are targeted in CET based on fMRI evidence of significant cortical underdevelopment in these areas in children with ADHD. Importantly, our previous work has shown that hyperactivity and inattentive symptoms are most pronounced in children with ADHD when they are engaged in activities that challenge their underdeveloped central executive abilities. In fact, several studies have found that children with ADHD do not show attention deficits or hyperactivity during conditions with minimal central executive demands.</p> <p> </p> <p>Our preliminary data show that CET is superior to the current gold standard psychosocial treatment (behavioral parent training) for improving working memory in children with ADHD. Our data also show that CET is superior to the gold standard for reducing hyperactivity symptoms measured using high-precision actigraphs that sample children’s movement 16 times per second. CET was equivalent to the current gold standard for reducing ADHD symptoms based on parent report. A randomized clinical trial of CET is underway.</p> <p> </p> <p><a rel="noopener noreferrer" href="" target="_blank" title="">More on the NIH Award and a radio interview of Dr. Kofler.</a></p> <p> </p> ADHD
3-D Printed Flexible Electronics and Sensors Using Carbon Nanotube Ink Changchun (Chad) Zeng 18-011 Michael Tentnowski <p>At FSU, we have developed a breakthrough process for scalable and low-cost functionalization of carbon nanotubes with tailored functionality. A provisional patent application was filed in October 2017. This technology enables the preparation of highly concentrated CNT ink for 3-D printing and printed electronics and sensors. As an example, while typical CNT ink has a CNT content &lt; 0.5 wt%, our ink concentration can be tuned at will and can reach as high as 10 wt%. Such flexibility allows for our high quality printing process and superior device performance. This superior performance is characterized by a gauge factor (GR) that can reach ~3000; one to two orders of magnitude higher than any printed strain sensor from any other inks in the world. We have further demonstrated that our devices can be used as sensors to detect human motion. We strongly believe this technology will revolutionize printed electronics and sensors.</p>
Frequency-Modulated Continuous Flow Analysis Dr. Michael Roper 18-002 Garrett Edmunds <p>Professor Roper and collaborators have developped a new method to multiplex mass spectrometric sample analysis. The purpose of this invention is to be able to analyze multiple samples simultaneously using mass spectrometry. The operation of this method is to pulse the flow of individual samples to the mass spectrometer at unique frequencies. The flow from the individual samples are combined together with a make-up flow that is used to ensure the total flow rate to the mass spectrometer is constant. After mixing of all the streams from the samples and the make-up flow, pulses of each sample are delivered to the mass spectrometer with the pulse frequencies being unique to that particular sample. The mass spectrometer collects the m/z data vs. time. At each m/z there is a time-dependent signal that is the sum of all the pulses from the different samples. For any one particular m/z, a Fourier transform is used to convert the time-based mass spectrometry signal intensity to the frequency domain resulting in a series of peaks at particular frequencies. Each of these frequency peaks corresponding to the different samples. The height of the peaks in the frequency domain is proportional to the concentrations of the samples in the syringes.</p> <p>The benefit of this new method over the labeling strategy is that the frequency modulated approach allows multiplexing of a theoretically wide number of samples without the need for chemical labeling. Therefore, any problems with chemical labeling (inefficiencies, side products, etc.) are avoided. Also, more than 4-5 samples can be used simultaneously as Jong as their frequencies can be resolved in the frequency domain and the analytes are within the dynamic range of the mass spectrometer. A final advantage is that since all the samples are combined together, any samples that may have different levels of salts (detrimental to mass spectrometry) experience the same salt concentration. This means that they are all affected in the same manner and are much less susceptible to salt effects which hurt mass spectrometry experiments.</p> <p>This technology was developed in collaboration with Jim Edwards at Saint Louis University</p>
Solid-State Fabrication of Graphene Nanoribbons and Their Networks Mei Zhang 13-244 Michael Tentnowski <p>This invention is for fabricating freestanding graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) and GNR networks by unzipping carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in a freestanding CNT film using laser irradiation. It provides a novel solid-state process to fabricate freestanding GNRs and GNR networks.</p> <p>Since CNTs are cylindrical shells made, in concept, by rolling graphene sheets into a seamless cylinder, the unzipping of CNTs is a new and very promising approach for controlled and large-scale GNR production. In this process, CNTs are unzipped (opened or fractured) along their longitudinal axes in such a way that the obtained structures are the desired GNRs. Another advantage of using CNTs as starting materials to produce GNRs resides in the fact that the vast existing knowledge on CNT synthesis and purification methods can be used to control and to optimize GNR fabrication.</p> <p>Unzipping CNTs has been practiced in many different ways. However, these chemical and physical methods use strong acids, oxidizing agents, or other solvents. The wet-processes alter the properties of GNRs because of a high proportion of oxygen functionalities or particles and cause problems in device fabrication process because of wrinkles and folding of GNRs as well as positioning issues.</p> <p>Our invention uses freestanding CNT sheets as the starting material and uses controlled laser irradiation in a preferred environment to convert (unzip) CNTs to GNRs and weld (joint) GNRs together to form GNR network. This is a solid-state fabrication process, which does not use any acids or solvents. Only this process is capable of fabricating large, freestanding GNRs and GNR networks and creating controllable CNT-graphene intramolecular junctions. Freestanding GNR networks are transparent conductive layers, which can be transferred easily onto any kind of substrates as a transparent electrode for various electronic and photonic applications. This solid state process is fast, clean, and scalable, and can be developed to a large-scale nanomanufacturing process.                         </p>
Mutations of the Rhodopsin Gene in Zebrafish and uses of the Mutations James Fadool 17-038 Brent Edington <p>The invention involves isolation and use of zebrafish having novel genetic mutations in the rhodopsin genes dealing with retinal disease to serve as a model for human retinal disease. Rhodopsin is a protein receptor expressed in the light sensitive cells of the retina responsible for initiation of vision. Nearly 100 spontaneous mutations in the human rhodopsin genes are associated with inherited photoreceptor degeneration, retinitis pigmentosa, progressive retinal degeneration, low vision and blindness for which there are currently no cures. The novel zebrafish models were generated to produce known disease causing mutations in the zebrafish rhodopsin genes. DNA sequencing revealed the novelty of the isolated zebrafish mutations. Analysis of the retinal phenotypes associated with the novel alleles of zebrafish rhodopsin genes revealed that specific mutations were associated with phenotypes that mimic photoreceptor defects and degeneration observed in humans. These zebrafish models provide novel tools for investigating the cellular consequences of expression of mutated forms of rhodopsin, and are useful for genetic, small molecule, and chemical screens, or molecular manipulations with the goal of discovering compounds, genes, or treatments that may alter, slow, reverse or prevent the photoreceptor defects.  </p>
Dorsiflexion Splinting for Treatment of Peripheral Artery Disease Judy Delp 18-013/ 20-008 Brent Edington <p>Patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) often have walking impairment and pain during walking due to insufficient oxygen supply to the leg muscles. Existing clinical treatment of PAD involves walking programs or revascularization. Surgery can carry significant costs and risks of acute complications from, for instance, recurrences due to restenosis or graft occlusion. Adherence to long-term walking programs can be difficult and painful for frail patients such as the elderly. Although, stretching of calf muscles improves vascular function in the lower leg and walking is the best therapy. Use of a splint developed by researchers at Florida State University can enhance a patient’s vascular function by improving blood flow to the leg and decrease in pain during walking. The splint positions the leg and stretches muscles in a way that improves blood flow and/or oxygenation while resting. This device will be automated to easily adjust to the correct position for optimum therapeutic value for each patient.</p> <p> </p> <p>The splint allow the patient to walk without a high level of pain and thus able to walk as a useful therapy.</p>
Personalized immunotherapy selection for breast cancer Professor Qing-Xiang Amy Sang and Professor Jinfeng Zhang 17-046 Garrett Edmunds <p>Professors Sang and Zhang  have identified biomarkers that define subgroups of breast cancer and clinically useful classifiers for distinguishing breast cancer subtypes.  The present invention provides methods for selecting a therapy for a patient suffering from breast cancer based on expression levels of biomarkers.  The present invention also provides methods for treating breast cancer. </p>
CHIMERIC HUMAN PROTEINS AND THEIR USE IN IDENTIFYING NOVEL ANTI-DEUBIQUITINASE COMPOUNDS Robert Tomko 18-005 Brent Edington <p>This technology involves chimeric proteins having deubiquitinase activity and methods of identifying anti-deubiquitinase compounds using the chimeric proteins. These methods and assays can be adapted to high throughput screening procedures to assay for anti-cancer drugs effecting deubiquitinase activity. Disrupting the Rpn11 deubiquitinase function is a validated strategy for treatment of human cancers.</p> <p>The assay utilizes a collection of genetically modified yeast strains producing a chimeric human proteasomal Rpn11 deubiquitinase. In baker’s yeast, deletion of the endogenous yeast Rpn11 gene is lethal, but inhibition of Rpn11 deubiquitinating activity is not. Inhibition of Rpn11 activity is lethal only when a second deubiquitinase, UBP6 (USP14 in humans), is deleted. Importantly, this synthetic lethal relationship is maintained in yeast harboring hRpn11. Thus, a selective inhibitor of human Rpn11 would be lethal in the hRpn11 strain lacking UBP6, but nontoxic in a strain containing UBP6 and harboring inactivating point mutations in hRpn11.By measuring cell growth in the presence of potential inhibitors using any commercially available plate reader, a high throughput cell-based screen for compounds selectively inhibiting hRpn11 can be enacted.</p>
Automated Extraction of Bio-entity Relationships from Literature Dr. Zhang 12-065 Garrett Edmunds <p>The current invention discloses an automated and standardized software application, system, and method of extracting relationships, for example bio-entity relationships, in text or literature.</p> <p>The long-standing need for an improved, automated and more efficient text mining procedure is now met by a new and useful computer-implemented software application. The software is accessible from a non-transitory, computer-readable media and provides instructions for a computer processor to extract textual relationships or semantic information from non-annotated data by natural language processing and graph theoretic algorithm.</p> <h2>Advantages:</h2> <ul> <li>The present invention may address one or more of the problems (high incidence of error and high cost of text mining), and deficiencies (low efficiency and poor organization/standardized format) of the prior art.</li> </ul> <h2> Applications:</h2> <ul> <li>Building biomedical databases, search engines, knowledge bases, or any other applications that may use organized relationships of content within literatures.</li> </ul>
Novel Method for Growth of Metal Oxide Single Crystals Dr. Whalen and Dr. Siegrist 11-129 Michael Tentnowski <p>The present invention outlines a process application for the growth of new, and difficult-to-synthesize, metal oxide single crystals from a molten metal flux. This new method of growth applies a chemical pressure in the form of a molten metal solvent that is capable of dissolving and subsequently crystallizing metal oxides. The chemical pressure accomplishes the creation of highly reducing conditions in the growth media which force equilibration of crystal lattice energies with kinetic energy losses from cooling of the reactions. This allows for the growth of phases below their melting points and can also be used to access incongruently melting phases. More precisely, batches of individual reactions are heat-treated to synthesize single crystals comprised of oxygen with one or more transition, alkaline-earth and/or lanthanide metals. Stoichiometries are calculated, weighed out then loaded into metal crucibles which are welded under -1atm Argon gas then jacketed in quartz ampoules under vacuum. The entire reaction vessel is heated appropriately then the furnace is opened, the ampoule is removed, inverted and briefly centrifuged to mechanically separate the flux and product crystals.</p> <p>Metal fluxes are new to the growth of metal oxide single crystals and our preliminary reactions have yielded both new phases, and phases that normally require costly, extreme conditions to grow. Contrarily to current state of the art technology for the growth of metal oxide single crystal, this method of this invention utilizes temperatures below 1,000°C and no applied pressure. Since currently known metal oxides have such expansive applications, growth of these materials from synthesis routes that are less expensive or faster will have significant value to industry and government. Traditional methods of metal oxide single crystal growth do not possess the exploratory edge of this new method, which is not limited by the oxidative and thermodynamic constraints of current state of the art "open crucible" stoichiometric growth techniques.</p>
Stereo Controlled Synthesis of (E,Z)-Dienals via Tandem Rh(i) Catalyzed Propargyl Claisen Rearrangement Dr. Igor Alabugin 14-160 Garrett Edmunds <p>A novel Rh(I)-catalyzed approach to synthesizing functionalized (E,Z) dienal compounds has been developed via tandem transformation where a stereoselective hydrogen transfer follows a propargyl Claisen rearrangement. Z-Stereochemistry of the first double bond suggests the involvement of a six-membered cyclic intermediate whereas the E-stereochemistry of the second double bond stems from the subsequent protodemetallation step giving an (E,Z)-dienal.</p>
Novel Therapeutic Agent Sequestering Toxic Levels of Hemin in Cardiovascular Injury Events Ewa Bienkiewicz 11-154 16-110 Brent Edington <p>In vascular injury, one of the key damage-inflicting events is the release of toxic levels of free hemin that leads to cell and tissue death.  Currently, there is no direct treatment to alleviate hemin toxicity that exacerbates tissue damage during injury events. Our technology offers a solution to this damage with a peptide therapeutic agent that would serve as a high-capacity scavenger of the toxic hemin released during vascular trauma. This technology proposes the use of a peptide to sequester excess hemin and alleviate the extent of injury.</p> <p>We have shown that peptide fragments derived from the N-terminal domain of the normal, non-pathological prion protein, bind hemin.  Each peptide can bind more than one hemin molecule.  The hemin binding capacity of these peptides increases in an acidic environment, which is characteristic of vascular injury, including stroke.  These findings make the prion protein fragments, or their analogs, strong candidates for a therapeutic agent that would act as a “hemin sponge” sequestering the toxic hemin molecules. </p> <p>An important aspect of the developed product is that our peptide fragments originate from a naturally occurring protein that is essential in maintaining hemin equilibrium in our bodies, and has been shown to be a part of a cell rescue response in vascular trauma. Delivery of this high-capacity, hemin-sequestering peptide as a therapeutic agent would effectively amount to a boost of the natural defense mechanism against excess of hemin.  Overall, this therapeutic agent would diminish the damaging effects of the vascular injury, including stroke, significantly improving patients’ chances for survival and full recovery.</p>
Polyethylene Glycol Based Oligomers for Coating Nanoparticles Dr. Hedi Mattoussi 12-026 Garrett Edmunds <p id="p-0013" class="style-scope patent-text">We have developed nanoparticle coatings that are water dispersible, have a strong affinity for binding to magnetic nanoparticles, and can be easily modified for attaching the coating to biological materials. The nanoparticle coatings comprise a polyacrylic acid based backbone onto which PEG-based oligomers are appended by modifying the native carboxyl groups of the PAA backbone. The PEG-based oligomers include functional groups on their terminal ends, which are chosen to provide a certain function. Some of the terminal functional groups bind the coatings to the nanoparticle's surface, while others provide reactive sites for binding other compounds to the coating. The method we developed for making these coatings allows one to tune the number and type of PEG-based oligomers appended to the PAA backbone based on the desired properties of the coating.</p> <p id="p-0014" class="style-scope patent-text">In accordance with a composition aspect of the invention, the nanoparticle coatings comprise repeating polyacrylic acid monomers covalently bound together in an aliphatic chain having a plurality of carboxylic acid functional groups and modified carboxylic acid functional groups extending there from. A first portion of the modified carboxylic acid functional groups are modified by a PEG oligomer having a terminal methoxy functional group and a second portion of the modified carboxylic acid functional groups are modified by a PEG oligomer having at least one terminal catechol group.</p>
Self-Assembled Multilayers to Enhance Photon Upconversion and Solar Cell Efficiency Dr. Kenneth Hanson 15-035 Garrett Edmunds <p>Photon upconversion (UC), combining two lower energy photons to generate a higher energy excited state, can be used to harness "sub-band gap photons" and reach maximum theoretical solar cell efficiencies of &gt;40%. Molecular photon upconversion, by way of triplet-triplet annihilation (TTA-UC), is particularly appealing because UC is achievable even under low intensity, non-coherent, solar irradiation. Current efforts to harness TTA-UC in solar energy conversion are predominantly based on using UC solution or polymer film as a filter or reflector working in conjunction with a conventional solar cell but increase the cost and complexity of the device.</p> <p>Our technology is capable of facilitating photon upconversion in films of self-assembled bilayers, presented in Tech ID 15-001. The films can be prepared by a step-wise soaking/loading procedure that is amenable to roll-to-roll printing for large scale manufacturing of devices. The self-assembled bilayer strategy is effective at facilitating photocurrent generation from the upconverted state. This technology offers a new class of self-assembled UC solar cells that show promise as a means of passing the maximum theoretical limit for single junction solar cells.</p>
Economic Analysis System Julie Harrington 15-197 Brent Edington <p><strong>Citrones</strong> and <strong>Citronem</strong>  products are software supported Multiplier Matrix files,  based on economic business establishment variables, using standard business sector classifications such as the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS), or Standard Industrial Classification System (SIC), per geographic region (e.g., Nation, State, County, Zip Code, Congressional District, etc.).</p> <p><strong>Citrones</strong> and <strong>Citronem</strong>  products enable users to conduct economic and business research, such as industrial operations(IO) research, industrial clusters analyses and economic impact analyses (including direct, indirect and induced impacts) and economic forecasting, among other areas. The products provide a level of inter-industry detail that currently is not available in the market. For example, the typical economic impact model software product generates about 1,056 multipliers. However, when compared with <strong>Citrones</strong> and <strong>Citronem</strong>, which generates approximately 1.35 million multipliers, the there is a much higher resolution or level of inter-industry detail at the six digit level. The granular level of readily applicable and accessible multipliers with allow for exponentially greater detail and higher quality results for any economic impact analyses. The Multiplier Matrix, is available in a user friendly format (e.g. EXCEL, SAS and SPSS software). <strong>Citrones </strong>and <strong>Citronem</strong> is based on the largest sample of national establishments’ data available, and will easily compete (with an expected market advantage) with any product in its category in the current marketplace.</p>
Preparation of Expanded Polyaromatics Dr. Igor Alabugin 15-220 Garrett Edmunds <p>Current methods utilized to synthesize crowded polyaromatic architecture often use strategies that demand stringent design to achieve control over the size and substitution of the product. The proposed technique addresses this challenge by using a robust and flexible cyclization method in which a functional handle is installed during the reaction sequence to offer means for further extensions and functionalization.</p> <p>The present invention is an efficient process to prepare synthetically challenging large distorted aromatics. The new approach developed at Florida State University efficiently transforms enynes into polyaromatic structures of precise dimensions and tunable electronic properties, solving the problem of selectivity in cascades aimed at the preparation of polyaromatic structures from conjugated enynes.</p> <p>The overall process incorporates an unprecedented sequence in which chemo-and regioselective interaction of the triple bond with Bu<sub>3</sub>Sn radicals originates from a conceptually novel source and propagates in such a way that renders alkenes synthetic equivalents of alkyns. By coupling the cyclization/rearrangement cascade with an aromatizing C-C bond fragmentation, the net result is a convenient transformation of readily available enyne reactants to a-Sn substituted naphthalenes that can serve as a lauching platform for the preparation of extended distorted polyaromatics.</p> <p>The key challenge that had remained in the design of radical cascades was achieving control over chemoselectivity of initial radical attack and the subsequent cyclization mode. We resolved these problems by using the first radical enyne cascade in which chemo- and regioselective interaction of the triple bond with Bu<sub>3</sub>Sn radicals originates from a novel 1,2 metallotropic shift.</p> <p>The use of alkenes assists in the elimination of a radical leaving group via scission at the end of the cascade, aromatizing the final product without the need for external oxidants. This selective radical transformation opens a new approach for the controlled transformation of enynes into polycyclic distorted aromatics of tunable dimensions.</p> <h2>Advantages:</h2> <ul> <li>The feasibility with which the scission of strong C-C bonds is accomplished under mild conditions.</li> <li>Provides a convenient and efficient method to synthesize large distorted aromatics and polycyclic ribbons of tunable dimensions.</li> <li>Installation of Bu<sub>3</sub>Sn at a specific position and conversion of readily available enynes into highly valuable a-Sn naphthalene derivatives in high yields in a single cascade step</li> </ul>
Traceless directing groups in radical cascades: from oligoalkynes to fused helicenes without tethered initators Dr. Igor Alabugin 15-081 Garrett Edmunds <p>Dr. Alabugin and his team have developed a traceless directing group in a radical cascade. The chemo- and regioselectivity of the initial attack in skipped oligoalkynes is controlled by a propargyl alkoxy moiety. Radical translocations lead to the boomerang return of radical center to the site of initial attack where it assists to the elimination of the directing functionality via β-scission in the last step of the cascade. In some aspects, the reaction of the present invention is catalyzed by a stannane moiety, which allows further via facile reactions with electrophiles as well as Stille and Suzuki cross-coupling reactions. This selective radical transformation opens a new approach for the controlled transformation of skipped oligoalkynes into polycyclic ribbons of tunable dimensions.</p>
Systems and Methods for Improving Processor Efficiency Dr. David Whalley 13-101 Michael Tentnowski <p>Dr. Whalley's team has created  a data cache systems designed to enhance energy efficiency and performance of computing systems. A data filter cache herein may be designed to store a portion of data stored in a level one (L1) data cache. The data filter cache may reside between the L1 data cache and a register file in the primary compute unit. The data filter cache may therefore be accessed before the L1 data cache when a request for data is received and processed. Upon a data filter cache hit, access to the L1 data cache may be avoided. The smaller data filter cache may therefore be accessed earlier in the pipeline than the larger L1 data cache to promote improved energy utilization and performance. The data filter cache may also be accessed speculatively based on various conditions to increase the chances of having a data filter cache hit.</p> <p>Furthermore,  tagless access buffers (TABs) can optimize energy efficiency in various computing systems. Candidate memory references in an L1 data cache may be identified and stored in the TAB. Various techniques may be implemented for identifying the candidate references and allocating the references into the TAB. Groups of memory references may also be allocate to a single TAB entry or may be allocated to an extra TAB entry (such that two lines in the TAB may be used to store L1 data cache lines), for example, when a strided access pattern spans two consecutive L1 data cache lines. Certain other embodiments are related to data filter cache and multi-issue tagless hit instruction cache (TH-IC) techniques.</p>
New High-Refractive Index Polymers: Solutions for Next Generation Eyewear, Optical Adhesives and Microarray Lens Technology Dr. Albert Steigman 09-124 Garrett Edmunds <p>Organic polymers play a key role in a number of important optical applications. Principle among them are as lens materials for consumer eye-wear where their unique combination of high refractive index and optical transmission combined with scratch and fracture resistance have lead to the safe light-weight corrective lenses that are used today. In addition, they are critical in a number of specialized advanced technological applications such as microlens arrays for CCD sensors and encapsulates for light emitting diodes.</p> <p>Dr. Albert Stiegman has developed a new class of low-density, high refractive index polymers that have optical and mechanical properties that recommend them for a number of current and future optical applications. The polymers are hybrid organic-inorganic materials, the constituents of which contain highly polarizable atoms and groups that contribute to the high refractive indices and excellent optical transparency observed for specific compositions. They can be formed into hard monolithic structures that can be ground and polished to obtain lenses and other optical components. Synthesis of the polymers is technologically simple and from easily obtained components suggesting that their manufacture will be cost effective. Potential applications include eyewear and other consumer optical products such as camera, magnifying glasses and telescopes. In addition, the polymers have excellent adhesive properties that may find application as index-matched adhesives in optical assemblies</p> <p><a data-id="6634" href="/media/3985/stiegman.pdf" title="stiegman.pdf">Download PDF Version</a> </p> <h2>Applications:</h2> <ul> <li>Consumer eyewear and optics</li> <li>Microlens array technology</li> <li>Encapsulates</li> <li>Optical Adhesives</li> </ul>
Modified Fibroblast Growth Factor 1 (FGF-1) Polypeptides with Increased Binding Affinity for Heparin and Associated Methods Michael Blaber 15-039 Brent Edington <p>A Mutant FGF-1 was designed so as to increase the intrinsic affinity for heparin sulfate glycosaminoglycan; involving a point mutation that introduces a basic amino acid (i.e. Arg or Lys) at position Ser116. Characterization of this mutant (S116R) shows reduction in mitogenic stimulation, increase in growth factor receptor-1c activation, and prolonged duration of glucose lowering in hyperglycemic mice. Such a mutant form can be advantageous in reducing blood glucose and as a novel insulin sensitizer to treat metabolic disorder.   </p>
Polymer Foam Based Piezoelectric Materials Manufactured in an Environmentally Benign Novel Process Dr. Changchun (Chad) Zeng 13-161 Michael Tentnowski <p>FSU researchers have developed thermally stable piezoelectric polymer foams (ferroelectrets) with high piezoelectric activity for sensing and actuation, with tailored morphology, cell structure and mechanical and electro-mechanical properties. These piezoelectric foams have extremely high piezoelectric coefficients and very high thermal stability up to two orders of magnitude higher than other published results.</p> <p>Thermoelectric (TE) materials generate energy in the presence of temperature differential by virtue of converting thermal energy to electrical energy. Combination of different semiconductors are the dominant thermoelectric materials. Currently all research on TE materials focus on inorganic substance and the applications of most TE materials are limited to high temperature regime (&gt; 200 oC) to achieve meaningful figure of merit, which restricts application area. In this technology, COC ferroelectrets can harvest thermal energy operated at low temperature with high figure of merit.</p> <p>Commercially available ferroelectrets are based on porous polypropylene films which has been applied in various devices, i.e., audio devices as microphones, force sensors, actuators and respiration detectors. However, these devices lack sufficient thermal and UV stability. Our foams overcome these limitations.</p>
Carbon Nanotube Foam with Controllable Architectures: Fabrication Method and Applications Dr. Mei Zhang 14-030 Michael Tentnowski <p>Dr. Zhang created a method for fabricating carbon nanotube (CNT) foam, and all carbon prous structures, with controllable cell shape and distribution and therefore tunable properties including density, porosity, elasticity, conductivity, and strength.</p> <p>Compared with conventional foams, CNT solid foams offer additional advantages such as mechanical flexibility and robustness, electrical conductivity, thermal stability and resistance to harsh environment, and can impact a broad range of applications such as multifunctional structural media, sensors, high strength to weight ratio composites, membranes and electrodes.</p>
Design of an Electric Joint Design to be Used in Electromagnetic Coils Dr. Trociewitz 11-119 Michael Tentnowski <p>The present invention describes an electric joint design to be used in electromagnetic coils made with high-temperature superconducting tape. The conductor runs without interruption all the way from the top of the coil along some part of the current lead and establish a distributed resistive joint outside of the area where the magnetic forces are high and helium gas may be trapped. One embodiment of this invention is to solder the conductor onto the complex contour that is machined into a terminal piece made from high purity copper. This contour allows for a change in the conductor direction by about 90 degrees as it leaves the winding pack just by applying a soft-bend and an internal twist without cutting it or forcing a hard-bend onto it.</p> <p>Conventional resistive joints within the terminal region present a performance limiting factor in high field coil design. The problem solved by this invention is the avoidance of heat generating resistive joints in the terminals of coils made with high temperature superconducting tape cooled by liquid helium. These terminals are located at the coil ends in a region where heat dissipation can both generate and trap helium gas. The original liquid helium cooling of the joint becomes thus insufficient causing the coil to either not perform at its fullest potential or not maintain its superconducting properties and fail.</p>
Reusable Colorimetric Fluoride Sensors Dr. Sourav Saha 10-186 Garrett Edmunds <p>Fluoridation of drinking water has been effective in preventing tooth decay and improving overall den-tal health; however, overexposure to fluoride poses numerous serious health risks including brittle bone disease and increases in bone cancers. Thus, accurate detection of fluoride levels in water and food sources as well as in body fluids is essential. </p> <p><a rel="noopener" data-id="7056" href="/media/4156/marketing-document-10-186-saha.pdf" target="_blank" title="Marketing document 10-186 Saha.pdf">Download PDF Version</a> </p> <h2>Applications:</h2> <ul> <li>Medicine and health applications, both commercial and consumer-oriented, to test for the presence of fluoride in tap water, foods, blood and urine</li> <li>Food industry applications, such as testing toothpaste, bottled water, and food products</li> <li>Commercial product to enable water purifier manufacturers to test the effectiveness of their products more easily and at a reduced cost</li> <li>Municipal water-testing applications, particularly field testing</li> <li>Humanitarian application for use in developing countries with few or non-existent fluoride testing tools or standards</li> </ul> <h2>Advantages:</h2> <ul> <li>Offers both colorimetric and fluorimetric detection</li> <li>Can detect fluoride presence and quantity in a variety of environments including water, food, gas/air, and body fluids</li> <li>The sensors are easy to synthesize, environmentally benign, and can detect a range of fluoride concentration levels, with high sensitivity at extremely low nanomolar concentrations</li> <li>Dip-stick and spot-test forms are easy to use, effective, and comparatively inexpensive to produce</li> <li>Tests are reversible, reusable (with power source), and recyclable (disposable), thus reducing waste and costs</li> </ul>
Advancing Wound Treatment with Saloplastic Dressings Dr. Joseph Schlenoff 10-019 Garrett Edmunds <p>The demand for medical wound dressings is universal. Ranging in use from treating minor cuts to traumatic injuries, medical wound dressings prevent infections and save lives. In the case of traumatic injury, current wound dressings often require the application of a variety of materials, such as a combination of wound-filling gels, gauze, tape, and splints. However, Dr. Schlenoff’s research and discovery of saloplastics can decrease the number of necessary materials needed since saloplastic dressings can treat multiple aspects of a wound.</p> <p>The process of creating saloplastics uses salt instead of heat to melt plastics made from blends of charged polymers. By placing layers of positively and negatively charged electrolytes on top of one another, their electrical charges cancel each other out and create a neutrally charged, ultrathin film. These ultra-thin polymer coatings are useful for producing biocompatible surfaces that can be implanted into the human body for medical purposes.</p> <p>Approximately 750,000 Americans suffer strokes each year. Worldwide, that number increases to 20 million people. Primary stroke damage occurs from blood clotting and secondary damage occurs when toxic byproducts, including hemin, are produced from the trauma experienced during a stroke. This condition, known as hemin toxicity, leads to cell damage and cell death that in turn may cause irreparable brain damage or death for the individual.</p> <p>With Dr. Schlenoff’s research, stents used for implantation inside coronary arteries during surgical procedures could be coated with an ultrathin film that prevents cells and proteins from adhering, thus avoiding a narrowing of the arteries and restriction of blood flow.</p> <p><a rel="noopener" data-id="7055" href="/media/4155/marketing-document-polymer-schlenoff.pdf" target="_blank" title="Marketing document polymer schlenoff.pdf">Download PDF version</a></p> <h2>Applications:</h2> <ul> <li>First responder scenarios</li> <li>Chronic Wounds</li> <li>Medical practitioners to consumers</li> <li>Military</li> </ul> <h2>Advantages:</h2> <ul> <li>Antibacterial, moldable when wet, and cast-like when dry</li> <li>Low heating temperatures, 45 – 55 degrees C, are needed to soften the material.</li> <li>One material can treat multiple aspects of a wound.</li> <li>Within minutes, the most serious wounds and breaks can be sealed and immobilized.</li> </ul>
Lightweight Sensor Material Systems and Their Method of Manufacturing Changchun (Chad) Zeng 15-162 Michael Tentnowski <p>Flexible, stretchable, highly sensitive and low-cost pressure sensors are key elements in advancing wearable or implantable measuring devices.</p> <p>The present invention provides a flexible piezoresistive sensor that exhibits improved piezoresistive sensitivity over other conventional flexible sensors currently available. The sensor is based on 3D porous auxetic materials and conductive materials coating layers. The sensing mechanism is the piezoresistivity of the conductive coating. The auxetic materials provide the overall sensing environment, and the unique auxetic properties enable high sensor sensitivity and larger sensing range.</p> <h2>Advantages:</h2> <ul> <li>The auxetic structure improves sensor performance compared to regular substrate.</li> <li>The unique auxetic properties, such as synclastic curvature, enable the fabrication of large area sensors of complicated contours and ensure accurate detection of signals.</li> </ul> <h2>Applications:</h2> <ul> <li>Wearable sensors</li> <li>Sports protection equipment</li> <li>Medical devices</li> <li>Underwater ultrasonic transducer</li> </ul>
Sub-seasonal Forecasts of Winter Storms and Cold Air Outbreaks Dr. Ming Cai 16-090 Michael Tentnowski <p style="font-size: 18px;" class="font_8"> </p> <p class="lead">"Our technology is a dynamics-statistics hybrid model to forecast continental-scale cold air outbreaks 20-50 days in advance beyond the 2-week limit of predictability for weather."</p> <p style="font-size: 18px;" class="font_8"> </p> <p style="font-size: 18px;" class="font_8"><span style="font-size: 18px;">Professor Cai's team has developed a technology that allows them to make Sub-seasonal forecasts for cold air outbreaks in winter season. These forecasts are made on the basis of the relationship of the atmospheric mass circulation intensity and cold air outbreaks. The atmospheric poleward mass circulation aloft into the polar region, including the stratospheric component, is coupled with the equatorward mass circulation out of the polar region in the lower troposphere. The strengthening of the later is responsible for cold air outbreaks in mid-latitudes.</span></p> <p style="font-size: 18px;" class="font_8"><span style="font-size: 18px;">Due to the inherent predictability limit of 1-2 weeks for numerical weather forecasts, operational numerical weather forecast models no longer have useful forecast skill for weather forecasts beyond a lead time of about 10 days. Recently, the research carried out by Professor Cai and his team shows that operational numerical weather forecast models do possess useful skill for atmospheric anomalies over the polar stratosphere in cold seasons owing the models' ability to capture the poleward mass circulation into the polar stratosphere.</span></p> <p style="font-size: 18px;" class="font_8"><span style="font-size: 18px;">They calculate the stratospheric mass transport into the polar region from forecast outputs of the US NOAA NCEP's operational CFSv2 model and use it as our forecasts for the strength of the atmospheric mass circulation. The anomalous strengthening of it is indicative of the high probability of occurrence of cold air outbreaks in mid-latitudes.They further derive a set of forecasted indices describing a state of stratospheric mass circulation to obtain detailed spatial pattern and intensity of the associated cold air outbreak events. </span></p> <p style="font-size: 18px;" class="font_8"><span style="font-size: 18px;">Because cold air outbreak events are accompanied with development of low and high pressure systems and frontal circulations, our forecasts of cold air outbreaks are also indicative of snow, frozen rain, high wind, icy/freezing and other winter storm related hazards besides a large area of below-normal cold temperatures.</span></p> <p><a href="">Forecast website:</a></p> <p><a href="">Professor Cai in the news</a></p> <p> </p>
Precision Polystyrene-sulfonate (PSS) Dr. Justin G. Kennemur 17-034 Garrett Edmunds <p>Recent research in the Kennemur Group has discovered a methodology for making a polystyrene-polyethylene-type copolymer analog .The reduction in phenyl branch periodicity for our system dramatically reduces the glass transition temperature (<em>T</em>­<sub>g</sub>) from 110 °C (PS) to ~17 °C (H<sub>2</sub>-P4PCP) and remains amorphous; this makes our system prone to improved softening and flexibility at ambient temperatures. Furthermore, due to the precise and diluted spacing of the phenyl branches, we envisioned that the full sulfonation (i.e. one sulfonate functionality per phenyl branch) of this polymer would create a new materials that rivals PSS due to the enhanced flexibility of the native polymer. Here it should be noted that ethylene and styrene monomers can be copolymerized to form ethylene-styrene copolymers (for example Dow INDEX ESI Interpolymers), however, the catalysts used are complex, styrene incorporation is not precise, and it is very difficult to achieve high styrene content due to the differences in reactivity between ethylene and styrene. </p>
Dual-Fluid Jet Nozzle for Generating Sharp Boundaries between Jets of Fluids Dr. Markus Huettel 16-107 Michael Tentnowski <p>Dr. Markus Huettel and Alireza Merikhi have developed a device and method for rapid assessment of sensor response times as the sensor is switched rapidly between two or more testing fluids discharged from a multi-fluid jet nozzle. An embodiment of the novel device is a dual-fluid jet nozzle that ejects two distinct jets of testing fluid at the same velocity through a single nozzle discharge aperture divided by a sharp edged boundary wall, which effectively create a single jet stream containing two fluids separated by a sharp boundary. An embodiment of the novel device may be configured to discharge more than two jets of fluid to create a jet stream containing multiple fluids separated by sharp boundaries. A sensor tip is first exposed to a first testing fluid and then rapidly exposed to a second testing fluid. The sensor’s output may then be assessed to determine its response time.</p>
Computer Software that Reduces Known Risk Factors for Anxiety, Depression, and Related Issues Dr. Norman B. Schmidt 15-175 Michael Tentnowski <p>According to the World Health Organization anxiety and related issues, including addictions and mood problems as well as suicide, represent some of the most prevalent and disabling conditions across all physical and mental health disorders. As such, there is a clear public health need to more effectively prevent, mitigate and treat these issues.</p> <p>Despite their prevalence and impairing nature, many of these problems respond remarkably well to treatment. It sounds almost too good to be true, but decades long conditions can be effectively removed in a few weeks with proper treatment. Our computer delivered interventions are even briefer – only about 50 minutes long. Despite their brevity, we have found that these interventions have considerable and long lasting positive benefits. Specifically, these brief treatments reduce the targeted risk factor by about 30% and these reductions are durable for as long as two years. Currently, we have two computer interventions - one focuses on stress sensitivity and the other on social isolation. These constructs have a considerable empirical foundation and are implicated as critical mechanisms involved in anxiety and mood problems.</p> <p>Our work in this area combines three key tasks: (1) identification of malleable risk factors, (2) developing interventions for these risk factors, and (3) using technology to facilitate delivery of the interventions.</p> <p>Technology is increasingly used to assist medical professionals. In regard to risk factors, our approach has been to develop interactive computer programs that guide participants through the information and skills needed to correct the problem of interest. These computer programs are brief (under one hour) and are readily disseminated via the web.</p> <p><a rel="noopener" href="" target="_blank">More on Dr. Schmidt</a></p> <p> </p>
Device and Method for Concomitant Ejection and Suction of Perfusate Sanjay Kumar 15-008 Brent Edington <p>CESOP is a microfluidic device that enables focal application and clearance of drugs/compounds to nuclei or regions within acute brain slices submerged in artificial cerebrospinal fluid or other bathing media under non-laminar/turbulent flow conditions. The CESOP technique has distinct advantages over either both perfusion or local perfusion for studying how drug application to one region of the brain affects a neighboring/juxtaposed region. The CESOP device/method enables rapid focal application of drugs/compounds while restricting their spillover to neighboring regions. Turbulent/non-laminar flow conditions that manifest in slice recording chambers exacerbate spillover thereby hindering electrophysiological recordings and the study of region-specific drug effects. CESOP solves this problem through concomitant ejection and suction of perfusate, even under moderately turbulent conditions.</p> <h2>Advantages:</h2> <ul> <li>Rapid and focal delivery of drugs/compounds to regions of interest within the tissue with minimal or no spillover</li> <li>Fine control of application area</li> <li>Mobility within the restricted environs of the recording chamber/scope</li> <li>Savings in precious drug volumes while assaying drug effects</li> <li>Feasibility for assaying reversibility of drug effects</li> <li>Cost-effective</li> </ul>
Polymer Ligands for Nanoparticles Conjugation with Biomolecules Dr. Hedi Mattoussi 14-152 Garrett Edmunds <p>Professor Mattoussi developed polymer ligands that are optimally suited for surface-functionalizing magnetic nanoparticles. The amphiphilic polymers are prepared by coupling several amine-terminated anchoring groups, polyethylene glycol moieties, and reactive groups onto a poly(isobutylene-alt-maleic anhydride) (PIMA) chain. The reaction of maleic anhydride groups with amine-containing molecules is highly-efficient and occurs in one-step. The availability of several dopamine groups in the same ligand greatly enhances the ligand affinity, via multiple-coordination, to the magnetic NPs, while the hydrophilic and reactive groups promote colloidal stability in buffer media and allow subsequent conjugation with target biomolecules. Nanoparticles ligated with terminally reactive polymers have been easily coupled to target dyes and tested in live cell imaging with no measurable cytotoxicity.</p> dopamine,polymer,nanoparticle,ligand
Accuracy and Fairness in Dead-Reckoning Based Distributed Games Using a Proxy Architecture Dr. Sudhir Aggarwal 05-150 Michael Tentnowski <p>The invention includes a method and apparatus for attempting to synchronize delivery of information at a plurality of receiving systems. The method includes generating, at a sending system, a plurality of current messages adapted for rendering an asset within an application space of a respective plurality of receiving systems, determining an accumulated export error for each of the receiving systems, transmitting the current messages toward the respective receiving systems in a manner adapted to reduce the accumulated export errors. The accumulated export error for a receiving system includes an estimated current message export error for a current message generated by the sending system for the receiving system and an accumulated previous message export error for at least one previous message generated by the sending system for the receiving system.</p> <p> </p> <p>Patent <span id="assigneeWarning" class="tooltip-hint style-scope patent-result">Currently Assigned</span> to Alcatel-Lucent SA and Florida State University Research Foundation Inc</p>
Stokes Drifters: Very Thin Drifters to Study Ocean Surface Circulation Dr. Nicolas Wienders 17-022 Michael Tentnowski <p>Florida State University has designed a new instrument which can for the first time measure and monitor the ocean surface circulation within an inch of the surface where specific processes occur (the Stokes Drift). These important processes have never been measured, yet they are responsible for the movement of oil spills and other pollutants (plastic patches, river outflows, and radioactive leaks), the transport of fish eggs and larvae vital to fish life cycles, and the prediction of the movement of red tides to the coast. Existing drifters measure at least 50cm long/deep and are incapable of isolating the circulation at the ocean surface or the effect of the Stokes Drift.</p> <p>The proposed instrument will help calibrate new numerical models including Stokes Drift parameterization and recently designed radars and satellites by providing a very new and unique sampling of ocean surface circulation.</p> <p>The drifters are disks about 6 inches in diameter and small enough to measure the effect of the smallest gravity waves. They are also very thin to isolate the effect of the Stokes Drift at the ocean surface. Powered by batteries and/or solar panels, an accelerometer activates the antennas in clear sight of the satellites at any time.</p> <p>The drifters are about 20 percent buoyant so they are only partially immersed to allow for GPS reception and satellite data transmission while minimizing the wind drag. The drifters will transmit time, position and optional data stream via satellite at user programmable intervals.To ensure the drifters will not be affected by flipping from waves, they have GPS and satellite antennas on both sides.</p> <p><a rel="noopener" href="" target="_blank">An educational video about surface currents featuring Dr. Wienders</a></p> <p><a rel="noopener" href="" target="_blank" title=""></a></p> <p class="lead"><a rel="noopener" href="" target="_blank">View the real time drifter trajectories from our first experiment. </a></p> <p class="lead"><a href="">Experiment testing new drifter design underway in the Gulf of Mexico</a></p> <h2>Applications:</h2> <ul> <li>Federal agencies such as NSF, NOAA, and NASA.</li> <li>State and local agencies such as FWC and DEP</li> <li>Environmental groups</li> <li>Oil companies</li> <li>Fisheries</li> <li>Water management Districts</li> <li>Universities and independent scientists and researchers</li> </ul> <h2>Advantages:</h2> <ul> <li>Small size can mimic the behavior of pollutants or the evolution of river plumes at the ocean surface</li> <li>Minimizes wind drag</li> <li>Solves problem of potential flips with internal antennas on both sides of drifter</li> <li>Cost efficient</li> </ul> <p>Exclusive license: MetOcean <a href=""></a></p>
Photodynamic Resolution of Racemic Compounds having Axial Chirality Dr. Kenneth Hanson 17-025 Garrett Edmunds <p><span>Enantioselective synthesis is the cornerstone of modern synthetic chemistry and a crucial step in the production of fine chemicals like food additives, fragrances, natural products, and pharmaceuticals. </span></p> <p><span>One of the most utilized ligands/ catalysts for these enantioselective reactions is 1,1' - bi-2-napthol ("BINOL"). The most common methods to synthesize these complexes, however, result in the formation of a racemic mixture of R and S isomers. Unfortunately, since only a single isomer of BINOL is needed, the racemic mixture is typically purified through chromatography or recrystallization to achieve the desired isomer, while the other half of the reaction mass is discarded. </span></p> <p><span>The present invention proposes the use of photoisomerization as an alternative strategy to generate enantiomerically pure BINOL. Due to excited state proton transfer (ESPT) BINOL can planarize and isomerize upon photoexcitation. We have invented the use of bulky chiral auxialiary groups to increase the rotational barrier of relaztion selectively for one BINOL atropisomer as a means of preferentially generating one of the BINOL isomers. The identity of the auxiliary group determined both the direction of rotation and the extent of enantiomeric excess observed. </span></p> <h2><span>Advantages:</span></h2> <ul> <li><span>Photoisomerization can generate a racemic mixture and then preferentially photoconvert to only one of the isomers</span></li> <li><span>This strategy does not waste 50 percent of the product</span></li> <li><span>Can be done on large scale with minimal solvent</span></li> </ul> <h2><span>Applications:</span></h2> <ul> <li><span>Chemical companies that sell or use BINOL (Sigma, VWR, Merck, etc.)</span></li> </ul>
Photodynamic Resolution of Racemic Compounds having Axial Chirality Dr. Kenneth Hanson 17-025 Garrett Edmunds <p>Enantioselective synthesis is important in modern synthetic chemistry, and can be an important step in the production of certain chemicals, such as food additives, fragrances, natural products, and pharmaceuticals.</p> <p>One of the most utilized ligands/catalysts for enantioselective reactions is 1,1’-bi-2-napthol (“BINOL”).  The most common methods to synthesize BINOL and its derivatives, however, result in the formation of a racemic mixture of (R) and (S) isomers.  Due to the fact that only a single isomer of BINOL is required for enantioselective reactions, the racemic mixture typically is purified through chromatography or recrystallization to achieve the desired isomer, while the other isomer is discarded.</p> <p>Dr Hanson has developed a methods of forming a product having an enantiomeric excess from BINOL, BINOL derivatives,  and other atropisomers, including the racemic mixtures thereof.</p> <p> </p>
Mechanical Decoupling in High-Temperature Superconducting Tapes David Hilton 11-075 Michael Tentnowski <p>The present invention describes a structure and method for creating and insulating high-temperature superconductor tapes that electrically insulates the conductors while mechanically decoupling them from the much stronger encapsulant. The concept of the invention is to use a conductor insulation which not only electrically insulates the conductors of the coil windings from each other, but also mechanically insulates them from the much stronger encapsulant. The insulation material mechanically decouples the conductor from the encapsulant at the boundary between them, thereby preventing damage as a result of thermal and electromagnetic shearing forces. The proposed structure allows the encapsulant to continue performing its functions of preventing coarse motion and stabilizing the coil as a whole, while allowing fine relative displacements of individual coil windings caused by radial stress gradients.</p> <p>This invention is counter-intuitive and new because during normal manufacture of a magnet, conductor insulation and encapsulant are expected to completely immobilize incorporated conductors to prevent damage of the conductors during cooling and energization due to thermal and electromagnetic tensile and shear stresses. Such stresses and damage, however, are the consequences of this expectation. Because shrinkage and not adhesion is the functional basis of the identified and incorporated thin-walled heat-shrink tubing, thermal and electromagnetic tensile and shear stresses are minimized at the boundary between the conductors and the encapsulant. This allows the use of a strong encapsulant, such as epoxy, which would otherwise be disallowed.</p>
A Practical Process to Densify High Temperature Superconducting Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+x (2212) Round Wire Before Coil Winding Maxime Matras 15-257 Michael Tentnowski <p>This invention describes the processing of Bi2Sr2CuO<sub>6+x </sub>(2122) oxide superconducting round wires so as to obtain a magnet with a dense and stable winding pack mad of dense, highly-textured oxide superconductor with high critical current density.</p> <p>The present invention overcomes the limitations of the prior art by pre-densifying the 2212 wire before it is wound on the coil form. The invention significantly reduces, and can even eliminate, the decrease in wire diameter that occurs during the final heat treatment when the coil receives its final OP heat treatment, thus avoiding changes to the geometry of the coil.</p> <p>The advantages of round wire, compared to tape, are its ability to be twisted, its electromagnetic isotrpy and its ability to be easily cabled.</p>
Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry Methodology Dr. Marshall 08-181 Michael Tentnowski <p>The present invention discloses a method of enhanced speciation of both positive and negatives species in an analyte. Briefly, the technology is a method to produce efficient gas phase ions of both polar and nonpolar species through deprotonation with the Tetramethylammonium hydroxide and through silver cationization with the reagent silver triflate. The method can include producing a first analyte solution comprising an analyte composition and an effective amount of silver triflate, and analyzing the first analyte solution with an electrospray ionization mass spectrometer. The method can also include producing a second analyte solution comprising a portion of the analyte composition and an effective amount of a compound of formula I, and analyzing the second analyte solution with an electrospray ionization mass spectrometer. The compound of formula I is [NX+][OH−], where X is a linear, branched, or cyclic C1-C10 alkane; an aryl; a heterocyclic aromatic; or a heterocyclic moiety.</p> <h2>Advantages:</h2> <ul> <li>Easy to implement</li> <li>The reagent allows for more uniform deprotonation of acidic moieties</li> <li> Enables the detailed characterization of nonpolar species that are not efficiently ionized in the conventional electrospray ionization process </li> </ul> <h2>Applications:</h2> <ul> <li>Detailed speciation of acidic species in petroleum and quantitation of those species identified</li> </ul> <p> </p> <p> </p>
PetroOrg Software Yuri Corilo 13-093 Michael Tentnowski <p>Software specifically designed to process, assign, organize and visualize elemental composition of petroleum and its derivatives samples acquired by high resolution mass spectrometry.</p> <p> </p>
Quantitative Analysis of Metabolic Mixtures by 2D 13C-Constant-Time TOCSY NMR Spectroscopy Rafael Bruschweiler 13-204 Garrett Edmunds <p>Quantification of metabolite concentrations is a key task in metabolomics studies.</p> <p>Significant peak overlaps in 1D NMR spectra of metabolomics samples prevent straightforward quantification through 1D peak integrals.Using uniformly 13C-labeled organisms, the 2D NMR 13C-13C constant-time (CT) TOCSY experiment provides high-resolution information about individual metabolites that allows their identification via database searching or, in the case of novel compounds, through the reconstruction of their backbone-carbon topology.</p> <p>FSU researchers demonstrated how CT-TOCSY spectra can also be utilized for quantification purposes. The methods are demonstrated for carbohydrate and amino-acid mixtures.</p>
Fingerprint for Cell Identity and Pluripotency David Gilbert 12-028 Brent Edington <p>At Florida State University, we have developed a method to identify sets of regions that replicate at unique times in any given cell type (replication timing fingerprints) using pluripotent stem cells as an example, and show that genes in the pluripotency fingerprint belong to a class previously shown to be resistant to reprogramming in induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), identifying potential new target genes for more efficient iPSC production. We propose that the order in which DNA is replicated (replication timing) provides a novel means for classifying cell types, and can reveal cell type specific features of genome organization.</p> <p>A major advantage of our fingerprinting method is in selection of a minimal set of regions that allow for classification with a straightforward PCR-based timing assay and a reasonably small set of primers, particularly if only cell-type specific regions are examined. Our results suggest that a standard set of 20 fingerprint loci can be effective for classification, but the number of regions queried can be adjusted based on the confidence level required. The sole requirement for replication profiling is the collection of a sufficient number of proliferating cells for sorting on a flow cytometer. Consistently, just as replication fingerprints can be generated for particular cell types or general categories of cells, features of replication profiles allow for the creation of disease-specific fingerprints, which may be valuable for prognosis. We have also identified regions that may undergo important organizational changes upon differentiation.</p>
Genome Capture and Sequencing to Comprehensively Map Chromatin Structure in Complex Genomes Dr. Jonathan Dennis 14-044 Brent Edington <p>This invention brings significant improvement to our ability to query the chromatin structure of select important regions of the entire human genome. Utilizing a unique sequencing strategy, the invention offers a solution-based sequence capture method enabling the enrichment of the 2000 bp surrounding the transcription start site of 25,464 human open reading frames. This enrichment reduces the sequence space of the human genome from 3.4 Gb in total to 50 Mb of transcription start sites, a 98.5% reduction. Additionally, the enrichment is analogous to that achieved for well-documented exome sequencing experiments. This sequence capture approach will allow researchers to multiplex chromatin structure analyses in Illumina HiSeq2500 lanes, thereby opening this strategy for a wide range of diagnostic and prognostic indicators in human disease.</p> <h2>Applications:</h2> <ul> <li>Identify stages in the progression of cancer</li> <li>Identify host response in viral infection (HIV and KSHV)</li> <li>Define cryptic effects of drugs of abuse (amphetamines, cocaine, and nicotine)</li> </ul> <h2>Advantages:</h2> <ul> <li><span>Allows for the targeted analysis of specific areas of interest in complex genomes</span></li> <li><span>Provides a cost effective strategy for querying multiple samples in a single reaction</span></li> <li><span>Provides an extremely cost effective way to screen patient samples </span></li> <li><span>Opens a new field of biomarker development: distribution of nucleosomes</span></li> <li><span>Nucleosome distribution mapping is independent of genotype and gene expression</span></li> </ul>
Route to Synthetic Analogues of Rocaglamide and Aglafoline using Cascade Transformations initiated by Oxy-Cope Rearrangement of Bis-Alkynes Dr. Igor Alabugin 11-043 Garrett Edmunds <p>Dr. Alabugin and his team have developed a method for preparing a cyclobutene compound or a cyclopentenone. The method comprises contacting an α,β-diketone with a metal acetylide at a temperature below 0° C. to thereby form a reaction mixture comprising a bis-alkyne precursor. The bis-alkyne precursor rearranges into a bis-allenic intermediate, which undergoes further rearrangement into the cyclobutene compound or the cyclopentenone compound as the temperature of the reaction mixture increases from below 0° C. to above 0° C.</p>
Photo-Induced Phase Transfer of Luminescent Quantum Dots Dr. Hedi Mattoussi 12-207 Michael Tentnowski <p>A method for the photo-mediated phase transfer of inorganic nanocrystals, such as luminescent quantum dots, QDs, is provided. Irradiation, specifically UV excitation (λ<sub class="style-scope patent-text">ex</sub>&lt;400 nm), promotes the in-situ ligand exchange of hydrophobic quantum dots with hydrophilic ligands and their facile transfer to polar solvents and buffer media. The technique enables transfer of quantum dots and other nanocrystal materials from hydrophobic to polar and hydrophilic solutions.</p> polar solvent,nanoparticle,phase transfer
Modulating Electron Transfer Dynamics at Hybrid Interfaces via Self-Assembled Multilayers Dr. Kenneth Hanson 15-001 Garrett Edmunds <p>Electron transfer at organic-inorganic hybrid interfaces is a critical event in bio/organic electronics, solar energy conversion, electrocatalysis, sensing and other applications. At the interfaces in these devices, the goal is to maximize the rate of electron transfer in one direction (forward electron transfer, FET). Equally important is the inhibition of the back electron transfer (BET). We have introduced the use of a molecular bridge in self-assembled bilayer films as an effective strategy for modulating electron transfer dynamics at the semiconductor-molecule interface. The bilayer films of the general form MO-(X)-Zr-moelcule are composed of a metal oxide electrode (MO; TiO2 or SnO2 for example), a bridging molecule (X), linking ions (Zr, Zn, etc.) and a molecule. One example bilayer with TiO2, a bridging molecules 1, 2 or 3, Zr4+ ions and RuC ([Ru(bpy)2(4,4'-(COOH)2bpy)]2+) is depicted in Figure. This approach offers a simple and modular method for slowing BET between any dye molecule and the semiconductor interface. Additionally, as opposed to other methods of slowing BET, like atomic layer deposition or synthetic modification, the step-wise soaking/loading procedure is amenable to roll-to-roll printing for large scale manufacturing of devices. Controlling electron transfer rates will help to decrease photocurrent leakage and improve device performances.</p>
Direct Conversion of Phenols into Amides and Esters of Benzoic Acid Dr. Igor Alabugin 10-128 Garrett Edmunds <p>Dr. Alabugin and his team have designed a method is for the preparation of an aromatic carboxylic acid aryl ester or an N-aryl aromatic carboxamide. The method comprises contacting an O,O-diaryl thiocarbonate or an O-aryl-N-aryl thiocarbamate with a reactant that regioselectively reacts with sulfur, which contact causes an O-neophyl rearrangement, thereby forming either the aromatic carboxylic acid aryl ester or the N-aryl aromatic carboxamide, respectively.</p>
Facile Conversion of Red Phosphorous to Soluble Polyphosphide Anions by Reaction with Potassium Ethoxide Dr. Michael Shatruk 16-087 Garrett Edmunds <p><span>Activation of phosphorus is an important process for the preparation of semiconductors and low-dimensional electronic materials. The industry, in general, uses white phosphorus, which is hazardous and should be stored under water due to its spontaneous flammability in air. Activation of red phosphorus, which is a more stable polymorph of the element, is usually done by high-temperature reactions with metals in sealed evacuated tubes. However, this process is expensive and difficult to scale up.</span></p> <p><span>We have discovered a methodology to activated red phosphorus using inexpensive potassium ethoxide in ethanol. The reaction can be performed with mild heating and provides access to soluble polyphosphide species, which can be used to explore further chemistry of phosphorus in solution, without the need to use white phosphorus. Moreover, we showed that this process can be easily scaled up using flow chemistry approaches.</span></p> <p><span>For more information: </span><a href="">Chemists Discover a Safe, Green Method to Process Red Phosphorus</a></p> <p><a rel="noopener" href="" target="_blank">red-wonder FSU chemists pave the way of phosphorus revolution</a></p> <p><i>Angew. Chem. Int. Ed.</i> 2016, DOI: <a href="" title="Facile Conversion of Red Phosphorus into Soluble Polyphosphide Anions">10.1002/anie.201511186</a></p> phosphorene,black phosphorus
System and method for Generating a Benchmark Dataset for Real noise Reduction Evaluation Dr. Adrian Barbu 15-046 Garrett Edmunds <p>Often images taken with smartphones or point-and-shoot digital cameras come out noisy due to lack of sufficient lighting. This low-light noise problem is widespread, being present in all of the smartphones in the world, more than 1 billion total. This problem generates in consumers disappointment and frustration with the quality of the images taken in low light. While a number of commercial denoising packages are already available on the market, the majority of them are trained on images corrupted by artificial noise, rather than trained on real low-light noisy images. Since artificial noise has different characteristics than real noise, these packages do not perform as well as a denoising algorithm trained on images corrupted by real noise as we have created.</p> <p>                We have developed a fully automatic state of the art algorithm (RENOIR) for denoising smartphone and digital camera images which have low-light noise problems. The RENOIR algorithm could be either; be sold directly to the public as a standalone application or could be licensed to smartphone or digital camera manufacturers to be embedded in their devices.</p> <p> </p>
A Robust Method to Measure the Temporal Order of Replication of all Chromosome Segments in a Cell Dr. Gilbert 12-102 Brent Edington <p>Cancers have unique replication timing fingerprints that hold great promise as a novel genre of biomarkers, and despite the heterogeneity in different individual cancers, each cancer more closely resemble their tissue of origin than they do other tissue types. This phenomenon demonstrates the great promise of replication timing profiling to determine tissue of origin for metastatic cancers.</p> <p><span style="font-family: inherit; font-size: 0.875rem; line-height: 1.4;"></span>There are many biomarkers on the market for cancer and most involve tests for chromosome abnormalities while some involve gene expression tests. Currently biomarkers are only partially effective at diagnosis. Our technology provides a completely novel genre of biomarkers that cannot be detected by any other existing method.</p> <p>This technology can provide a completely novel type of tissue of origin test, and queries the entire genome simultaneously and therefore is more comprehensive.</p>
Novel Application of Melatonin Antagonists in Obstetrical Practice Dr. Olcese 08-058 Brent Edington <p>This is a method for the prevention of pre-term labor that will introduce, intravenously, a melatonin antagonist to women who are predisposed to premature birth. Melatonin antagonists are drugs that do not provoke a biological response themselves, but bind to melatonin receptors, and, therefore, prevent endogenous melatonin itself from binding to the receptor. It is believed that the inhibition of melatonin action will prevent women from beginning labor.</p> <p>Melatonin is a naturally occurring neurohormone found in most animals, including humans. Its role in the body is associated with the maintenance of a biological clock, or circadian rhythm. Besides this function, it is also a powerful antioxidant. Melatonin, or melatonin analogues, are consumed daily by millions of people for sleep induction. However, the application of melatonin in obstetrics represents a completely novel approach to the management of labor.</p> <p><a href="/media/3989/olcese2.pdf" title="olcese2.pdf" data-id="6638">Download PDF Version</a> </p> <h2>Applications:</h2> <ul> <li>Method for using melatonin to delay pre-term labor by targeting mothers who are at risk for premature labor.</li> </ul> <h2>Advantages:</h2> <ul> <li>Delay pre-term labor</li> <li>Save millions of dollars from premature births each year</li> <li>Prevent thousands of work hours for healthcare providers each year</li> <li>No expensive new drug development</li> </ul>
A Prosthetic Socket System with an Unprecedented Degree of Multifunctionality and Integration Dr. Chun (Chuck) Zhang 12-160 Michael Tentnowski <p>The proposed prosthetic Socket Optimized for Comfort with Advanced Technologies (SOCAT) integrate advanced materials, nanotechnology, electronics, and manufacturing technologies to achieve a prosthetic socket system with an unprecedented degree of multifunctionality and integration to meet the critical needs for advanced prostheses for patients. Despite the significant advances made in the past decade in the area of prosthetics, discomfort and adverse effects on the skin as a result of poor fit, elevated temperatures and moisture accumulation within the prosthetic socket are still a major problem.</p> <p>The proposed SOCAT invention utilizes four enabling technologies augmented with a product integration design to form a holistic above-knee socket system to resolve the issues mentioned above:</p> <ol> <li>Volume/shape change management will be realized with advanced materials that sense and respond to external stimuli, such as pressure changes due to either volume changes as a result of residual limb swelling or muscle tissue shape changes during a gait cycle</li> <li>Pistoning control and skin breakdown prevention will be realized via an innovative interface material embedded with nanoparticles</li> <li>Temperature and sweat control will be achieved by solid state active cooling using an array of miniature thermoelectric devices in combination with nanomaterials and phase change materials; and</li> <li>Lightweight piezoelectric nanofoam pressure sensors and printed electronic temperature and moisture sensors fully embedded in liners will provide the patient with an early warning of adverse situations, such as abnormal pressure suggesting improper gait or pistoning, and allow the practitioner to remotely collect real-time data for subsequent analysis.</li> </ol> <h2>Advantages:</h2> <ul> <li>Fully integrated product design that addresses major concerns of current sockets while minimizing parasitic parts and devices</li> <li>Lightweight, multifunctional material-enabled socket system</li> <li>Adaptive volume change management with coupled sensing/actuation materials</li> <li>Biomimetic materials for anti-microbial function and pistoning control</li> <li>Thermal management and perspiration control with solid state active cooling in conjunction with novel nanomaterials and phase changing materials</li> <li>Whole-field pressure monitoring by innovative lightweight piezoelectric materials</li> <li>Embedded printed electronics interconnects for sensing, wireless communication and local data storage</li> </ul>
A Real-Time, Ubiquitous Structural Health Monitoring System for Fiber-Reinforced Composite Materials Dr. Okenwa Okoli 12-037 Michael Tentnowski <p>The Florida State University invites companies to join us in commercializing a new method for monitoring the structural health of fiber-reinforced composites (FRCs). The continuous push to create faster and lighter vehicular structures has radically increased the use of fiber-reinforced composite (FRC) materials in the aerospace industry and others because these composites possess high specific strength and stiffness. Economic constraints have also contributed to the growing trend of airlines operating aircraft beyond their design lives, making their effective monitoring for structural damage an important safety feature. Increasingly, too, composite materials are used in the construction of buildings, dams, naval structures, and ground-based vehicles.</p> <p><a href="/media/3830/okoli.pdf">Download PDF Version</a> </p> <h2>The Problem:</h2> <p>Multiscale, multifunctional advanced composite materials have the potential of creating a paradigm shift in how engineered structures are used. Their failure modes which enhance their ability to absorb impact energy are unlike those seen in metallic materials and have no single, similar self-propagating crack features. Metals show visible damage caused by impact mainly on the surface of structures, while damage is hidden inside composite structures especially when subjected to low velocity impact such as bird collisions or tool drops. This barely visible damage may cause serious decrease in material strength of the structure over its life-cycle.</p> <p>Current inspection and monitoring techniques are based primarily on exterior examinations and/or externally mounted sensors placed at discrete locations. Since failures in composites are frequently microscopic, originate internally, and are slow to reveal themselves externally, current detection systems are limited in their effectiveness.</p> <p>A cost issue also exists. In the case of airplanes, approximately 27% of their life-cycle cost is spent on inspection and repair. Thus, accurately and quickly identifying the location and severity of damage at the micro-structural levels is essential to detecting macroscopic fatigue and avoiding catastrophic failures. Future sensors for Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) of aerospace structures are envisioned to be an array of inexpensive, spatially distributed, integrated sensors supporting online/real-time acquisition of structural integrity information on the loading, environmental effects, structural characteristics and responses of these structures. The information obtained from the sensors can then be used to monitor the structural integrity of the components in real-time in order to avoid catastrophic failures.</p> <h2>The Solution:</h2> <p>With the recent advances in material research, solutions to damage monitoring will need to be based on an integrated platform. At FSU’s High-Performance Materials Institute, a novel SHM system is in development, which will detect minute structural damage in FRC materials (e.g., fiberglass, carbon fiber). Essentially, this is a biomimetic solution pre-existing in nature that can act as a guide towards ubiquitous sensing by use of Triboluminescent materials. Triboluminescence is a physical phenomenon, where upon duress crystalloid materials emit copious amounts of visible light. By integrating these triboluminescent materials in fiber-reinforced composites alongside a transmission medium, failure information can be obtained.</p>
A Universal Method for the Scalable Manufacturing of Macroscopic Nanomaterials Superstructures Changchun (Chad) Zeng 15-232 Michael Tentnowski <p>The present invention is a novel technology capable of continuously manufacturing on a large scale of superstructure based on a broad range of nanoparticles. The technology has the potential to be a cost-effefctive way to manufacture nanomaterials based macroscopic parts and components, whose properties approach to those of the individual nanoparticles.</p> <h2>Advantages:</h2> <ul> <li>Uses supercritical water as a moderate oxidizer to remove the catalyst and purify the carbon nanotubes. This approach is superior compared to other technology forits efficiency of catalyst removal and low impact to the CNT structure and properties.</li> <li>This process can be scaled-up to a continuous process to manufacture these assemblies in industrial scale.</li> </ul>
Lipid Multi-Layer Gratings for Semi-Synthetic Quorum Sensors Dr. Lenhert 11-067 Brent Edington <p>The present invention provides a device comprising: a substrate, and a quorum sensor array on the substrate. The quorum sensor array comprises quorum sensors releasing signal molecules in response to one or more environmental signals being sense by the quorum sensors to thereby amplify the one or more environmental signals by causing a signal chain reaction in neighboring quorum sensors of the quorum sensor array, and wherein each of the quorum sensors comprises a lipid multi-layer structure.</p> <p>The present invention provides a method comprising the following steps: (a) detecting with a camera one or more light intensities of light scattered by one or more iridescent microstructures of a sample, and (b) determining a height of each of the one or more iridescent microstructures of the sample based on one or more light intensities detected in step (a) and a calibration profile for the camera, wherein the calibration profile is based on light intensities detected by the camera for light scattered one or more patterned arrays of standard iridescent microstructures of a calibration standard, and wherein each of the patterned arrays of iridescent microstructures comprises iridescent microstructures having the same shape and two or more different heights.</p>
Novel Methods to Regulate Uterine Contractions Dr. Olcese 12-239 Brent Edington <p>The present invention describes a novel method of regulating uterine contractions in pregnant female using light. The method of regulating uterine contractions comprises suppressing a nocturnal endogenous melatonin level of a pregnant female experiencing uterine contractions by exposing the pregnant female during nighttime to a light source emitting visible light. Directing light from a light source positioned about 1 meter from the eyes, emitting predominantly blue light onto the pregnant females eyes between 9 p.m. to 6 a.m., with an intensity of about 10,000 lux of the visible light is sufficient to suppress the pregnant female's endogenous melatonin level.</p> <p>The results reveal that regular nocturnal contractions are suppressed by bright light exposure under these conditions. This finding supports the proposition that melatonin is a key zeitgeber, regulating the onset of human labor and parturition and that light can be used to regulate melatonin levels and, thereby, regulate uterine contractions. Optionally, the light source is adapted to emit light in discrete on/off cycles or pulses. The duration of the pulses and the separation between successive pulses is adjusted to obtain the desired amount of endogenous melatonin suppression.</p> <p>This invention will open new avenues for the management of term and preterm labor.</p>
Heterogeneously Structured Conductive Carbon Fiber Composites by using Multiscale Silver Particles Shaokai Wang 14-012 Michael Tentnowski <p>This technology enhances the through thickness thermal conductivity (TTTC) of laminated graphite fiber fabric reinforced composites by applying nanoscale and microscale silver particles to construct heterogeneous thermally conductive paths along the composite's through-thickness direction.</p> <p>The FSU technology increased the TTTC of EWC300X/Epon862 composite to 3.51 and 4.33 W/(m•K), respectively.</p> <p>Silver flakes, copper particles, carbon black, carbon nanotubes, and aluminum powder have been applied to improve the thermal conductivity of polymer resins, and some have also been homogeneously applied in the fiber reinforced composite materials as fillers in matrix. The through-thickness thermal conductivities of the composites produced with these fillers were no more than 3.5 W/(m K), less than the FSU approach. Other changes increased performance compared to other approaches.</p> <p>The combination of microscale and nanoscale silver particles can effectively connect the conduction paths among intra- and inter-tow, resulting in greater thermal conductivity under the similar density.</p>
Carbon Nanotube and Nanofiber Film-based Membrane Electrode Assemblies Dr. Zhiyong (Richard) Liang 06-088 Michael Tentnowski <p>The present invention describes a carbon-materials-based membrane electrode assembly (MEA) for a fuel cell comprising a catalyst layer.</p> <p>The catalyst layer can include a plurality of catalyst nanoparticles, e.g., platinum, disposed on buckypaper. A particular feature of the MEA, according to the invention, is that the buckypaper film is fabricated with carbon nanotubes, nanofibers, or a mixture thereof, with little or no binder. The buckypaper additionally can be treated with high temperature for improving electrical and/or mechanical properties of the structure. The microstructure of the buckypaper can be tailored by adjusting the starting materials and nanotubes dispersion so as to achieve a desired porosity, pore size, surface area, and electrical conductivity for use as the catalyst layer of the MEA. The catalyst nanoparticles are preferably deposited directly at the most efficient sites of the buckypaper to thereby maximize the three-phase reaction coefficient.</p> <p>The MEA so fabricated can have a higher catalyst utilization rate at the electrodes, can provide higher power output, and can have enhanced oxidation resistance, and well as a longer service life, as compared to conventionally-fabricated fuel cells.</p>
Actuator Devices Including Nanoscale Fiber Films Dr. Zhiyong (Richard) Liang 08-110 Michael Tentnowski <p>This present invention describes a novel technique to fabricate carbon nanotube or nanofiber thin films (buckypapers)/solid electrolyte actuator devices for lightweight, high performance actuator and morphing structure applications. The method includes two nanoscale fiber films adjacent to a solid polymer electrolyte positioned at least partially in between. Moreover, the solid polymer electrolyte is affixed to the two nanoscale fiber films. The nanoscale fiber films may be buckypapers made of carbon nanotubes. The actuator is capable of dry actuation.</p> <p>This new approach to prepare buckypaper actuators can eliminate the need to use insulation layer in structures and retains high concentration and conducting of nanotube networks in the actuators, which are critical to achieve high performance actuation. More importantly, all the actuators can work properly in open air, which is critical for real-world applications. High nanotube loading and good conducting networks in buckypapers lead to improved actuation performance. Furthermore, the actuator can be easily laminated or encapsulated with polymer films or coating to resist environmental effects. Through improvements of nanotube dispersion, alignment and conductivity of buckypapers, we can further enhance and optimize actuation performance. The invention is a technical breakthrough to realize real-world engineering applications of nanotube-based actuators. The invention overcomes the major technique barriers, such as working in liquid electrolyte and lower performance, of current liquid electrolyte and nanotube/polymer mixture-based actuator systems.</p> <p>Due to exceptional high mechanical properties and lightweight of carbon nanotube and nanofiber materials, lightweight and high performance actuation can be expected for both immediate and near future engineering applications, such as morphing structures of aircraft and nanoscale/microscope actuators for device applications (for instance, actuators for driving microscale).</p>
Flexible Electrochemical Cell with Fiber-like Geometry and Coaxially Structured Electrodes Jesse Smithyman 14-015 Michael Tentnowski <p>The proposed technology is a flexible electrochemical cell with cylindrical, fiber-like geometry. As opposed to the sandwich-like structure of planar cells, the cell has coaxial electrodes with the separator in between such that all components are concentric cylinders.</p> <p>A flexible electrochemical cell consists of a carbon nanotube yarn as the inner electrode and supportive material. A polymer electrolyte is coated on the yarn followed by the application of an outer carbon nanotube network electrode. Chemical modification of the electrodes is possible to enhance or tailor the electrochemical properties.</p> <p>The inclusion of these carbon nanotube electrodes enables the integration of an electronic conductor and active material of each electrode in a single component. The features of the flexible electrical devices described herein beneficially enable the device to maintain high volumetric energy and power densities during device deformations. Without being limited to a single theory, a coaxial design of the flexible electrical device permits uniform primary current distribution because of the radial ion transport between electrodes.</p> <p>The initial prototypes fabricated had diameters - 500 micron and future size reductions are very feasible. Tailoring the materials used in the cell design allows for a number of different applications. Prototype super capacitor fibers and humidity sensing fibers have been developed.</p> <p>The high aspect ratio fiber geometry also provides a cell design able to undergo flexural deformation with minimal impact on the electrochemical properties, and &gt; 95% of the energy density and &gt; 99% of the power density was retained when wound around an I l cm diameter cylinder.</p>
Improved Fire Retardant Materials Dr. Liang and Dr. Zhang 10-135 and 11-109 Michael Tentnowski <p>Current fire retardant polymer composites contain additives that weaken their structure. This invention foregoes those additives and adds a single layer of Buckypaper to the composite. The result is a structurally sound, fire-retardant polymer composite that is ideal for aircraft and ships, where fires can be devastating.</p> <p>Buckypaper is a free standing 'paper-like' material based on nanoscale dispersed carbon nanotubes. Due to its low density, small pore size, low gas permeability, chemical resistance and high thermal stability of carbon nanotubes, buckypaper acts as a physical protective layer to reduce fire spread, toxic smokes and gases generation during combustion. The nanotubes may also be applied using a spray method. The chemical inert nature of carbon nanotube also protects itself from atmosphere.</p> <p>The combustion nature of polymer-matrix system is a major technical challenge that has limited the use of composites on board warships and aircrafts. The introduction of nanotubes on the surface of polymeric composites reduces the fire hazard and toxic smoke and gases generation, which allows significant progress in fire retardant composites. Due to the high electrical conductivity of buckypaper, this new buckypaper-added polymeric composite material can also offer lightning strike protection and enhance EMI shielding properties of the composite structure, which is highly desired for aircrafts and ships structures.</p> <p><a data-id="6633" href="/media/3984/zhang2.pdf" title="zhang2.pdf">Download PDF Version</a> </p> <h2>Applications:</h2> <ul> <li>The primary applications of such materials are advanced composites which require good fire/smoke retardant properties, such as composite structures used on ships, aircraft, etc.</li> <li>Fire protection in aircraft where 40% of fatalities in impact-survivable accidents are due to fire, not impact</li> <li>Firewalls in virtually any structure</li> </ul> <h2>Advantages:</h2> <ul> <li>30-50 second delay in time to ignition</li> <li>50-60% reduction in toxic emissions and smoke upon combustion over the composite material to be protected</li> <li>Reduction in smoke can reduce fatalities caused by disorientation and inhalation</li> <li>Maintains the mechanical properties in the composite material to be protected</li> <li>Improved durability and adhesion over current fire retardant coatings</li> <li>Electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding properties</li> <li>Lightning protection</li> </ul>
Composite Materials Reinforced with Carbon Nanotube Yarns aka Fabricating Reinforced Transparent Composite by Using Carbon Nanotube Yarns Dr. Mei Zhang 11-055 Michael Tentnowski <p>This invention describes the fabrication of reinforced transparent composite by using the filler based on carbon nanotube (CNT) yarns. CNTs belong to a class of nanomaterial that has remarkable physical and mechanical properties. Their superlative mechanical properties make them the filler material of choice for composite reinforcement. However, it is difficult to uniformly disperse CNTs in matrix in high content or using long CNTs, hard to align CNTs in composite, and there is a weak interconnection between CNTs and matrix material. By using CNT yarns as filler, it overcomes the problems of CNT dispersion and alignment. The composite could have high mechanical properties and keep the transparency since CNTs in composite are well aligned and distributed as designed.</p> <p>This invention provides a solution for using CNTs to reinforce transparent materials, where the distribution, alignment, and content of CNTs are well controlled.</p> <p>The technology described has two main steps:</p> <ol> <li>Arranging CNT yarns into a desired pattern, and 2. embedding the pattern into the matrix material.</li> </ol> <p>The term "CNT yarn" is defined as a plurality of CNTs arranged to form a very-high aspect ratio, approximately cylindrical structure. The CNTs within the yarn are substantially parallel, in a local sense, to neighboring CNTs. The CNT yarns are a special assembly of CNTs. The CNT yarns could be made by solid-state process and wet process. The wet process involve disperse CNTs in solution and then spun into yarn (or called fiber). The solid-state processes are to assemble CNTs into yarn without solution.</p> <h2>Applications:</h2> <ul> <li>Reinforcing other materials, such as metals and ceramics with/without requirements to optical transparency</li> </ul>
A Method to Fabricate Highly Aligned Nanotube Buckypaper by Mechanically Stretching Thermoplastics /Buckypaper Composite Films Dr. Zhiyong (Richard) Liang 09-057 Michael Tentnowski <p>The present invention describes a method of creating lightweight efficient parabolic solar panels and a unique approach to realize improved alignment of nanotubes in buckypaper materials.</p> <p>This invention provides a new method to align carbon nanotubes in buckypapers by stretching thermoplastics/buckypaper films. Buckypaper is a thin film (approximately 20µm) of nanotube networks, which can be utilized in various products, such as composites, electronic devices and sensors. Since nanotubes are highly anisotropic in nature, the alignment of nanotubes in buckypaper is critical for achieving high mechanical performance and high electrical and thermal conductivity.</p> <h2>Applications:</h2> <ul> <li>This invention has an excellent potential for use in the mass production of high-performance nanotube and nanofiber-reinforced epoxy composites</li> <li>The significantly improved alignment is key factor toward realizing the potential of nanotubes for high mechanical, electrical and thermally conductive applications in composites and electronic devices</li> <li>The high-performance buckypaper nanocomposites can be used for EMI shielding, thermal management and structural materials applications</li> <li>Immediate applications include composite applications for aircraft and thermal management for electronic device package. High-performance buckypaper materials are also expected to be widely used to develop lightweight-conducting films and current-carrying materials for electronic products</li> </ul>
A Method of In-Situ Polymerization Functionalization of Nanotubes for Composite Applications Dr. Wang and Dr. Liang 08-096 Michael Tentnowski <p>This invention provides a novel technique to enhance carbon nanotube dispersion and interfacial bonding in epoxy-based nanotube nanocomposites through in-situ polymerization. The in-situ polymerization reaction grafts peroxide groups onto the surfaces of nanotubes and the functionalized carbon nanotubes or nanofibers react with epoxy resin during nanocomposites fabrication. This in-situ polymerization can lead to high-exfoliation and uniform dispersion of carbon nanotubes or nanofibers in the epoxy polymer matrix during modification of nanotube surface characters. Furthermore the in-situ reaction produces covalent bond between nanotubes or nanofibers and the epoxy polymer matrix during composite fabrication through drafted peroxide groups to substantially improve load-transfer between nanotubes and resin. The significantly improved dispersion and interface bonding considerably increase the load-transfer and acquire high performance.</p> <h2>Applications:</h2> <ul> <li>This invention has excellent potential for use in the mass production of high-performance nanotube and nanofiber reinforced epoxy composites for multifunctional applications, such as lightweight high-performance structural materials, electromagnetic interference, and thermal management materials, etc.</li> <li>Immediate applications include composite applications for aircraft, thermal management for electronic device package, etc. The yield rate using this method is almost I 00% and has the excellent potential for low cost mass production and scale-up.</li> </ul>
Solderless Joint Technology Dr. Thomas Painter 09-026 Michael Tentnowski <p>This is a simple, yet novel device that eliminates the need for any type of solder when joining two large cables. The Solderless Joint Technology will immediately save hundreds of thousands of dollars in manufacturing costs, as well as minimize the risk to the entire multi-million dollar superconducting magnet system. This device has been fabricated and tested by the team in the laboratory and has yielded amazing results.</p> <p>This invention eliminates the need for solder by placing wires in a compression box that seals them between a novel cradle of steel and copper. These cradles are compressed by a novel steel tool which sandwiches the wires under extreme pressure. The steel housing is then welded together and heat treated for over eight days. This creates a vacuum-like seal, similar to solder, yet cheaper, higher performing, and with a longer lifespan.</p> <p><a data-id="6110" href="/media/3832/painter2.pdf" title="Painter2.pdf">Download PDF Version</a> </p> <h2>Applications:</h2> <ul> <li>This device’s primary purpose is to form an electrical joint between two cable-in-conduit conductor wires, such as those typically used in superconducting magnets.</li> </ul> <p> </p> <h2>Advantages:</h2> <ul> <li>The fabrication technique is simple, inexpensive, quick, and is designed to last as long as the CICC wire itself.</li> <li>Minimal electrical resistance compared to its predecessor, which allows a magnet to retain more power.</li> <li>Eliminates the need for solder, which is messy and leaves gaps in the electrical seal.</li> <li>Eliminates the need to handle the magnet after it has been heat treated, which lowers the risk to the brittle multi-million dollar magnet.</li> <li>Unlike previous methods, this joint technology will not need to be frequently maintained or replaced over the life of the magnet.</li> </ul> <p>The present invention describes a method of fabrication for a low-resistance, vacuum-tight electrical connection for a cable-in-conduit-conductor (CICC) joint for use with a hybrid magnet. An elongate copper member is disposed in sandwiched relation between a first and second cable that are disposed in parallel, spaced apart relation to one another. A first elongate member is disposed in overlying relation to the first cable and a second elongate member is disposed in underlying relation to the second cable. All of the parts are positioned within a joint box, and the joint box is sandwiched between first and second flat plates that are interconnected to one another by elongate bolts. Tightening the bolts compresses the parts within the joint box. A heat treatment completes the solderless joint.</p> <h2>Advantages:</h2> <ul> <li>Provides the low electrical resistances required for CICC magnets which in turn increases operational margins or decreases the cost of cryogenic refrigeration</li> <li>Eliminates the need for vacuum leak-tight copper to stainless steel mechanical bonds, which reduces the operational risk of vacuum leak and costly remediation</li> <li>Eliminates the need for solder filling, which reduces the risk during fabrication of the expensive superconductor typically costing more than $1m</li> <li>Eliminates the need for post-heat treatment processing, which reduces the risk of handling the expensive superconductor in its brittle state and reduces fabrication costs by eliminating lengthy and problematic solder filling processes</li> </ul>
Pressure Sensors including an Ionic Conduction Sensing Mechanism Dr. Liu 08-132 Michael Tentnowski <p>The present invention describes thin film sensors for detecting the presence, intensity, and/or location of a compressive force, or pressure based on ionic conduction variation as the sensing principle. Upon wisely choosing soft materials-- elastomer-like polymer and polymeric gel electrolytes/polymer electrolytes in combination with appropriate patterning, the present invention offers low pressure level sensing and mapping capability with enhanced sensitivity. The sensor includes a plurality of conducting elements spaced apart from each other and at least one deformable electrolyte bridge contacting each of the conducting elements at one or more contact points having an aggregate contact area. Upon formation of an ionic circuit between two of the conducting elements, a first resistivity between the two conducting element exists. Upon application of a compressive force on the at least one deformable electrolyte bridge directed toward at least one of the conducting elements, the aggregate contact area increases such that a second resistivity between the two conducting elements exists. The difference between the first and second resistivity can be correlated with the pressure or mechanical displacement to be measured.</p> <h2>Applications:</h2> <ul> <li>This invention has numerous potential application in pressure sensing and mapping, e.g., seat occupancy detection for the automobile industry, tactile feedback for robots to sense and respond to environments, rehabilitation progress monitoring of a patient for the medical industry, biting force mapping in dentistry application, or measuring force on golf club grips.</li> </ul>
Carbon Nanotube and Polymeric Thin Film Assemblies for Pressure Sensing and Mapping Dr. Liang, Dr. Lu, Dr, Whang and Dr. Zhang 08-132 Michael Tentnowski <p>Pressure/force sensing technologies are used in a broad range of applications. Many pressure/force sensors are available, but thin film sensors are limited. Currently, the most common film pressure sensors are either resistive or capacitive, which are both reusable. This new technology utilizes the rupture of microcapsules filled with dyes for pressure sensing to create a disposable thin film mapping.</p> <p>The sensing assembly is composed of a top and bottom element. The top element is made of elastomer-like polymer with grooves that are filled with polymer gel electrolyte and the bottom is made of patterned conducting material thin film strips on top of flexible polymer film. When pressure is applied, a deformation of the material in the top element causes the gel to come in contact with the film strips, which creates an ionic-conducting path.</p> <p><a data-id="6119" href="/media/3841/liu2.pdf" title="Liu2.pdf">Download PDF Version</a> </p> <h2>Applications:</h2> <ul> <li>Seat occupancy detection in the automobile industry</li> <li>Tactile feedback for robots to sense and respond to environments</li> <li>Rehabilitation progress monitoring in the medical industry</li> <li>Bite force mapping in dentistry</li> <li>Measuring force of golf grips</li> </ul> <h2>Advantages:</h2> <ul> <li>Disposable</li> <li>Low percolation threshold</li> <li>Detects low levels of pressure sensing</li> <li>Utilizes ionic conduction as the major sensing mechanism</li> </ul>
Liposome Micro- and Nano-Arrays for Molecular Screens in Cell Culture Dr. Lenhert 11-191 Brent Edington <p>The proposed invention describes the use of surface supported liposome arrays as a platform for screening of molecular libraries in cell culture models. Drug candidates encapsulated into surface supported liposomes are arrayed on a surface to form lipid multilayer arrays. The surface has been functionalized to ensure liposome uptake by the cells. Cells are cultured on these arrays and their response to the liposomes are monitored optically. Multiple liposome compositions and different lipids or other additives printed onto the same surface can be simultaneously screened. The drugs that are and are not working can be determined by their position on the surface.</p> <p>Contrarily to actual small molecule microarrays for drug screening strategies our invention does not require to covalently attach to a surface, and cells can be grown on the surface. Covalent attachment of the small molecule on the surface prevents internalization of the compounds, limiting the types of tests that can be carried out. Furthermore, the number of molecules that a single cell can see is limited by the surface it contacts. Diffusion of small molecules from array sources, such as gels has also been used for screening, although molecular diffusion limits applicability of those methods. Using surface supported lipid multilayers encapsulating drug candidates solves these problems.</p> <h2>Applications:</h2> <ul> <li>Screening of delivery systems, particularly for lipophilic drug candidates</li> <li>Drug resistance cell screening, where cells from biopsies are cultured ex situ</li> </ul>
Drug and Protein Design System Based on Advanced Free Energy Simulation Algorithms Wei Yang 11-130 Garrett Edmunds <p>Free energy simulation algorithms are designed to solve problems in protein and drug design. This software is more accurate than any other method at predicting binding free energy changes upon the modifications of ligands to allow for more efficient, accurate, and reliable samples for pharmaceutical and bio-technology research.The proposed invention has demonstrated the ability to efficiently and accurately predict protein ligand interactions that have the potential to be effective drugs. </p> <p>The fundamentals of this algorithm are based on physical principles, various conformations of trial small molecules, or proteins are docked into the target proteins. Then binding affinity changes (scoring) are evaluated on each obtained docking mode. The combination of these two centerpieces in structure based rational drug/protein design can facilitate the drug discovery and protein engineering processes dramatically.</p> <p>This software has the potential to significantly reduce the time and cost of drug discovery by enabling unprecedented prediction accuracy within industry tractable computing resources and timescales.</p> <p><a data-id="6090" href="/media/3812/yang.pdf" title="Yang.pdf">Download PDF Version</a> </p> <h2>Applications:</h2> <p>This software will allow pharmaceutical and bio-technology companies to create new drugs and products with more efficiency and accuracy</p> <h2>Advantages:</h2> <ul> <li>Reduces cost and time spent discovering new medicines</li> <li>Helps identify lead ligands, the initial bottleneck step in research and development for new pharmaceuticals</li> </ul>
An Improved Form of Human Acidic Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF-1) Dr. Blaber 09-122 Brent Edignton <p>The creation of a mutant form of human acidic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-1) with improved stability and functional properties is a unique discovery with a very large potential target market. Angiogenesis therapy can be greatly enhanced by this new technology. The growth factor is formulated without heparin, which reduces cost and eliminates the potential for introducing other disease, such as BSE (Mad Cow Disease). Additionally, improvements in potency and functional half-life may significantly reduce the effective dosage</p> <p>This is a cutting-edge “hidden design” protein engineering technique to enhance protein function while minimizing immunogenic potential.</p> <p><a href="/media/3803/blaber2.pdf">Download PDF Version</a></p> <h2>Applications:</h2> <ul> <li>Can be injected at the site of a vascular blockage to cause the development of new vasculature to supply blood to previously hypoxic tissue</li> <li>Treatment of patients with coronary artery disease</li> <li>Therapy of ischemic limbs where there is a potential for both tissue and nerve regeneration</li> <li>Enhanced wound-healing</li> </ul> <h2>Advantages:</h2> <ul> <li>More stable, has a longer half-life, and is 100 times more reactive than wild-type FGF-1</li> <li>Because heparin is not used in the formulation, cost is reduced and safety is increased</li> <li>Less dosage is required than FGF-1</li> <li>Better controlled than FGF-1</li> <li>Patent protection (unlike wild-type FGF-1)</li> </ul>
Manufacturing of Superluminescent Light-Emitting Diodes with a Ternary Halide Perovskite/Polymer Composites Zhibin Yu 16-111 Michael Tentnowski <p>Halide perovskites have emerged as a new generation semiconducting materials for LED applications. A recent finding at the Flroida State University found by adding an ionic insulating polymer into the mixture of perovskite/ionic-conducting polymer the device can perform significantly better. The use of a ternary composite to replace the previously used binary composite can help optimize the morphology and crystallinity of the perovskite materials, which led to efficient charge injection and transportation in the composites.</p> <p>This invention allows LEDs to achieve a reach of 800,000 cd m-2, 40x higher than the previous record. These devices can also be switched on at 1.8V, 40 percent lower than the devices with a binary composite.</p>
Single Layer Emitting Diodes Using Organometal Halide Perovskite/Ionic- Conducting Polymer Composite Zhibin Yu 15-231 Michael Tentnowski <p>Organometal halide perovskite (Pero) materials have been recently intensively explored. They are ideal in forming optoelectronic devices due to their optical and electronic properties. For example, solar cells with a thin layer of methyl ammonium lead iodide have achieved about 20% power conversion efficiency, approaching the state-of-the-art performance of polycrystalline thin film solar cells. Pero materials also exhibit high photoluminescence yield and can be tuned to cover the visible spectrum, thus they are potentially valuable in light-emitting diodes (LEDs) for information displays and lighting luminaires.</p> <p>We have created single-layer LEDs using a composite thin film of Pero and poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO). In contrast to the multi-layer strategy, a simplified device structure is certainly advantageous in terms of processing flexibility and fabrication cost at the manufacturing stage. Our single-layer thin films are synthesized by a one-step spin coating process and have a device structure that resembles “bottom electrode (ITO)/Pero-PEO/top electrode (In/Ga or Au)”. In spite of the simple device structure, the green emission LEDs with methylammonium lead bromide (bromide-Pero) and PEO composite thin films exhibit a low turn-on voltage of ~2.8-3.1V (defined at 1 cd m<sup>-2 </sup>luminance), a maximum luminance of 4064 cd m<sup>-2</sup>  and a moderate maximum current efficiency of ~0.24-0.74 cd A<sup>-1</sup>. Such performance is on par with reported results in literature involving a more complex multi-layer device structure. Blue and red emissions LEDs have also been fabricated.</p>
Scalable Manufacturing of Carbon Nanotube Network-based Strain Sensors with Printed Electrodes Shu Li 14-029 Michael Tentnowski <p>FSU researchers have discovered a method that manufactures strain sensors based on carbon nanotube network sensing elements, printed microelectrodes, and flexible substrates.</p> <p>In one case, carbon nanotube network sheets are bonded to the substrate with epoxy resin, and electrodes are printed on top of the nanotube sheet. In another variant, electrodes are directly printed on top of the substrate, and the nanotube sheet is fixed atop across the printed electrodes. Type A and B sensors achieved positive and negative gauge factors up to 20 and 40 in magnitude. Both the positive and negative gauge factors are one order of magnitude higher than commercial strain gauge sensors. The high performance and flexible nature of the sensors, as well as the capability of scalable manufacturing processes, exhibits promising application potential.</p>
Mutants of Human Fibroblast Growth Factor Having Increased Stability and/or Mitogenic Potency Dr. Blaber 04-046 Brent Edington <p>Human fibroblast growth factor-1 (FGF-1) is a potent human mitogen for a variety of cell types, including vascular endothelial cells, and can stimulate such cells to develop neovasculature capable of relieving ischemia. For this reason, FGF-1 is an angiogenic factor with potential applicability in "angiogenic therapy."</p> <p>The present invention describes engineered mutant polypeptides of human fibroblast growth factor 1 (FGF-1) having improved thermal stability and/or improved mitogenic activity. In comparison to wild-type FGF1, polypeptides having mutations at positions 12 and 134 exhibit enhanced properties of stability and/or mitogenic activity. Enhanced stability may preclude the need for added heparin in formulations of FGF1 for therapeutic use. Additionally, the enhanced thermal stability may translate to a longer shelf-life and minimization of aggregation during storage. The enhanced mitogenicity, which is possibly related to enhanced stability, may provide for use of smaller dosages for equivalent efficacy.</p>
Mutant Polypeptides of Fibroblast Growth Factor 1 Dr. Blaber 07-055 Brent Edington <p>Human fibroblast growth factor-1 (FGF-1) is a potent human mitogen for a variety of cell types including vascular endothelial cells, and can stimulate such cells to develop neovasculature capable of relieving ischemia. For this reason, FGF-1 is an angiogenic factor with potential applicability in "angiogenic therapy”.</p> <p>The present inventions describe several mutant polypeptides of the β-trefoil protein human fibroblast growth factor-1 (FGF-1) which greatly exceed the wild-type polypeptide in ability to stimulate human fibroblasts to proliferate. The amino acid sequence of the FGF-1 mutants, as well as the methods of treating fibroblasts and of stimulating mitogenesis of the fibroblast leading to tissue healing are described. The purified polypeptides of the present invention exhibit from approximately fifteen to one thousand times more mitogenic activity than wild-type FGF-1 in stimulating fibroblasts to proliferate.</p> <p>These mutants of human FGF-1 with enhanced stability and mitogenic potency can be used as second generation forms of FGF-1 in angiogenic therapy. Enhanced stability may preclude the need for added heparin in the formulation of FGF-1 for therapeutic use. Additionally, the enhanced thermal stability may translate to longer shelf-life and minimization of aggregation during storage. The enhanced mitogenicity (possibly related to enhanced stability) may provide for smaller dosages for equivalent efficacy.</p>
A Convenient Design of Double Resonance MRI Coil Dr. Peter Gorkov 10-066 Michael Tentnowski <p>The present invention describes a four-ring birdcage coil having at least one moveable tuning ring for double resonance MRI. This apparatus includes a low-pass configuration in both channels so that the HF mode only requires a small capacitance for resonance. Therefore it enable easy modification of a single resonance coil into a double resonance coil by incorporation of non-contact coupling rings whose capacitive coupling with the rungs generates enough capacitance to introduce the high-frequency resonance mode. The coil also includes at least one moving ring for broad range tuning in the HF channel. The LF channel is adjusted by a variable capacitor that is not directly connected to the coil, thus the frequency adjustment on each channel is independent. The HF channel is connected to the input cable by coupling capacitor. The LF channel is connected to the input cable by coupling inductor. This alternating driving scheme provides sufficient channel isolation and obviates the need for an external isolation network.</p> <p>This invention enables the production of double resonance coil with simpler procedure but comparable performance. It can be used in multi-frequency Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Additionally, the technique of multi-frequency MRI can correlate the anatomical information obtained from proton density image with the chemical information obtained from heteronuclear image, thus provide deeper insight into the metabolic and pathogenic pathways.</p>
Analytical Method for Protein Mapping using Hydrogen Deuterium Exchange Dr. Emmett 06-103 Michael Tentnowski <p>The present invention describes analytical methods for protein and peptide mapping based on hydrogen/deuterium exchange (HDX) with reduced or eliminated back-exchange of deuterium for hydrogen. The methods include the steps of (a) providing a peptide or protein comprising a solvent accessible hydrogen; (b) exchanging the solvent accessible hydrogen for a deuterium; (c) separating the peptide or protein with supercritical fluid chromatography; and (d) analyzing by mass spectrometry the mass of the separated peptide or protein. Supercritical fluid chromatography enables the observation of fast exchanging hydrogen atoms missed using conventional liquid chromatography methods. Using supercritical fluid chromatography instead of high performance liquid chromatography allows the faster exchanging hydrogen atoms previously missed in HDX experiments to now be observable.</p> <p>The information obtained from analyzing the mass of the peptide or protein can be extremely useful in understanding protein confirmation, protein/protein interactions, and protein/ligand interactions as well as characterizing the folding pathway of proteins. This understanding can be used to build models on protein-ligand binding sites to be used in the pharmaceutical industry for intelligent drug design.</p>
Method and Apparatus for Making High Strength Metals with a Face Centered Cubic Structure Dr. Ke Han and Dr. Robert Walsh 10-205 Michael Tentnowski <p>The invention comprises a method and apparatus for strengthening metals while limiting the dynamic recovery phenomenon and maintaining ductility. More precisely, this invention provides a process for increasing the strength of pure copper and other face-centered cubic (fcc) matrix alloys while maintaining good ductility. A material sample is first subjected to equal channel angular pressing to produce an ultra fine grain ("UFG") structure. The UFG structure is then subjected to cryogenic drawing to reduce the cross-section and increase the strain density. Finally, the sample is subjected to cryogenic rolling to reduce its thickness.</p> <p>This method attains high strength through the stable accumulation of very high dislocation densities. The work hardening rate is changed by deforming the material under cryogenic conditions. The methodology can potentially be applied to many different materials which suffer dynamic recovery and consequent low strain hardening when deformed at room temperatures. The inventive method can also produce highly-aligned dislocations. If, as an example, the dislocations are aligned with the central axis of a copper wire, the dislocations will have a greatly-reduced effect on the wire's conductivity.</p>
Ceramic Electrical Insulation Coating on Bi2Sr2CaCu208-x Round Wire Hom Kandel 13-207 Michael Tentnowski <p>The present invention relates to an electrical insulation on Bi2Sr2CaCu208-x (Bi-2212) superconductor wire used in high field superconducting magnets. More specifically, it relates to a method for preparing suitable ceramic powder solvent suspension (slurry) and thereby applying thin ceramic coating on Bi-2212 superconducting wire by the dip coating process.</p> <h2>Advantages:</h2> <ul> <li>Excellent adherence before and after the heat treatment - HT</li> <li>Thickness ~11µm (before HT), ~7 µm (after HT); Break down voltage ~300V (after HT)</li> <li>No large cracks but presence of porosity provides pathways for oxygen getting into the wire</li> <li>No degradation in Ic values or superconducting properties</li> <li>Long length capability</li> <li>Al2O3 ceramic is another candidate for Bi-2212 insulation</li> </ul>
Determination of the Distribution of Corrosive and Non-Corrosive Sulfur in Petroleum and Its Fractions Ryan Rodgers 13-118 Michael Tentnowski <p>The distribution of corrosive and non-corrosive sulfur in petroleum and its fractions is accomplished by the separation of the relevant classes of sulfur compounds by ligand exchange chromatography combined with determination of sulfur content in the initial oil and its separated fractions by appropriate analytical measurements.</p> <p>Sulfur compounds in petroleum present in enormous variety of chemical structures. For the purposes of this invention, we define "'corrosive sulfur" as the organic sulfur that generates H2S under thermal stress. Research indicates that such compounds (mercaptans, alkyl sulfides, and disulfides) are corrosive in refinery stress at temperatures between 250-400"C (450-700'F). Thermally stable organosulfur compounds (thiophenes, thiophenols, and aryl sulfides where sulfur electrons are conjugated with the aromatic ring) are termed '"non-corrosive".</p> <p>In the invention, a cation exchange sorbent (either a silica or polymer-based phase) is converted to its Ag form and a sample is eluted into two fractions. The first solvent mixture elutes non-corrosive thiophenics and aryl sulfides while the second solvent mixture elutes sulfides and disulfides. Mercaptans (thiols) remain on the column but can be recovered through additional treatment. By analyzing the initial sample and the two fractions by appropriate S techniques, it is possible to calculate the distribution of total S into non-corrosive (thiophenic) and two corrosive types. The latter consists of corrosive sulfide/disulfides that elute in the second fraction the mercaptans (difference between the initial S and sum of the fractions). Thus, the invention provides a convenient methodology for quantifying the distribution of S-types in petroleum and its distillate fractions.</p> <p>The fractions generated by this cartridge separation are also suited for subsequent characterization of the isolated fractions by the sophisticated methods described above. It is equally obvious that this sequence of solvents can be incorporated in a HPLC separation without any need for back-flushing.</p> <p>Alternate solvent combinations and sorbents are being considered to broaden the scope. Several options are being pursued to determine the most appropriate method for sulfur analysis. The separation has been validated with model hydrocarbon and sulfur compounds as well as with GC/MS analysis of isolated fractions for a number of crude oils and distillate fractions. Once the appropriate S-technique(s) have been identified, additional samples will be analyzed to generate a wider database.</p>
Conjugation of Two Alkyne Molecules at High Efficiency Under Physiological Conditions Dr. Lei Zhu 12-236 Garrett Edmunds <p>The present technology describes a double-conjugation method in which two copper(l)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloadditions (CuAAC) reactions occur sequentially in a single reaction mixture without an intervening deprotection step or purification of intermediates. The sequential chemoselective ligation reactions are enabled by the different reactivities of chelating and non-chelating azido groups included in an unsymmetrical bisazide. These linkers can be used in combinatorial chemistry to cross-ligate alkyne molecules, in the modification of ethynyl-functionalized surface chemoselectively, and in extension, in the conjugation of three biomolecular fragments.</p> <p>This method affords an excellent regioselectivity while preserving the fast kinetics and large substrate scope of the CuAAC reaction. In addition to the reduced workload comparing to currently available bifunctional linkers, the disclosed products are relatively easy to prepare. The substrate scope is broad, and the chemistry proceeds well under a vast array of conditions, including physiological conditions.</p>
Optoelectric Switch and PV-effect from Dual Schottky Diodes in Ambipolar MoSe2 Field-Effect Transistors Luis Balicas 15-146 Michael Tentnowski <p>The present technology describes a light-induced diode-like response in multi-layered MoSe2 field-effect transistors. The sense of current rectification can be controlled by the back-gate voltage which is able to modulate the relative amplitude between both Schottky barriers at the electrical contacts. This effect corresponds to a new form of optoelectronic switch or gate that also yields a photovoltaic response. In addition, one can harvest photovoltaic currents from such devices based on transition metal dichalcogenides without requiring PN-junctions. In fact, research suggests that the photovoltaic efficiency can be increased by just increasing the relative asymmetry between both Schottky barriers in these field-effect transistors.  This new electro-optical effect, namely light induced diode behavior whose sense of current rectification is controllable by a gate voltage, produces a new type of optoelectronic switch having a potential for technological applications.</p>
Novel Coatings for Superconducting Magnet Superconducting Wires and Tapes Thomas Painter 15-225 Michael Tentnowski <p>The present technology employs electrically insulating coatings on the superconducting wire. The novel technology employs semiconducting or resistive coatings in lieu of insulating coatings which allows smaller, more compact, and less expensive electromagnets and also allows the opportunity to eliminate expensive and complicated quench protection systems. Resistive coatings mitigate delays in reaching full field during ramping and minimize eddy current losses in the superconducting magnet during field changes in comparison to no-insulation coatings.</p> <h2>Advantages:</h2> <ul> <li>Enable faster ramping times compared to no-insulation coils</li> <li>Resistive coatings mitigate delays in reaching full field during ramping and minimize eddy current losses during field changes</li> <li>Enable a more compact superconducting magnet which allows higher magnetic fields by reducing the amount of superconducting material required to achieve a given magnetic field and by reducing the ancillary system requirements for cryostats and refrigeration</li> <li>Enable the superconducting coil to be self-protected</li> </ul>
Fully Printable Halide Perovskite Light-Emitting Diodes Zhibin Yu 16-064 Michael Tentnowski <p>Organometal halide perovskites (Pero) have been well known for their astounding opto-electronic properties and in their utilizations in photovoltaic cells and light emitting diodes (LEDs). They are highly efficient, have low processing temperatures, and are cost effective. For Pero solar cells, the highest power conversion efficiency has reached about 20%, which approaches the best efficiencies of thin film solar cells. With continuing efforts to improve device efficiency and operational stability, the next challenge is to develop Pero solar cells and LEDs using a scalable printing technique to fulfill the promise of large scale, low cost devices.</p> <p>The present technology is first to develop printed Pero LEDs on rigid indium tin oxide (ITO)/glass and flexible carbon nanotubes (CNTs)/polymer substrates. The devices have ITO or CNTs as the transparent anode, a printed composite film consisting of methyl ammonium lead tri-bromide (Br-Pero) and polyethylene oxide (PEO) as the emissive layer, and printed silver nanowires as the cathode. The printing process can be carried out in air without any deliberate control of humidity; in fact, printing the PEO/Br-Pero in air actually improves its photoluminescence properties. The light intensity, turn-on voltage, and maximum luminescence compare favorably to existing Pero LEDs that are made of multi-layer structures which are formed by more complex fabrication techniques.</p> <p>For more information, please see publication <a rel="noopener noreferrer" href="" target="_blank">here</a>.</p> <h2>Applications:</h2> <ul> <li>Scalable manufacturing of Pero <span class="small">based</span> opto-electronic devices for various surfaces</li> </ul> <h2><span class="small"> </span></h2> <p> </p>
Novel Method for Producing Ultra Small Iron Oxide Particles Dr. Joseph Schlenoff 12-166 Garrett Edmunds <p>The proposed invention describes methods of producing, in one pot, iron oxide nanoparticles of total diameter less than 10 nm bearing a stabilizing shell of zwitterion and associated compositions. The synthesis of zwitterated iron oxide nanoparticles was achieved by a modified Massart method by the addition of sulfobetaine siloxane either post-synthesis or before co-precipitation of iron salts (in situ). The particles are precipitated in the presence of a zwitterion siloxane which caps the particles and stabilizes them as soon as they are made.</p> <p>This fine tuning finds mass applications in data storage, catalysis, and in biotechnology and medicine. Detection, cell sorting, and diagnosis using iron oxide nanoparticles have been reported. However, their potential use as contrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or as magnetic fluids for hyperthermia treatment continues to be the driving force for their miniaturization and surface chemistry manipulation. The particles obtained using this new method are super stable and small enough to be excreted so that they do not remain in circulation after the imaging is finished.</p>
Six-Membered N-Heterocyclic Carbine-Based Catalysts for Asymmetric Reactions Dr. David McQuade 10-020 Garrett Edmunds <p>The present invention relates to the field of asymmetrical catalysts used for transition formations in a wide variety of organic synthesis reactions.</p> <p>The catalyst is a N-heterocyclic carbine (NHC) having three fused rings with first and second rings being six-membered rings and the third being a five-membered ring. The first ring is fused to the second and has four substituents. The second ring has two nitrogens flanking a carbine atom with one nitrogen bound to a substituent. The carbene atom may optionally be bonded to a metal. The third ring is fused to the second ring and contains two nitrogens. The third ring of the catalyst has a double bond and two substituents on adjacent non-fused carbons. A non-fused nitrogen of the third ring is partially bonded to another substituent. Methods for the synthesis and use of the catalyst embodiments of the present invention are also provided.</p> <p>The new 6-NHC ligand and ligand-metal catalyst discovered and designed in this invention are relatively easy to prepare and shows excellent activity and enantioselectivity, for use in a variety of organic reactions.</p>
The Lookahead Instruction Fetch Engine (LIFE) Dr. David Whalley 08-033 Michael Tentnowski <p>The Lookahead Instruction Fetch Engine (LIFE) provides a mechanism to guarantee instruction fetch behavior in order to avoid access to fetch-associated structures, including the level one instruction cache (Ll IC), instruction translation look aside buffer (ITLB), branch predictor (BP), branch target buffer (BTB), and return address stack (RAS). Systems and methods may be provided for lookahead instruction fetching for processors. The systems and methods may include an L1 instruction cache, where the L1 instruction cache may include a plurality of lines of data, where each line of data may include one or more instructions. The systems and methods may also include a tagless hit instruction cache, where the tagless hit instruction cache may store a subset of the lines of data in the L1 instruction cache, where instructions in the lines of data stored in the tagless hit instruction cache may be stored with metadata indicative of whether a next instruction is guaranteed to reside in the tagless hit instruction cache, where an instruction fetcher may be arranged to have direct access to the L1 instruction cache and the tagless hit instruction cache, and where the tagless hit instruction cache may be arranged to have direct access to the L1 instruction cache.</p> <p>LIFE can both reduce energy consumption and power requirements with no or negligible impact on application execution times. It can be used to reduce energy consumption in embedded processors to extend battery life. It can be used to decrease power requirements of general purpose processors to help address heat issues. LIFE, unlike most energy saving features, does not come at the cost of increased execution time. It will result in a significant improvement over the state of the art and will extend the life of batteries making mobile computing more practical. Finally, it will allow general-purpose processors to run at a faster clock rate with similar heat being generated.</p>
A New Organic Synthetic Route which Opens Access to a Variety of Graphene Substructures Dr. Igor Alabugin 12-027 Garrett Edmunds <p>Several approaches to graphene nanoribbons exist in the literature. However, in all of them the central part of the molecule is built first and then additional rings are added at the periphery via electrophile induced cyclization or oxidative cyclodehydrogenation. These methods are difficult to apply to the preparation of non-symmetric graphene nanostructures.</p> <p>Our approach utilizes a different class of starting materials and different chemistry for the formation of six-membered cycles. In our innovative approach, ortho polyyne chains of varying sizes, equipped with different functionalities, are built in a modular fashion using well-characterized and reliable cross-coupling chemistry. In the key step, these systems are then "zipped" up via an efficient cascade of fast and selective radical cyclizations. The selectivity of transformation is achieved via incorporation of a "weak link" - a chemically different functional group which can undergo transformation into a radical center in the presence of multiple alkynes.</p> <p>Since modular assembly allows each of the peripheral groups to be unique, it will allow preparation of graphene substructures with custom shapes and functionalities.</p>
Method to Identify the Molecular Structure of Large Biomolecules via IM/MS Christian Bleiholder, Ph.D. 17-008 Garrett Edmunds <p>This method uses data derived from Ion Mobility-Mass Spectroscopy (IM/MS) to computationally decipher molecular structures of proteins, protein assemblies, and protein-small molecules interactions.</p> <p><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><strong>Advantages</strong></span></p> <ul> <li>Enables high-throughput large-scale systematic fragment-based drug discovery</li> <li>Requires a fraction of the sample amounts and time</li> <li>Uses systems already available to most pharmaceutical and therapeutics companies.</li> </ul> <p><strong><span style="text-decoration: underline;">Introduction and Applications</span></strong></p> <p>This technology has the potential to revolutionize the field of drug discovery, especially fragment-based drug discovery, by elucidating the molecular structure of biomolecules and any bound ligands with high fidelity. </p> <p>Currently, structural characterization in drug discovery is often undertaken with techniques such as x-ray crystallography, nuclear magnetic resonance, or cryo-EM. These traditional methods require significant sample amounts, purified samples, and are poorly suited for high-throughput screening assays. Further, many potentail targets are not amenable to structural characterization by these methods, including, for example, the soluble protein assemblies implicated as toxic agents in Alzheimer's or Parkinson's diseases.</p> <p>In contrast, the current method exhibits sufficient sensitivity, sample-throughput, and dynamic range to enable the high-throughput, large-scale systemic screening of small molecule-target interactions. Additionally, the samples can be studied in a manner that more closely mimics their natural conditions, including flexible branches and glycan moieties that other methods often miss.</p> <p><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><strong>The Technology</strong></span></p> <p>The biomolecules of interest are analyzed in a few minutes via IM/MS. The output is then analyzed computationally, providing structural characterization. The program can be modified to work with in-house supercomputers or with cloud-based computing services, such as Amazon's AWS.</p> <p> </p> <p><span>Click here to watch an interview with Dr. Bleiholder: <span class="fa fa-caret-square-o-right"></span><span class="fa fa-blind"></span><span class="fa fa-check-circle"></span><span class="fa fa-hand-o-right"></span><a href=""></a></span></p> Drug discovery,fragment based drug discovery,computational chemistry
Controlling the Architecture, Coordination and Reactivity of Nanoparticle Coating Starting from an Aminoacid Precursor Hedi Mattoussi 16-065 Garrett Edmunds <p><span>We have developed a versatile strategy to prepare a series of multi-coordinating and multifunctional ligands optimized for the surface-functionalization of luminescent quantum dots (DGs) and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) alike. Our two new sets of multi-dentate ligands can promote the dispersion of both QDs and gold nanoparticles in buffer media with colloidal stability over a broad range of conditions, while conferring compactness and biocompatibility. </span></p> <p><span>The present synthetic scheme starts from L-aspartic acid to develop a versatile platform that allows the controllable coupling of one or more LA groups, one or more polyethylene glycol (PEG) moieties, along with terminal reactive groups, yielding a series of molecular-scale ligands with various architectures and selective reactivity. By attaching various combinations of lipoic acid and PEG chains on the aspartic acid, via peptide coupling chemistry, we have prepared a series of reactive ligands presenting either one PEG chain appended with multiple lipoic acid, or multiple PEG chains attached onto one lipoic acid. </span></p> <h2>Advantages:</h2> <ul> <li><span>Offers a simpler version for preparing bis(LA-appended ligands compared to the Michael addition reaction we have previously employed </span></li> <li><span>Provides high reaction efficiency at each reaction step, the ligand synthesis can be easily scaled up and various functional groups can be attached easily </span></li> <li><span>Ligands are fully compatible with a mild photoligation strategy to promote the in-situ ligand exchange and phase transfer of hydrophobic QDs to buffer media</span></li> </ul>
Method for Real-Time Probabilistic Inference with Bayesian Network on GPGPU Devices Robert Van Engelen 17-013 Michael Tentnowski <p>General Purpose Graphics Processing Unit (GPGPU) devices are used in most PCs for graphics, popular for high-performance computing, and relatively inexpensive. However, algorithms must be specifically designed for these devices.</p> <p>The proposed invention consists of a process and a method for efficient probabilistic inference with Bayesian probabilistic networks on GPGPU devices. Bayesian probabilistic networks are widely used for modeling probability beliefs in computational biology and bioinformatics, healthcare, document classification, information retrieval, data fusion, decision support systems, security and law enforcement, betting/gaming and risk analysis.</p> <p> The invention consists of:</p> <ol> <li>A novel “parallel irregular wavefront process” for importance sampling with Bayesian probabilistic networks, such that this process is tailored to the specific FPFPU device being used</li> <li>A novel method to structure the Bayesian probabilistic network in GPGPU local memories to ensure optimal data access.</li> </ol> <p>This invention increases the efficiency of probabilistic inference with Bayesian probabilistic networks on GPCPU devices. This is achieved by the specialized organization of data in the memory of these devices and by the optimized parallel process to produce results faster. The efficiency and performance increases commensurate with increasingly larger Bayesian probabilistic networks, i.e. the approach scales favorably with larger networks thereby making real-time probabilistic inference possible on large data sets and realistic applications.  </p>
CNN Filters for Noise Estimation and Improved Denoising in Low-Light Noisy Images Adrian Barbu 17-019 Garrett Edmunds <p>The proposed invention is a system and method for training a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) to predict a tuning parameter to be used in an existing image denoising method (called BM3D) to obtain best possible denoising results on images obtained by digital cameras in low-light conditions. The performance of the BM3D denoising algorithm varies with this tuning parameter.</p> <p>In this work we present a method to predict the best parameter value for each image patch and we observe that using this prediction we obtain better results than using a fixed parameter value for all images.</p> <p>There are many image denoising methods available today. However, they are trained and tested on artificial noise. According to our observations, when it comes to images corrupted by real low light noise the BM3D method works best. Our work takes the BM3D method and enhances it by predicting what its tuning parameter should be for each image patch being denoised.</p> <p>This technology could be directly sold to consumers in the form of an app or embedded in a mobile phone or digital camera.</p> <p> </p>
A Reinforced Composite Bi2212 Superconductor using an Embedded Internal Oxygen Source Dr. Thomas Painter 09-165 Michael Tentnowski <p>The present invention comprises a method for making a composite superconductor and a superconductor.</p> <p>Superconducting filaments (using a material such as Bi2212) are embedded in a silver-containing matrix material (which may be substantially pure silver). Oxygen-containing filaments are also embedded in the matrix material with the oxygen containing filaments preferably being dispersed evenly among the Bi2212 wire. A surrounding reinforcement material contains the other elements and preferably seals the superconductor from the surrounding atmosphere. The composite superconductor is created using any suitable process, such as passing the constituents through one or more drawing dies. Once the materials are bonded together, the composite superconductor is subjected to one or more heat treatment processes. The oxygen within the oxygen-containing filaments reacts with the Bi2212 to form desired superconducting materials.</p>
Method of Large Scale Fabrication of High CNT Content Composites with High Mechanical and Electrical Performance Dr. Zhiyong (Richard) Liang 18-020 Michael Tentnowski <p>Carbon nanotubes are ideal for polymer matrix composites due to their mechanical and electrical properties. However, to date, the overall properties of CNT-polymer composites have not reached their full potential due to poor dispersion and low concentrations of CNTs. Our new scalable process yields high-CNT content (60 wt%) polymer composites using a simple, three-step process:</p> <ol> <li>A filament winding process that allows for control of CNT orientation and overall composite thickness.</li> <li>A mechanical stretching process that has shown improved CNT alignment and overall composite properties.</li> <li>A curing process under tension that further stretches and aligns the CNTs in the stress direction.</li> </ol> <p>These improved polymer composites are ideal for defense applications and deep space exploration.</p>
Improved Thermoelectric Materials and Devices Dr. Theo Siegrist 18-057 Michael Tentnowski <p>Thermoelectric refrigeration requires no moving parts nor circulating liquid. Thus, it is the most stable form of refrigeration as it is invulnerable to leaks and can be designed to fit applications of various shapes and sizes. Compared with current refrigeration methods, thermoelectric refrigeration is much more economically efficient and environmentally friendly. Ultra-low temperature cooling, in particular, requires critical conditions and is costly due to the price of liquid Helium. Therefore, companies, universities, research institutes would benefit from thermoelectric refrigeration.</p> <p>Florida State University has synthesized heavy-fermion compounds with power values that are orders of magnitude larger than that of most competitive and well known thermoelectric materials. Thus, a new generation of thermoelectric devices are now possible for use in satellites and spacecraft or cryogenic cooling at temperatures below liquid nitrogen.</p>
Novel Material and Manufacturing Method of Three-Dimensional Multi-Reinforced Composites Dr. Cheryl Xu 15-010 Brittany Ferraro <p>Fiber reinforced composites are desirable for structural applications because long fibers, such as carbon fibers, can help prevent brittle failure in structural materials. Fiber reinforced composites are limited by relatively low strength and toughness and lack of thermal/ electrical transport functionality. 3D fiber-reinforced composites made of carbon nanotubes are commonly created using chemical vapor deposition to grow nanotubes and fibers. The method of chemical vapor deposition can damage the strength and structure of carbon nanotubes, deteriorating desirable properties. There is a need for stronger fiber reinforced composites and a new method to create these composites that will not affect the structure.  </p> <p>Dr. Cheryl Xu developed a novel 3D composite with improved mechanical strength and thermal and electrical properties with an easy manufacturing process. These novel composites are made up of one or multiple sheets with carbon fibers woven in orthogonal direction bundles with carbon nanotubes embedded within the pores between the bundles. The composites demonstrate a remarkable improvement to mechanical strength and thermal and electrical conductivities when compared to composites created using chemical vapor deposition. The novel method to create this fiber reinforced composite does not involve any chemical reaction, and therefore does not affect the structural integrity. The manufacturing method is low cost and materializes 3D composite structures without altering the long fiber sheet.</p> <p><strong>Advantages</strong></p> <ul> <li>Improved mechanical strength</li> <li>Increased thermal and electrical conductivities</li> <li>Low cost manufacturing method</li> <li>Does not involve any chemical reaction</li> <li>Creates 3D sheets without altering the long fiber sheet</li> </ul> nanoparticle,nanoparticle sheet,3D nanofiber,nanofiber,composite,fabrication
Formation of Wear-Resistant Nanocomposite Layer on Aluminum Dr. Cheryl Xu 15-145 Garrett Edmunds <p>In structural applications where surface contact is involved the performance and useful life of suitable materials are mainly determined by their surface properties such as wear resistance and hardness. Aluminum-based materials are attractive for these types of structural applications in the aerospace, military, and transportation industries due to their light weight, high strength-to-weight ratio, and good corrosion resistance. However, the applications for aluminum-based materials are significantly limited, due to their poor surface properties, such as poor wear resistance which is evidenced as severe adhesive wear. Other materials, such as magnesium and titanium, also suffer from poor wear resistance, and therefore, applications with these materials are similarly limited.</p> <p>Al<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub>-Al composites containing a relatively high concentration of Al<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3 </sub>nanoparticles have been found to exhibit superior wear resistance by showing both significantly lower wear rates and desired abrasive wear. However, direct usage of these bulk nanocomposites is limited because of the resulting reduction in ductility and thermal conductivity. Furthermore, bulk processing typically used to manufacture Al<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub>-Al composites is time and energy intensive. There is a need for improved nanoparticle-reinforced composites that provide a hard, strong, wear-resistant surface while maintaining the ductility and thermal conductivity of the substrate material that, by itself, otherwise has poor surface properties.</p> <p>Dr. Cheryl Xu invented a method of surface enhancement that binds a hard wearable surface and ductile metal substrate without introducing an interface between them. The interface between these layers is often very weak. Dr. Xu’s method solves this problem and creates composites with strengthened wear resistance and surface hardness. This is accomplished while maintaining good ductility and thermal conductivity.</p> <p><strong>Advantages</strong></p> <ul> <li>Efficient manufacturing</li> <li>Eliminates de-bonding inherent in other surface coating techniques</li> <li>Easily applied to selected areas</li> <li>Low cost</li> <li>Process can be applied to non-flat surfaces</li> <li>Strengthened wear resistance and surface hardness while maintaining good ductility and thermal conductivity</li> </ul> nanoparticle,water-resistant,nanofiber,composite,coating,manufacture,manufacture method,process
Hypergeometric Solutions of Second Order Linear Differential Equations Dr. Mark van Hoeij 19-008 Brent Edington <p>Researchers, scientists, and engineers across a wide range of fields of expertise depend on computer algebra systems to solve complex equations such as linear differential or difference equations. Solutions to these equations cannot often be expressed by a closed-form expression. Functions are in closed form if they are written in terms of commonly used functions such as exp and log. Using computer systems to solve equations that cannot be expressed by a closed-form expression leads to an error or no solution being found. This can lead one to believe that there is no solution to the equation, even if this is not the case.</p> <p>Dr. Mark van Hoeij has extensively research unsolvable equations such as second order linear differential equations. He has created a novel algorithm to find closed form solutions to previously unsolvable equations. This state of the art algorithm can be implemented into current computer algebra systems.</p> <h2><strong>Advantages</strong></h2> <ul> <li>State of the art algorithm to find solutions not readily available</li> </ul> <ul> <li>Easily integrated with current software</li> </ul> mathematics,software,analytics,analytical software,algebra,computer system,code
Cessation of Smoking System Brigitta Nuccio & Andree Aubrey 18-055 Brent Edington <p>This cessation of smoking method is an evidence-based curriculum for delivering both group and individual cessation interventions. It can be used cost-effectively in community based programs and across multiple components of a health system including primary and specialty clinics, behavioral health programs, and hospitals.</p> <p>The participant workbook contains six sessions or modules and serves as a guide to the tobacco cessation process. The workbook walks participants through the critical steps of making a quit attempt and addresses physical addiction to nicotine, psychological dependence, behavioral habit, and social/cultural influences. In the workbook participants will complete motivational activities, document a specific quit date, outline their quit strategies and have additional information for reference that may not get covered in the counseling sessions. Even participants who attend only one session may use the workbook to make an independent quit attempt. The workbook is designed in a way that it can be used for independent study if a tobacco user wants to quit but is not interested in attending a group. </p>
Anti-Flavivirus Compounds for Zika Virus and Dengue Virus Infections Hengli Tang 19-003 Brent Edington <p>Zika virus, a mosquito-borne flavivirus, has recently re-emerged and spread across the Western Hemisphere after it had remained in relative obscurity for many years. Zika virial infection causes many of the same symptoms caused by dengue viruses or chikungunya virus. Unlike these viruses Zika virus causes congenital defects, including microcephaly, and is also associated with Guillain-Barre syndrome in infected adults.</p> <p>Through a combination of computational modeling and screening, a portfolio of 19 compounds has been identified which have antiviral activity against Zika virus. In some cases, these drugs have activity against Zika virus and dengue viral infections. These compounds may be used in new therapies for the treatment of infection with flaviviruses, such as Zika virus and dengue virus.</p>
Monoclonal Antibodies Targeting Zika Viris Envelope Proteins Hengli Tang 17-037 Brent Edington <p> </p> <p>Due to the nascent nature of Zika Virus research reagents specific for the Zika Virus such as monoclonal antibodies are not widely available. FSU researchers have produced monoclonal antibodies to the Zika virus. These monoclonal antibodies are targeted to the envelope proteins NS1 and NS5. They enable detection of Zika infection, development of diagnostics, and can also be used as control reagents in research.</p>
Inhibiting Neuroinflammation Due to a Brain Injury with D-Serine Sanjay Kumar 19-037 Brent Edington <p>D-serine is an antagonist of GluN2 containing triheteromeric NMDA receptors found in the temporal lobe of the brain. It has been shown that D-serine may be used to treat neurological disorders, such as epilepsy, that cause seizures.</p> <p>Unexpectedly, it was recently discovered that D-serine inhibits neuroinflammation of brain cells after a brain injury by reducing the neurotoxic immune response of glial cells after the injury. Accordingly, D-serine may be used in the treatment of brain injuries to help prevent neural cell loss caused by harmful immune responses. Following brain injury an immune response is triggered and immune cells are directed to and sequestered to the site of injury. These immune cells release cytokines that exasperate the survivability of healthy neurons. Application of D-serine stopes the infiltration of these immune response cells to the site of injury, thereby preventing loss of healthy neurons by reducing the neuroinflammation response.</p>
Inhibition of Vascular Endothelial Cell-Mediated Phagocytic Processes for Treatment of Demyelinating Conditions Yen Ri 19-006 Brent Edington <p>The present invention concerns a method for treating a demyelinating condition by administering an agent that inhibits vascular endothelial cell phagocytosis. The method of the invention is useful in treating demyelinating conditions associated with an injury such as a spinal cord injury or traumatic brain injury as well as other demyelinating conditions such as multiple sclerosis.</p> <p>The inventor has established a previously unidentified role for microvascular endothelial cells (EC) which have been shown to engulf and clear myelin debris in spinal cord injury and multiple sclerosis animal model systems. The inventor also discovered a novel pathway for myelin debris degradation through the autophagy-lysosome system. Importantly, the inventor demonstrated for the first time that microvascular EC uptake exerts critical functions beyond myelin debris clearance. Engulfment and autophagic processing of myelin debris by microvascular ECs have sequential consequences in promoting chronic inflammation and pathological healing (angiogenesis and fibrotic scar formation) during the progression of demyelinating disorders. Therefore, this research reveals how myelin debris engulfment and processing by microvascular ECs contribute to pathological progression in demyelinating disorders.</p>
Stabilized Nanoabrasive Suspensions for Chemical Mechanical Planarization Dr. Joseph Schlenoff 07-064 Garrett Edmunds <p>With modern advancements in the integrated circuit industry, Chemical Mechanilcal Planarization (CMP) has been widely adopted for high-precision fabrication processes. CMP creates a nearly-perfect flat surface on a silicon wafer by using mechanical polishing and a chemical slurry to remove unwanted conductive and dielectric materials. </p> <p>Two chief problems commonly faced by users of CMP are the tendency of the nanoparticles within the chemical slurry to agglomerate and the adherence of these particles to the surface of the wafer. Dr. Schlenoff has developed a silica nanoparticle with a modified surface that is well suited for these challenges. Importantly, these abrasive nanoparticles form stable suspensions. They resist aggregation or agglomeration without the need for surfactant additives and the additional steps required to remove the resulting residue. Additionally, they demonstrate minimal adhesion to the wafer surface.</p> <p><a href="" title="2x910 / CC BY-SA ("><img src="" alt="Si wafer" width="512" /></a></p>
Anti-fibrotic Drugs Targeting Synthesis of Type 1 Collagen Branko Stefanovi 10-042, 12-047, 17-024, 19-034, and 20-047 Brent Edington <p>Fibrosis affects 45% of the population in the USA. It is characterized by excessive synthesis of type 1 collagen and scarring of various organs. This leads to organ insufficiency and death. The process is chronic and progressive and there are no approved drugs that can inhibit collagen synthesis. Aspects of the regulation of type 1 collagen production have been delineated and a drug screening procedure based on disruption of the regulatory pathway has been devised. Using this screening procedure a library of chemicals compounds has been screened and nine compounds that can inhibit collagen synthesis in cultured cells between 50-90% have been found.</p> <p>This is a completely novel approach to finding antifibrotic drugs. If these compounds prove to be effective in humans, they will be the first chemicals that can directly inhibit collagen production. Since there is no cure for fibrosis, they may represent the first specific antifibrotic drugs.</p> <p>This technology consists of two novel assay systems and three potential antifibrosis drugs.</p>
Detection of Shiga Toxin Producing Escherichia Coli Serogroups Prashant Singh 20-032 Brent Edington <p>Shiga toxin-producing <em>Escherichia coli</em> (STEC) are foodborne pathogens of great concern. In the United States, <em>E. coli</em> O157:H7 and virulent strains of the top six non-O157 STEC serogroups (i.e. O26, O45, O103, O111, O121 and O145) are considered adulterants in non-intact beef and are implicated in major foodborne outbreaks and recalls.</p> <p>One of the major limitations of official test methods and other commercially available STEC detection assays is their inability to distinguish virulent (disease-causing) strains of <em>E. coli</em> serogroups (i.e. O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, O157 and O145) from avirulent strains, which are more frequently found in beef samples<em>.</em> The USDA-FSIS tested 18,339 beef samples between 2014 and 2020, of which, 1,008 samples tested positive for STEC serogroup screening. However, STEC was confirmed only in 114 samples out of these 1,008 positive samples. The difference of 894 samples (or 89%) that could not be confirmed was most likely due to the detection of interfering avirulent strain of <em>E. coli</em> STEC serogroups by the commercially available assays.</p> <p>These high positive test results due to the presence of avirulent strains result in product hold up for further investigation and causes safe wholesome meat to be diverted to either thermal treatment steps to destroy the pathogen or forces the establishment to dispose the product. This high false positive rate of commercially available STEC screening methods results in an annual loss of approximately $47 million for the beef industry. Further, this high false positive rate reduces the accuracy of testing laboratories while also increasing their workload.</p> <p>The present invention is a real-time PCR high resolution melt assay system which can detect four of the STEC serogroups (i.e. O36, O111, O103, and O121). This assay system allows detection of four of the most significant meat foodborne pathogens, saving consumers from illness and the meat industry from significant unnecessary loss.</p>
Treatment of Human Coronavirus Infections using Alpha Glucosidase Glycoprotein Processing Inhibitors Eric Holmes & Gary Ostrander 20-037 Brent Edington <p>Coronaviruses cause illness in adults and children ranging from the common cold to more severe diseases. Common signs of infection include respiratory symptoms, fever, cough, shortness of breath and breathing difficulties. In more severe cases, coronavirus infection can cause pneumonia, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), kidney failure, and even death.</p> <p>Coronaviruses are zoonotic, meaning they are transmitted between animals and humans. Several known coronaviruses are circulating in animals that have not yet infected humans. A novel coronavirus (nCo V) is a new strain that has not been previously identified in humans. There are currently no vaccines or antiviral drugs to prevent or treat human coronavirus infections.</p> <p>The present invention concerns the use of alpha-glucosidase glycoprotein processing inhibitors for the treatment or prevention of human coronavirus infections.</p> <p> </p>
Niclosamide Formulations and Methods of Use Eric Holmes & Gary Ostrander 20-051 Brent Edington <p>Niclosamide is widely used as an oral medication for various tapeworm infections and has also been shown to be effective inhibitor of viral replication and infection.  The invention involves a  Niclosamide formulation utilizing permeability enhancers used to increase the amount of Niclosamide capable of being taken up by cells. The Niclosamide formulation has been shown to increase cellular uptake by as much as 150%. This Niclosamide formulation may be used to enhance delivery of Niclosamide in the treatment of human coronavirus or flavivirus infections.</p>
Selective Treatment of Cancers Having Histone H3 Mutations and Aberrant Levels of DNA or Histone Methylation or Acetylation, or Defects in Homologous Recombination Akash Gunjan 16-092 Brent Edington <p>Mutations in the DNA packaging and regulatory protein histone H3 and its primary sequence variants drive specific types of predominantly pediatric cancers, including the 10 incurable high-grade brain stem gliomas known as Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Gliomas (DIPG). Up to 90% of DIPG tumors carry the lysine 27 to methionine (K27M) mutation in histone H3 variants, usually the histone H3.3 variant.  H3 K27M mutant high-grade pediatric gliomas such as DIPG do not currently have any approved therapies and are 100% fatal. The present invention is a therapeutic approach which targets specific molecular pathways that are aberrant only in the mutant tumor cells but not the wild type cells, i.e., a therapy in which only the H3 mutant tumor cells would be eliminated specifically, while the normal cells carrying wild type H3 would be largely spared.</p> <p>This targeted approach can be pursued is a few different ways that are the focus of this invention.  </p> <p> </p>
Flexible and Eco-Friendly X-ray Scintillators Dr. Biwu Ma 20-031 Garrett Edmunds <p>Dr. Ma has recently developed highly efficient X-ray scintillators with state-of-the-art performance based on organic metal halide hybrids, which could be prepared using a facile solution growth method at room temperature to form inch-sized single crystals. These organic-inorganic hybrid materials with a zero-dimensional<br />(0D) structure at the molecular level exhibit tunable emissions in the visible spectrum region with high photoluminescence quantum efficiencies (PLQEs) of up to 100%. X-ray imaging tests have showed that scintillators based on powders could provide an excellent visualization tool for X-ray radiography, and<br />flexible scintillators could be fabricated by blending powders with polymer matrix, such as polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). </p> <p>These X-ray scintillators have numerous advantages over currently-used materials:</p> <ol> <li>The scintillation materials are low cost (~ 1/10 of commercially available products), i.e. room<br />temperature facile synthesis using abundant low cost raw materials;</li> <li>The scintillation materials are eco-friendly materials, i.e. lead-free, heavy metal-free;</li> <li>The X-ray scintillation characteristics are exceptional, i.e. higher light yields than most of the<br />conventional commercially available scintillation materials;</li> <li>It is straightforward to integrate scintillation materials with polymer matrices to make flexible X-ray material</li> </ol>
Lignin-based Biodegradable Plastic Dr. Hoyong Chung 20-006 Garrett Edmunds <p>Researchers at Florida State University have developed a cost-effective and non-polluting biodegradable polymer as an attractive alternative for current petroleum-based plastics. The material is prepared from cheap and naturally degradable biomass lignin and castor oil-based substances. After several years of use, the resulting degradation end products are environmentally non-toxic. The polymer can be used on its own or blended with other resins to achieve improved, tailor-made features.<br /><br />This material can be used as a replacement for petroleum-based plastics, including:<br />• Bottles<br />• Shopping bags<br />• Fishing nets<br />• Straws<br />• Multi-pack beverage rings</p> <p><strong>Advantages</strong><br />Compared to petroleum-based plastics:<br />• Biomass-based<br />• Biodegradable<br />• Sustainable</p> <p>Compared to other biodegradable plastics such as PLA and PHB:<br />• Biomass source – castor oil and lignin – is not food-based and not subject to global pressures<br />• Recyclable<br />• Low-cost<br />• Can be readily incorporated into existing conventional processes and machinery<br />• Tough, strong, and easily tunable<br />• Totally synthetic manufacturing process</p> Bioplastic,Bioresin,Biodegradable,Green Material,Plastic,Lignin,Castor Oil
Anhydrous Polyelectrolyte Drying Agents Dr. Joseph Schlenoff 21-026 Garrett Edmunds <p>Dr. Schlenoff has developed "Thirsty Saloplastics", polyelectrolyte complexes that efficiently dry solvents down to the parts-per-million level. Many small-scale and industrial-scale processes require the use of solvents or gases absent of water, as "wet" or "humid" reagents may produce undesirable reactions or may even be corrosive. There is a need for drying agents which absorb even trace amounts of water, can be reactivated at low temperatures for re-use, and have high water capacity. Dr. Schlenoff's polyelectrolyte complexes (PECs) dries solvents at a level comparable to commercially available adsorbents and are non-toxic and easy to produce. PECs are prepared by mixing solutions of positive and negative polyelectrolytes; the resulting powder can be readily extruded to form a tougher more efficient material.</p> <ul> <li>When compared to other drying agents, PEC: <ul> <li>has the lowest activation temperature at 120 <span>°C</span></li> <li>released the least amount of dust after drying</li> <li>has the highest water capacity at about 40 wt%</li> </ul> </li> <li>PECs are thermally stable and non-toxic</li> <li>The drying efficiency of PECs increases with decreasing solvent polarity and works best in non-polar solvents <ul> <li>However, even polar solvents were dried to sub-PPM levels after sufficient time has passed</li> </ul> </li> </ul> Desiccant,Adsorbent,anyhydrous,saloplastic
Wave Propagation Wheel Phil Gleason 16-051 Brent Edington <p>The Wave Propagation Wheel produces an aesthetically pleasing visual and auditory artistic feature to enhance the comfort of an environment. A mechanical wheel paddles through a liquid producing visual waves and the sound of waves. This artistic element creates a calming atmosphere in any room or waiting area. The device coupled with the imagination and talent of the artist creates a visual and auditory augmentation of any environment meant to be peaceful and calming.  </p>
Motivational Interviewing Sylvie Naar 19-023 Brent Edington <p>Motivational Interviewing (MI) is often recommended as an evidence-based approach to behavior change. It is a collaborative, goal-oriented communication with attention to the language of change. MI is designed to strengthen personal motivation and commitment to specific goals by supporting and eliciting the individual’s reasons for change.</p> <p>MI is:</p> <ul> <li>A style of communication that guides the individual and it resides between good listening and providing advice;</li> <li>Designated to empower people to change by bringing out their own reasons to change;</li> </ul> <p>MI is used when:</p> <ul> <li>Ambivalence is high;</li> <li>Confidence is low;</li> <li>Desire to change is low;</li> <li>Motivation to change is low.</li> </ul> <p>Dr. Sylvie Naar has developed a rating scale for coding interactions for competency in Motivational Interviewing and a method of communication to promote behavior change. This rating scale and method require less time and expense for the client and has been rigorously tested in health care settings. Dr. Naar’s rating scale and guidelines for use provide a straightforward method for the use of Motivational Interviewing. This method has been verified in clinical settings and the guidelines are clear and concise.</p> <p>The rating scale and guidelines are protected by copyright.</p> <p> </p>
Magnetometer Jan Jaroszynski 21-052 Michael Tentnowski <p>An apparatus and methods to characterize magnetic or superconducting materials having strong magnetic moments and strong magnetic anisotropy in wide range of magnetic field and temperatures. Used for fast and effective electromechanical characterization of second-generation high temperature superconductors (2G HTS) tapes. These coated tapes can carry high density electrical currents and have the potential to transform technologies related to energy systems, transportation, medicine, and for solving environmental problems.</p>
Water Seepage Meter Ming Ye 20-054 Michael Tentnowski <p>The seepage meter is installed into sediments of a body of water by inserting a PVC pipe into the sediment bottom, while ensuring the top of the tube is above the water’s surface. After allowing the system to equilibrate, the meter is activated.  A servo motor regulates the water level, and the device records base measurements. A linear position sensor determines if water is leaching out of the groundwater aquifer into the body of water, or if water is recharging from surface water into the groundwater aquifer.  A data logger measures the charge/recharge curve and sends information remotely for analyses of the data.  The measurements determine seepage rates and hydraulic conductivity of the sediments.</p>
Managing Branch Currents in Switches Mischa Steurer 19-022 Michael Tentnowski <p>Within a direct current hybrid circuit breaker (DC HCB), a commutation unit (CU) is provided in a semiconductor switch path in series with a semiconductor switch to facilitate opening the DC HCB. The semiconductor switch path is connected in parallel with a switch path that includes a mechanical switch. The CU is a controlled voltage source which applies a reverse biased voltage on the semi-conductor switch path. The CU causes the current through the mechanical switch to ramp down while the current through the semiconductor switch ramps up to a supply current. The CU maintains the current through the mechanical switch to remain at a zero vale by compensating for the voltage drop across the semi-conductor switch and the self-inductance of the semiconductor switch path. The mechanical switch can open without current and against no recovery voltage.</p> <p> </p>
5G Request Schemes Zhenghao Zheng 18-054 Michael Tentnowski <p>The next generation cellular network, 5G, is expected to far exceed the current LTE network in many aspects including user density, latency, and network speed.  Physical Random-Access Channel (PRACH) and Scheduled Request (SR) schemes are based on an Analog Bloom Filter for 5G networks. The User Equipment (UE) needs to inform the base station about its intention for initiating a connection or data transmission. In the LTE network, each base station has 64 orthogonal sequences, and a UE randomly picks a sequence to transmit on the PRACH channel. As the number of sequences is limited, the probability of collision, i.e., two UEs picked a same sequence, is high.</p> <p>This procedure uses PRACH and SR, when the UE is in the disconnected mode or the connected mode, respectively. With PRACH, a UE can transmit multiple signals (sequences), to the base station, instead of only one sequence with the LTE systems.  The advantage of this scheme is that the collision probability (probability that two UEs picked exactly the same signal to transmit) is dramatically reduced, because the number of different combinations of sequences (2048), is much more than the number of sequences (64) for an LTE base station.  A new decoding algorithm copes with the unique challenges in the signal generated with ZC sequences, such as peak shifting and multiple peaks.  The new scheme allows the UE to piggyback approximately three (3) bits of information along with the signal.  Evaluation shows that the new scheme outperforms the existing PRACH of LTE by more than an order of magnitude making it a good candidate for 5G networks.</p> <p> </p>
Lipid Vesicle-Mediated Delivery to Cells Zucai Suo 21-016 Brent Edington <p>Lipid vesicles (LVs) are vesicles that are enclosed by at least one lipid layer. The present invention relates to the utilization of LVs for delivery of loaded cargo molecules into cells. Any LVs may be utilized, such as liposomes, lipid nanoparticles, lipid droplets, micelles, reverse micelles, and lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles.</p> <p>The invention facilitates the loading of diverse cargo molecules such as drugs, small molecules, nucleic acids, macromolecules, enzymes, proteins, and peptides into LVs. The cargo is then delivered into eukaryotic cells via the loaded LVs without being degraded or modified by extracellular enzymes or neutralized by host immune responses. Moreover, this protection conferred by LV-mediated delivery can be achieved without the need for chemical modification of the cargo molecule as a countermeasure, though chemical modification remains an option. Upon contacting a cell, the LV is internalized by the cell and the cargo is delivered into the cell. The cargo molecule may belong to any class of substance or combination of classes.</p>
Extracellular Vesicle-Mediated Delivery to Cells Zucai Suo 21-010 Brent Edington <p>Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are membrane-enclosed vesicles released by cells into the extracellular space (“EV” is a collective term encompassing various subtypes of cell-released membranous structures called exosomes, microvesicles, microparticles, ectosomes, oncosomes, apoptotic bodies, and many other names in the literature). The present invention relates to the utilization of EVs for delivery of cargo molecules into cells. The present invention uses unique methods for the loading and delivery of cargo molecules into cells in vitro or in vivo, e.g., for medical, diagnostic, and biological applications.</p> <p> </p> <p>The invention allows for the easy and efficient loading of diverse cargo molecules such as drugs, small molecules, nucleic acids, macromolecules, lipids, enzymes, proteins, and peptides into EVs. The cargo is then delivered into eukaryotic cells via the loaded EVs without being degraded or modified by extracellular enzymes or neutralized by host immune responses. Moreover, this protection conferred by EV-mediated delivery can be achieved without the need for chemical modification of the cargo molecule as a countermeasure, though chemical modification remains an option. Upon contacting a cell, the EV is internalized by the cell and the cargo is delivered into the cell.</p>
PCR-based Assay Method for Quantification of Salmonella or Other Microbes in Food Samples Prashant Singh 21-043 Brent Edington <p><strong>Introduction: </strong><em>Salmonella</em> <em>enterica</em> is a leading cause of bacterial foodborne illnesses worldwide. <em>Salmonella</em> strains cause about 93 million enteric infections annually, which results in 155,000 global deaths. In the U.S., strains of <em>Salmonella</em> are responsible for around 1.35 million cases each year. Despite strong measures by the regulatory agencies (i.e., USDA, FDA) and implementation of various process controls, the <em>Salmonella</em> incidence rate of infection has increased from 15 cases per 100,000 in 2010 to 18.3 cases per 100,000 in 2018.</p> <p>Knowing a target organism’s concertation range, such as <em>Salmonella,</em> is critical for many industries including the food and diagnostic industry. A food sample with a low level of pathogens may not present a hazard while a higher level of pathogen does. Knowing when the pathogen level approaches the threshold level for safety is important. Current methods of estimating the concertation of microorganisms are based on the most probable number method (MPN). The MPM method is slow, culture-based, laborious, and requires two or more days for completion. Beef or poultry processors who wish to assess a threshold level of <em>Salmonella</em> concentrations of meat currently have to rely on the MPN based method. Some current molecular methods on the market can provide concentration determination, but they rely on external standard curve and regression are required to measure organism concentration. As each sample varies in composition, microbial load and presence of natural inhibitor (i.e., sample matrix effects for each sample type), a separate standard curve is needed.  </p> <p><strong>Working Principle:</strong> Our approach takes advantage of varying PCR amplification efficiencies achieved by the introduction of mismatches in the <em>Salmonella</em>-specific primer sequence. The selected set of primers are used for estimating the initial <em>Salmonella</em> load in the test samples. The primer sequence exactly matching the target gene is amplified at the highest amplification efficiency and can detect the lowest concentration of <em>Salmonella</em>. Whereas primers designed with an increasing number of mismatches result in sequentially lower amplification efficiencies, which in turn enables detection of different log<sub>10</sub>-fold <em>Salmonella</em> concentrations (10-10<sup>4­</sup> CFU). As PCR amplification is carried out using primers with mismatches, assay specificity is achieved through a <em>Salmonella</em>-specific dual-labeled probe. Using this approach, a selected set of primer pairs can be used to detect and estimate initial <em>Salmonella</em> concentration in food directly or after enrichment based on the growth dynamics of the pathogen.</p>
Interactive Large Scale Data Profiling Mikhail Gubanov 21-021 Michael Tentnowski <p>Data profiling is a set of statistical data analysis activities and processes to determine properties of a given dataset.  A dataset has millions of tables, where their metadata (i.e. titles, attribute names and types) becomes abundant, similar to data instances and its profiling.  WebLens is an interactive, scalable metadata profiler for large-scale structured data.  It is a new data structure-metadata-profile coupled with Machine/Deep-Learning models trained to construct it. It represents a metadata summary of a specific real-world object collected over millions of data sources. These profiles significantly simplify access to largescale structured datasets for scientists and end users.</p>
Variable Inductor DC-HCB Mischa Steurer 20-053 Michael Tentnowski <p>The application of a variable inductor to the design of a Direct Current (DC) circuit breaker (CB) designed to break the fault current during short circuit or over-current event in medium-voltage and high voltage DC grids.  This includes an ultra-fast CB consisting of a fast-mechanical switch branch and a solid-state branch. The solid-state branch consists of a fault current commutation converter and a solid-state circuit breaker in serial connection and adds a variable inductor into the switch branch for a "safe-to-open" signal.</p>
Integrated Thermal-Electrical Component for Power Converters Yanjun Shi 20-014 Michael Tentnowski <p>An invention that increases power density and significantly reduces the Common-Mode (CM) Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) of power electronics converters. A new design integrates two capacitors into the heatsink of a power converter and uses the heatsink as the de-link capacitor, whereby bulky de-link capacitors are eliminated.  Power semiconductors are directly soldered onto the heatsink/ capacitor, as opposed to being attached through the thermal interface material. Heat transfer is enhanced, heatsink size is reduced, and parasitic capacitors between the electronical circuit and the heatsink are eliminated.</p>
Repetitive DNA Elements to Evaluate Genomic Variations Alan Lemmon 20-018 Michael Tentnowski <p>A unique combination of steps in laboratory protocol that allow simultaneous enrichment (amplification) of thousands of genomic DNA regions that are sequenced and assessed for genetic variants.  Steps include; ligation of a common DNA adapter to fragments of DNA, a Polymerase Chain Reaction, a sequence of computational steps for identifying and profiling sequence data, and a modification of the protocol that utilizes a DNA circularization step to allow larger regions to be enriched that cover upstream and downstream of the repeat motif.</p>
Rotor Cap Removal Tool and Microwave Guide Thierry Dubroca 20-011 Michael Tentnowski <p>A tool to remove the rotor cap from an apparatus (i.e. NMR caps) with minimal damage, and a microwave waveguide was developed.  The waveguide allows the guiding of microwaves inside a dynamic nuclear polarization probe with minimal losses in microwave transmission. This makes it easier to manufacture than current technologies, and at a lower cost.</p>
Localized Voltage Unbalance and Harmonics Correcting Circuit Thomas Lipo 19-046 Michael Tentnowski <p>Squirrel cage induction motors are used in machines that are sensitive to voltage fundamental component unbalances and voltage harmonics. This invention uses a Voltage Unbalance Compensator (VUC) inserted in the motor neutral to correct for these disturbances. This compensator is a low cost means of maintaining 100% motor load capability even in the presence of a 5% unbalance and can stop harmonic current flow within the machine. By using the VUC, the motor can be controlled to present itself as a unity power factor load to the utility regardless of the loading condition of the motor.</p>
ZCNET Computer Program Zhenghao Zhang 19-043 Michael Tentnowski <p>A wireless communication technology for Low Power Wide Area Networks (LPWAN). The Internet of Things (IoT) applications depend on LPWAN to connect a large number of low power devices to the Internet over long distances. ZCNET achieves significantly higher capacity (20x over LoRa), while using less resources. ZCNET supports 8 parallel channels within a single frequency band that do not severely interfere with each other, and ZCNET can resolve collisions inside a channel by using a small range for each node.  ZCNET has been extensively tested with real-world experiments on the USRP and trace-based simulations.</p>
Active Wave Canceler Hui Li 19-031 Michael Tentnowski <p>A device to solve over voltage issues caused by the reflected wave phenomenon (RWP). A motor drive connected to a motor through long cables can cause the reflection of the electromagnetic wave, resulting a voltage spikes at the motor side that is twice as high as the voltage at the drive side.  This transient over voltage can damage the insulation of the motor or reduce its useful life. The canceler detects rising/following edge of the motor drive and generates a short pulse that breaks the voltage slope so that over voltage at motor side is suppressed.</p>
Electromagnetic Field Visualization Systems Jeffrey Whalen 19-035 Michael Tentnowski <p>Systems, kits, and methods for electromagnetic field visualization that include at least one sensor, a sensor support to which the at least one sensor is mounted, a microprocessor configured to process data from the at least one sensor, and a software platform configured to perform computational enhancement of the data and subsequent augmented reality (AR) visualizations of a magnetic field of an electromagnetic source, such as one or more permanent magnets.</p>
Series Connected Hybrid Magnet Protection System Scott Hannahs 19-028 Michael Tentnowski <p>A reliable and robust system for detecting quenches in the superconducting portion of a magnet or changes in resistance in the resistive part of the magnet.  Once detected, the system safely discharges the stored energy to prevent damage to the magnet and for the safety of personnel. The software has thorough internal checks for disruption or failure, and the software is designed to run on a combination of real-time Linux Operating System (OS) and Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) platforms.</p>
Computer Processing Architecture David Whalley 19-018 Michael Tentnowski <p>Micro-architecture designs and methods for computer processing architecture, including an instruction cache for storing producer instructions, a half-instruction</p> <p>cache for storing half instructions, and eager shelves for storing a result of a first producer instruction. The computer processing architecture may fetch the first producer instruction and a first half instruction; send the first half instruction to the eager shelves; based on execution of the first producer instruction, send a second half instruction to the eager shelves; assemble the first producer instruction in the eager shelves based on the first half instruction and the second half instruction; and dispatch the first producer instruction for execution.</p>
Hardening Low-Carbon Steel Using One-Step Casting Ke Han 19-015 Michael Tentnowski <p>A single-step Direct-Cast Hardening (DiCH) method for making property-gradient low-carbon steel at a lower cost by saving energy and manpower.  An ultra-hard layer is introduced at the surface with free oxygen content before solidification and a specific cooling rate during solidification. Samples subjected to hardness tests after processing showed ultra-high levels (4.2GPa Vickers hardness and 6.3GPa nanoindentation hardness). Ultra-high hardness is achieved by a proper mix of acicular ferrite and ultra-fine lath-structured grains (LSG) and a specific cooling rate, which produces refined microstructure and high surface hardness.</p>
Continuously Tunable Nanoscale Phase Modulator Based on Ambipolar Field-Effect Transistor Stephen McGill 19-014 Michael Tentnowski <p>An ambipolar field-effect transistors (FETs) of multi-layered triclinic ReSe2, mechanically exfoliated onto a Si02 layer grown on p-doped Si. These FETs show ambipolar response with near zero threshold voltage. Used to fabricate a simple, gate-voltage-controlled continuously tunable phase modulator with the ability to shift the phase of the input signal from zero to nearly 180 degrees. The nanoscale architecture permits high-density fabrication for miniaturized circuits and operates in the kilohertz to megahertz frequency range.</p>
Fact Inductive Heaters for Active Protection of Superconducting Coils William Markiewicz 19-002 Michael Tentnowski <p>A heater placed on, or within, the windings of a superconducting coil. The heater is activated when a quench condition is detected in the coil or a set of connected coils.  This causes a quench region to occur at the location of the heater for quench protection. The heater is electromagnetically inductively coupled to the coil windings, as opposed to relying on thermal diffusion as in conventional heaters. The action of the inductive heater is much faster, so it can be used with REBC0-HTS coils that are fabricated with the No Insulation technique.</p>
Management of High Stresses in Bi-2212 Wire Wound Compact Superconducting Magnets Ernesto Bosque 18-063 Michael Tentnowski <p>Bi-2212 high temperature superconductor (HTS) has very high current carrying capabilities, high field homogeneity, and long-term field stability.  Low temperature superconductors (LTS) cannot operate in fields beyond 25 T, however, HTS conductors retain the superconducting state at fields above 100 T.  Bi-2212 conductors are relatively weak in regard to mechanical properties, but with one or more layers of high strength, heat resistant pure alumina fiber and/or a ceramic film increases that mechanical strength. The fabric layers are strategically placed between layers of superconducting wire determined by computer models of the stress situation eliminates coil damage.  The invention can be used in other epoxy impregnated magnets and is not limited to Bi-2212 conductor wound magnets.</p>
Radio-Frequency Isolated Gate Driver for Power Semiconductors Hui Li 18-040 Michael Tentnowski <p>A gate driver for power semiconductors including metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) and insulated-gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs) that does not require isolated power supplies.  The use of a circuit to transfer signal and power at the same time by a radio frequency (RF) transformer which works at several hundreds of a Megahertz and provides galvanic isolation. The frequency band is designed to be much larger than conducted electromagnetic interference (EM) frequency ranges, which are less than 30 Megahertz.  The driver is free of standby power loss and has a built-in active gating function.</p>
Real-Time Simulators for Power Converters Mischa Steurer 18-026 Michael Tentnowski <p>A method for integrating interfaces into power electronic converters (PEC) for Controller Hardware-in-the-Loop (CHIL) environments. The interface consists of software and hardware that allows redirecting signal flow including modulation signals and measurements in the PEC from their traditional path to and from power converter stage models executed in a digital real-time simulator (ORTS). It allows performing CHIL simulations with the actual PEC at the installation location of the PEC, avoiding the need for dedicated and error prone signal conditioning circuitry externally to the native PEC controller hardware.</p>
Integrated Coil Form Thomas Painter 17-029 Michael Tentnowski <p>A high temperature superconductor (HTS) cable comprising at least one coil form containing a helical channel formed on an exterior surface of the coil form.  The helical channel extends at least partially along an axial length of the coil and a plurality of HTS tape layers positioned within the helical channel of the coil form. And a method for operating a winding machine to produce a HTS cable comprising a plurality of coil forms containing a helical channel formed on an exterior surface of the coil form.</p>
A Modular Multilevel Duel-Active-Bridge DC-DC Converter Hui Li 16-095 Michael Tentnowski <p>A battery energy storage system (BESS) for medium voltage direct current (MVDC) or high voltage direct current (HVDC) grids or systems. The BESS comprises split-battery units and an isolated DC-DC converter interface connecting the battery units to the MVDC or HVDC system. The isolated BESS converter is a soft-switched modular multilevel dual-active-bridge (DAB) converter which has DC fault rid-through capability. The converters can be single-phase or poly-phase configurations and can be controlled to maintain a desired DC output under normal and DC grid fault conditions.</p>
Isolated Battery Energy System for DC Grid Applications Hui Li 15-221 Michael Tentnowski <p>This invention presents a family of isolated battery energy storage system (BESS) topologies with multiple functions, which are suitable for high voltage and high-power DC grid application, including Medium Voltage Direct Current (MVDC) or High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) applications. The modulation and control strategies of these topologies are also presented.</p>
Integrated Three-Port Bidirectional DC-DC Converter for Photovoltaics Zhan Wang 15-148 Michael Tentnowski <p>An integrated three-port bidirectional DC-DC converter to interface with PV panels and batteries. With no additional components added, the cost and complexity of the system does not increase. Photovoltaic (PV) with battery backup system is not only expected to tackle the PV market with the Feed-in Tariff (FiT) rates set to decline and conventional electricity prices projected to rise, but also helps to mitigate the high penetration issue into the grid.</p>
Superconducting Electrical Joint Design for HTS Wires Ulf Trociewitz 15-131 Michael Tentnowski <p>A superconducting electrical joint that links sections of Bi-2212 conductors. To establish high transport current carrying capabilities, Bi-2212 is heat treated at ~890°C and at elevated pressures. The heat treatment of the wire and the formation of the superconducting joints are carried out in the same heat treatment. To compensate for the pressure differential between the furnace and the inside of the wire (for Bi-2212 densification), the wires ends are sealed.  High pressure is applied to complete a full reaction process and ensure densification of the Bi-2212. </p>
Shrink Tube Insulation Apparatus Andrew Whittington 14-056 Michael Tentnowski <p>A machine that applies shrink tubing onto long or short lengths of wires, tapes, and cables, that prevents dust and liquid from entering into the bundle.  Using shrink tubing as electrical insulation is where the material would be entirely sheathed with shrink tubing. Materials that require shrink tube as insulation are fragile and require special care when handling, so this device can sheath shrink tube onto the full length of a material without damaging the shrink tube or material.</p>
Composite Coating on Stainless Steel Tape for Insulation in HTS Magnets Jun Lu 13-117 Michael Tentnowski <p>Stainless steel tapes are dip coated with a tape withdrawal speed of ~16 mm/s, dried at ~300 °C for 10-20 seconds, followed by a calcination process at 600 °C.  This system consists of a pay-off and a take-up spool with a driving mechanism, a vertical two zone furnace, and a dip tank. The sol-gel solution to powder loading ratio was fixed at a composition that contained enough sol-gel solution to bind the powder to produce thick and adherent coating.</p>
Single-Phase Fuel Cell Power Conditioning System Xiaohu Liu 13-045 Michael Tentnowski <p>A single-phase fuel cell power conditioning system with minimized DC capacitor that achieves low-frequency ripple-free input current using a control-oriented power pulsation power decoupling strategy when an inverter load is connected. Without extra circuit components, the fuel cell system uses a smaller de bus capacitor (film capacitor) that replaces the bulky electrolytic capacitor.  The result is a reduced cost for fuel cell residential applications and distributed stationary fuel cell power generation systems.</p>
NMR RF Probe Coil Exhibiting Double Resonance William Brey 12-223 Michael Tentnowski <p>A design for placing two NMR sample coils on a single substrate to allow better sensitivity for the second channel.  The coils can be used in NMR rf probes of a type sold commercially.  These probes are used for chemical identification and structural analysis of molecules. </p>
An Article Comprising a Semiconducting Material Jeffrey Whalen 13-090 Michael Tentnowski <p>Single crystals of the semiconducting oxychalcogenide phase were synthesized using a novel crystal growth method. The crystals had low defects and homogeneous composition as characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Heat capacity and resistivity measurements agreed with the calculated band structure calculations indicating semiconductivity, with a band gap of about 3 eV.</p>
Aluminum Oxide Particle Strengthened Niobium-Tin Superconducting Wire Jingping Chen 07-051 Michael Tentnowski <p>Nano-particle dispersion strengthened copper is co-drawn with Niobium rod to produce DSC-1 Nb wire. Wires of DSC-1 Nb are stacked in a hollow DSC tube and drawn to form a DSC-n.Nb hexagonal wire. A Tin rod is co-deformed with Copper tube to form a Cu-lSn wire. m DSC-n Nb wires and 1 Cu-lSn wires are wrapped by Niobium foil and placed into a Copper tube. This entire assembly is then drawn to a finished size. The drawn composite is subjected to heat treatment with a final stage at 650-700° C. The new wire has higher electric critical current and higher mechanical strength than conventional wires.</p>
FORTRAN Subroutine Code for Magnetic Analyses of Superconducting Coils Anton Hopen 11-169 Michael Tentnowski <p>A number of computer programs (subroutines, scripts and program blocks) used for computer simulation of physical processes in a hybrid magnet containing a number of resistive Bitter or Florida-Bitter coils nested within a number of superconducting coils wound with a cable-in-conduit conductor (CICC). The coils forced-flow-cooled type and are cooled with liquid helium being pumped through the conductor. The analysis of the thermohydraulic and mechanical behavior of such coils is critical for research and the development of hybrid magnets.</p>
Process for Improved Cobalt-Platinum Permanent Magnetic Alloys Wiley Horton 05-090 Michael Tentnowski <p>A method for processing CoPt alloys with improved magnetic properties, which includes sealing a sample of a CoPt alloy in an evacuated quartz tube and heating the alloy to a high temperature to homogenize the alloy. The sample is then cooled at a controlled cooling rate, and then held at 600 degrees C. for hours to promote isothermal ordering, and finally the sample is quenched in mineral oil.</p>
Healthy Living Web Application Norman Schmidt 17-026 Michael Tentnowski <p>A web application designed to provide an overview of a variety of healthy living skills including diet and exercise, sleep hygiene, and water consumption using video and audio along with text.</p>
Predictive Control of Distributed Energy Resources Richard Meeker 17-047 Michael Tentnowski <p>Devices and methods of allocating distributed energy resources (DERs) to loads connected to a microgrid based on the cost of the DERs. The devices and methods may determine one or more real-time electricity prices associated with utility generation sources, determine one or more forecasts, and costs associated with one or more renewable energy sources within the microgrid. They may also determine an allocation of the renewable sources to one or more loads in the microgrid.</p> <p> </p> <p>Exclusive license: NhuEnergy <a href=""></a></p>
Age-Hardening Superalloy with Anomalous Aging Time Ke Han 10-029 Michael Tentnowski <p>A process for age hardening nickel-based alloys to create desirable properties with reduced energy expenditure. The process introduces isolated atom nucleation sites to accelerate the nucleation rate by approximately 36 times, thereby permitting age hardening to occur in significantly less time and with significantly less energy expenditure.</p>
Feedback Control of No-Insulation High Temp. Superconductor Magnet Seungyong Hahn 16-101 Michael Tentnowski <p>An active feedback control system to operate a no-insulation (NI) high temperature superconductor (HTS) magnet. The NI HTS winding technique is effective in building an extremely compact, stable, and mechanically robust HTS magnet. However, the presence of the "partially shorted radial" current path, in addition to the designed spiral path, produced by the turn-to-turn contacts causes a substantial charging delay, and the charging delay produces a non-linear "magnet constant." An active control of the field by active control of the power supply current provides operational solutions for these challenges and is critical for application of the NI HTS technique to actual high field user magnets.</p>
Double SQUID for Measuring Magnetic Fields of Nanoparticles Gavin Morley 05-147 Michael Tentnowski <p>Multiple SQUID magnetometers that include at least two SQUID loops, each composed of at least two Josephson Junctions connected in parallel with superconducting wires. The SQUID loops are fabricated such that they share a common Josephson Junction. Devices and application that employ the multiple SQUID magnetometers are also available.</p>
Frequency Loss Induced Quench Patrick Noyes 18-019 Michael Tentnowski <p>A protection system capable of safely quenching a high temperature superconductor (HTS) magnet coil. The protection circuit provides for a frequency loss induced quench design that advances the protection technology for HTS magnet coils and provides a protection system that is capable of quickly distributing the heat energy uniformly in all the coil sections when a localized hotspot is created.</p>
Method for Assessing the Remaining Life of Electrical Insulation Yaw Nyanteh 13-253 Michael Tentnowski <p>A system and method for electrical tree simulation based on a modification of a discharge avalanche model with an application of a charge simulation method to determine partial discharge data during the growth of electrical trees in an insulation system and a method of using the model to determine the remaining useful life of an insulation system.</p>
EnviroOrg Software Yuri Corilo 16-074 Michael Tentnowski <p>A fully automated, state-of-the-art software package for data processing, visualization and chemometric analysis of complex environmental samples acquired by mass spectrometry.</p>
Mass Spectral Analysis Software Gregory Blakney 08-031 Michael Tentnowski <p>Method and computer algorithms used to calibrate mass spectral results from high resolution mass spectrometers and assign elemental compositions to the spectral peaks. Post processing and sorting allows for visualization of the data in various graphical formats.</p>
Power-Aware Redundant Array of Independent Disks (PARAID) An-I Wang 05-102 Michael Tentnowski <p>A system defining a power-aware redundant array of identical disks that includes multiple data-storing disks that store multiple data blocks in a skewed stripping pattern. The PARAID further includes a disk manager for selectively powering on the plurality of disks based upon user demand. A PARAID disk driver is provided and includes a PARAID level module to operate within a computing environment by segmenting data among the array of independent disks in a skewed striping pattern. The disk driver includes a gear-shifting logic and monitoring modules for selectively causing the PARAID to operate in a particular gear.</p>
Iron-Pnictide Bulk Superconducting Magnet Trapping Over 1 T Eric Hellstrom 15-161 Michael Tentnowski <p>Polycrystalline superconducting permanent magnets which are synthesized of doped superconducting (AE) Fev-\s2 compounds, where AE denotes an alkaline earth metal, such as Ba, Sr, Mg or Ca. The superconducting permanent magnets can be magnetized in their superconducting state by induced currents, resulting in trapped magnetization that scales with the size of the bulk material. The magnitude of the trapped field has been demonstrated to be over 1 T.  Over 10 T is possible, which is much higher than the capabilities of permanent magnets and other superconducting polycrystalline bulks currently known.</p>
Targeted Data Extraction System and Method Sudhir Aggarwal 18-039 Michael Tentnowski <p>Mobile devices document different scenarios that are encountered by users as they go about their daily lives.  This data may be of significant forensic interest to an investigator.  The owner of the phone may be willing to provide access to this data (through a consent agreement), but it is usually contingent upon limited data extracted for analysis, either due to privacy concerns or due to personal reasons. Only filtered data should be extracted, so a targeted data extraction system (TDES) for mobile devices was developed using machine learning techniques. This system can be used to identify and extract selected data from smart phones, in real time at the scene of a crime.</p>
Decoupling Address Generation and Data Access (DAGDA) David Whalley 16-078 Michael Tentnowski <p>Improving application efficiency by decoupling address generation and data access (DAGDA) featuring prepare to access memory (PAM) instruction, address generation structure (AGS).  Associate DTLB access and L 1 DC tag check with address generation in a PAM instruction that reduces energy usage by avoiding many accesses to the DTLB and L 1 DC tag arrays and improves performance by obtaining loaded data earlier in the pipeline by prefetching data.</p>
Halide Perovskite-Polymer Composites for High Energy Photon Detection and Protection Dr. Zhibin Yu 18-048 Michael Tentnowski <p>An FSU researcher created a novel material comprised of halide perovskite crystals embedded in a polymer matrix for radiation blocking and detection. The material is lightweight and lead free. Other materials require expensive and long manufacturing processes, but this novel material can be manufactured in a variety of ways such as solution-based drop casting, hot pressing, melt extrusion, injection molding, and 3D printing, to save time and money. Electrodes can be embedded in the material for passive and accurate x-ray and gamma-ray detection.  </p> <p>Third party independent testing has shown that the material is 50% more effective than current state of the art radiation blocking technology. These semiconducting nanocrystals are uniformly dispersed in the polymer matrix to not only block radiation but also detect high energy radiation.</p>
Vault App Identification and Extraction (VIDE) Gokila Dorai 21-058 Michael Tentnowski <p>A method for mobile devices that identifies content hiding applications from the App Store.  Content hiding (or vault) apps allow users to hide photos, videos, documents, and other content securely. A subclass of these applications called decoy apps further supports secret hiding by having a model that mimics standard apps such as calculators but can turn into a vault-app through entering a specific input. This is an effective and very fast identification of content hiding apps through a two-phase process: initial categorization using keywords followed by more precise binary classification that extracts the hidden data from the apps on a smartphone.</p>
Covid-19 Self Defense Shuyuan Ho 21-003 Michael Tentnowski <p>A mental health approach to provide mobile phone users with situational awareness during a pandemic, with the goal of protecting and defending personal health.  Several individual risk reduction measures were developed to help users manage personal health. This user-centric and privacy-centric approach empowers users with tools, utilities and services to bolster the ability to manage complex health information, as well as privacy rights to personal information.  The two most important features are a social distance nudge, and a quarantine monitor.</p>
EarDynamic User ID Jie Yang 21-051 Michael Tentnowski <p>Ear canal deformation-based user identification system using ear wearables (earables). Earables include three types: headphones, earbuds, and earphones, which are over-ear, on-ear, and in-ear listening devices. When wearing, the identification process is triggered on-demand or continuously depending on the application. This provides continuous and passive user identification by ear canal deformation that combines the static geometry and dynamic motions of the ear canal when a user is speaking. Acoustic sensing captures canal deformation, and extensive experiments show that it achieves high identification accuracy and works well in noisy environments.</p>
Leadless Power Coupler for Cryogenic Environment Mischa Steurer 20-026 Michael Tentnowski <p>A coupler consisting of a primary winding at room temperature and a secondary winding at cryogenic temperature, which may or may not be superconducting. The coupler is designed for power line frequencies (e.g. 50 or 60 Hz) or much higher frequencies and overcomes challenges with the transition of power from room temperature to the cryogenic environment.  By coupling the power via magnetic fields using the power transformer principle, this coupling mechanism can achieve voltage transformation which galvanic feedthroughs cannot. The method can also be applied as a brushless exciter for superconducting motors and generators.</p>
Mindfulness-Based Art Therapy (MBAT) Theresa Van Lith 19-040 Michael Tentnowski <p>A blend of mindfulness practices like yoga and meditation with art therapy directives into brief modules for college students to habitually address symptoms of anxiety and stress. These modules have been designed for online platforms and mobile apps.  There were significant decreases in participants' symptoms of anxiety and perceived stress after the 10-module, 5-week intervention.  The virtual platform offers a less stigmatized help-seeking strategy that is more comfortable to digital natives and allows mental health professionals to remotely facilitate mindfulness-based art therapy, an evidence-based mental health practice with positive psychological and neurobiological implications.</p>
Florida State Terrestrial Radiation Calculator Robert Ellingston 19-033 Michael Tentnowski <p>FSTRC is an iPad/iPhone application that enables students and researchers alike to visualize and quantify several terrestrial radiation quantities important for understanding many climate and remote-sensing problems. The GUI allows users to input atmospheric data into a calibrated radiative transfer model that calculates the specific parameters of manipulation, display, listing, and/or saving including; up-and-downwelling spectral radiance, spectrally integrated radiance, flux densities, cooling rates, vertical and spectral distributions, and radiative forcing.</p>
A Method for Tracking Resin Flow and Optimizing Process Design in Vacuum Assisted Resin Transfer Molding Process Using Test Liquid Pre-Infusion Dr. Richard Liang 07-080 Michael Tentnowski <p>An innovative method to detect fiber preform problems and design optimum resin flow strategy in vacuum assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM) process, a common manufacturing process in composite industry has been created. In this new method, prior to part production, a removable test liquid, such as alcohol, is infused into the production mold with fiber preform laid up inside. The flow pattern of the test liquid is recorded for flow analysis purpose. The test liquid is then removed by vacuum and temperature. As the test liquid flow behavior is similar to that of resin, the acquired test liquid flow pattern information can be used to direct and optimize process design/control of resin flow to eliminate flow-induced defects. For instance, the test liquid flow pattern can be used to detect the locations where defects might occur and the corresponding control action can then be determined for production (resin flow).</p> <p>An advantage of this method is that it does not need any sensors, but instead, uses the low cost test liquid (such as alcohol) to pre-infuse the fiber preform prior to the resin infusion to detect any fiber perform problems and to predict resin flow pattern, through which the optimum resin flow process design can be obtained. The method provides effective and practical technical solutions to facilitate process design and control of VARTM process for defect-free part fabrication. This new method can significantly reduce the manufacturing cost by improving first-time success rate (reducing the defects related wastes/cost). This technique is particularly useful for large and complex part fabrication where flow-induced defects are common in manufacturing.</p>
Improvement of Electromagnetic Interference Shielding through the Optimization of Carbon Nanotube Buckypaper Layup Stacking in Composites Dr. Richard Liang 09-055 Michael Tentnowski <p>FSU researchers created a novel technique to improve the lightweight electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding properties based on preformed thin films or buckypaper layers made of single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT), multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWNT), carbon nanofibers (CNF), and their mixed forms in composites.  Carbon nanotubes are promising material for EMI shielding because of their electrical conducting properties and lighter weight compared to metal. Film materials made of entangled network using carbon nanotubes, called buckypapers (BP), provides free standing films. The film materials are easy to be use and integrate into various structures and composites fabrication processes to reduce manufacturing cost. Nanotube buckypapers can have an areal density from 18.1 g/m<sup>2</sup> to 21.5 g/m<sup>2</sup>, while offering electrical conductivity as high as 50S/cm to 8,000S/cm.</p> <p>To improve the EMI shielding effectiveness (SE), layers of BP were stacked together. The absorption loss increased due to the increased thickness of conducting material since the thickness of individual BP layers is usually less than 30 mm. However, in experiments, the EMI SE does not linearly increase with the increased of number of BP layers directly stacked together. Since the absorption contribution to the total SE is small as a result of directly stacking multiple BP layers together, we discovered a new method to effectively utilize internal multiple reflection effects to further improve the SE. This invention achieves high EMI shielding effectiveness by inserting polymer insulators in between conducting nanotube buckypaper layers in composites.</p>
Method for Making High-Performance Carbon Nanotube Reinforced Polymer Composites through Integrating Alignment and Tailored Degree of Functionality Richard Liang 10-134 Michael Tentnowski <p>This invention provides a novel technique to make high-performance carbon nanotube (CNT) polymer composite through integrating alignment and tailored degree of functionalization of carbon nanotubes. Lack of alignment, weak interface bonding, and low CNT concentration are major obstacles for developing high mechanical performance CNT reinforced composites. The team at FSU has developed several unique techniques to realize alignment and interfacial bonding improvement through chemical functionalization. With the demonstrated alignment and tailored functionalization, record-high mechanical performance of CNT polymeric matric composites can be achieved. Active epoxide groups on CNTs created through the chemical functionalization can react with amine and phenolic hydroxyl groups. Therefore, interfacial bonding between nanotube and matrices, such as epoxy and bismaleimide (BMI) resin, can improve resulting nanocomposites. Specifically, the proper combination of alignment enhancement and tailored functionalization led to record high mechanical and electrical performance. This novel method created high mechanical properties exceeding state-of-the-art carbon fiber composites which are widely sued in aerospace, defense, and sporting goods, etc.</p>
Flexible/embeddable 3D Wire-Shaped Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSCs) in Solid State using Carbon Nanotube Yarns (CNYs) with Hybrid Photovoltaic Structure for Sensing Dr. Okenwa Okoli 14-224 Michael Tentnowski <p>Dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) is a photoelectrochemical (PEC) system based on a semiconductor formation with a photo-sensitized anode, a conductive cathode and an electrolyte. The incorporation of conventional flat cells with FTO substrates may yet prove challenging to the integrity of engineering structures due to their rigid substrates and unavoidable thickness. FSU researchers created hybid flexible wire shaped DSSCs to replace conventional devices with similar functions. These novel structures possess higher flexibility on a smaller scale for novel integration. Moreover, the hybrid sensitizer realize both MEG effects and multiple electron transmission paths, which can improve the cell performance to a large extend.</p> <p>The 3D PY sensor construction is embedded smart composites with intrinsic triboluminescent/mechanoluminescent (TL/ML) features. Hybrid wire-shaped DSSC was developed as PY sensor using as a tool in TL-based structural health monitoring (SHM) system. The current design allows it to capture, convert, and transport light signal for TL events for the detection of damage and in-situ SHM. It also allows for the harvesting of energy in systems.</p> <p>Novel Features:</p> <p>-High flexibility when applying wire-shaped DSSC to replace conventional FTO glass based rigid device.</p> <p>-CNTs are light weight, and exhibit strong mechanical performance, and significant electrical and chemical properties, all which make it competitive when replacing other metal wires in the research.</p> <p>-The combination of two efficient quantum dots (QDs) has been first applied into wire-shaped DSSCs and the effects of QDs have been enlarged when acting in concert with porous TiO2.</p> <p>-All soli- state fabrication method ensures stable mechanical properties and illustrates the simplicity of assembly, which also provides a protection to cell itself.</p> <p>-The novel small size wire shaped DSSC has been proved to maintain stable under various working environment, which is beneficial for future installment and other engineering applications.</p>
Integrated Setup for Continuously Manufacturing Carbon Nanotube Buckypaper Materials Gerald Horne 15-089 Michael Tentnowski <p>A novel custom-designed setup and system to produce high quality continuous carbon nanotube buckypaper (CBP) materials has been created. A fully automated system was developed to produce 6 inch-wide continuous roll-to-roll of buckypaper materials. The technology includes two major engineering designs, consisting of (1) continuous sonication process of high-quality and large quantity CNT suspension preparation, and (2) automation filtration process by preciously controlling the filter membrane movement and the automatically separating the membrane from buckypaper. Our tests resulted in demonstrating that the continuous sonication setup can produce up to 300Uday high quality CNT suspensions and achieved 5 feet per hour or greater production rate of 6 inch-wide continuous buckypaper materials, with an aerial density ol 2-10 GSM (g/m2) buckypaper materials. This production speed is about 10x higher than previous models we developed by implementing a large filtration area and using a high concentration of CNT suspension. The system also features an automatic filter member movement, drying process and CBP/filter member separation fully controlled by Micro PLC Controllers. The system only requires one person to operated, compared to the need at least four people to operate previous prototypes. The system can produce up to 1,000 ft long or longer CBPs and is only limited by the available length of filter members.</p>
Diagnostic Elementary Reading Profile App Yaacov Petscher 17-011 Brent Edington <p>This novel app uses empirical classification schemes via latent mixture model &amp; classification and regression tree analysis (CART) to classify students into profiles of readers based on their fluency performance in K-2 at the fall, winter, and spring. The empirically derived classification schemes (decision rules appended to this documentation) are generated based on the user input of a set of fluency scores. The purpose of the system is provide teachers, parents, school administrators and students a set of recommended practices for instruction based on empirical classifications. The current state of score profiling is such that the teacher is supposed to group students based on performance of one assessment, yet when the student is administered a group of assessments (n &gt; 1), it is difficult to 1) reliability group students together, 2) group students in a manner that is valid, 3) make rapid sense of the relative strengths and weaknesses of student reading scores and 4) provide appropriate instruction and/or remediation based on the groupings. By using the Diagnostic Elementary Reading Profile app, students will be automatically sorted into empirically derived groupings at any given time-point during kindergarten through second grade. This will reduce assessment and work time for the teacher as the sorting and recommendations will occur automatically. The appended decision rules were normed on a set of 60,000 students that are nationally representative in terms of race/ethnicity, achievement, socio-economic status, and English language status. A major advantage is the app automatically classifies students into reliable and valid groups for instructional purposes in the K-2 classrooms. Present workarounds in the field are largely theoretically drive guesses without data-drive support. The novel feature is the use of mixture modeling along with classification and regression tree (CART) to empirically define the rules for classifying students into profiles.</p>
Computer Adaptive Testing Simulation and Analysis Based on Item Response Theory Cody Diefenthaler 17-027 & 17-028 Brent Edington <p>WebCatCore is a novel framework for Computer Adaptive Testing (CAT) deliverable via the web. This tool takes an input item pool (such as 1P, 2P, and 3P models) and custom test criteria (such as stop rules, standard error thresholds, etc.) and delivers items for administration based on Item Response Theory (IRT) methodology. This easily configurable, plug and play system is an ideal solution for integrating Computer Adaptive Testing into web learning platforms. WebCatCore handles any customization requirements needed by providing configurable variables and consumable endpoints. The logic, algorithms, and methodology are all self-contained within the framework, making the porting process straightforward. Using WebCatCore will drastically reduce development time and cost.</p> <p>WebCatSlim is a novel web platform which works seamlessly with WebCatCore. This platform simulates and analyzes item pools designed for CAT. This platform loads administering item pools based on custom test criteria, and simulates the administration of the test across a user-defined range of simulated abilities. Once complete, the simulations are analyzed according to industry-standard test evaluation metrics, then visualized into grades, charts, and tables. The simulation results can be exported into data files which can be loaded at a later date. The simulation analysis visualizations support print functionality. WebCatSlim provides a way for researchers and test evaluators to simulate administration regardless of operating system. Additionally, the visualization of graphics, charts, and tables allows experts and non-experts to easily understand and analyze simulated test performance metrics.</p>
Method of Large Scale Fabrication of Continuous CNT Cable/ Sheet with High Conductivity and Stability Richard Liang 17-033 Michael Tentnowski <p> </p> <p>This invention offers a novel technique to fabricate large-scale, lightweight electrically conductive cable using carbon nanotubes (CNTs). CNTs have good intrinsic electrical conductivity. However, entangled structures of CNTs in the form of yam or sheet has lower conductivity due to intertube contact resistance and gaps in between. Lightweight and high electrically conductive CNT materials can be used for cables for such applications as signal or power transmission, electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding in electronic devices and lightning protection in aircraft etc.</p> <p>An integrated approach of three major steps was used to improve the CNT sheet conductivity:</p> <p>1) Mechanical stretching of entangled CNT sheets provides CNT alignment. Random and pristine CNT sheets in rolls were continuously stretched producing narrow and densely packed CNT networks, which reduced intertube contact resistance. With increased alignment, conductivity improved two or three times higher compared to the pristine, randomly aligned CNT sheets. This process can be performed continuously and scale-up production is possible.</p> <p>2) A doping approach increases the carrier concentration of CNTs. For this purpose, vapor phase iodine doping was adopted, which can be expanded to other oxidizing liquids (acids such as HNO3, HCI or SOCh). Upon this chemical doping process, conductivity improved 3-4 times and a final room temperature conductivity of 10,000 <em>Siem </em>(up to 13,000 Siem). The doping process is a typical diffusion process and conductivity saturated after several hours, and its speed is depended on the packing of CNTs and mobility of the dopant and followed by time.</p> <p>3) An approach to coating dramatically increased the cable stability. After doping process, the dopants are diffused out and kept inside the CNT yams/sheets to maintain the conductivity. For this purpose, doped CNT sheets were dipped in air stable conducting polymer, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)poly(styrenesulfonate)(PEDOT:PSS). The thin polymer coating on the surface provides synergetic effects for the conductivity and a protection layer. Different polymer layers, such as polyvinyl ch loride, polyethylene and rubber can also be used as protection layers as for conventional cables.</p>
Deterministic Nucleation for Halide Perovskite Thin Films with Large and Uniform Grains Dr. Zhibin Yu 17-040 Michael Tentnowski <p>In recent years, remarkable optoelectronic properties have been discovered in a group of halide perovskite semiconductors. Their potential to invigorate the current solar cell and light-emitting diode (LED) industries has been demonstrated by achieving very high device efficiencies in relatively short periods. While higher efficiency records are pursued, an equally important task is to improve their device reliability. So far, most reported perovskite solar cells and LEDs employed a polycrystalline thin film for light absorbing or light emitting purposes. The size of the grains in such films typically varied from sub-100 nanometers to a few micrometers. The high density of grain boundary defects can trap charge carriers and aid the diffusion of water molecules and ionic species in the perovskites, deteriorating their structural integrity and transportation properties in long-term applications.</p> <p>We recently have invented a new process enabling the formation of perovskite thin films with a ultra-large and uniform grain size. The large grain size will significantly reduce the density of grain boundaries, and the films perform nearly the same as single crystalline materials. In addition, the simple solution process in our approach will potentially more practical to scaled up for future high throughput industrial production. The new discovery is based on our scientific understanding to precisely control the nucleation sites and nucleation densities of halide perovskites during film formation on a substrate.</p> <p>Our halide perovskite thin films with large and uniform grains can exhibit enhanced structural and morphological stability in ambient air. For instance, efficient LEDs had been made with our methylammonium lead tribromide films after exposing them in air for three months without encapsulation. Our halide perovskite thin films also showed greatly reduced ionic migration tendency under an external electrical field. Photo-detectors had been fabricated using our methylammonium lead triiodide films. The devices exhibited 10 times lower dark current at a constant applied voltage compared to devices with conventional halide perovskite thin films that were processed using previously reported methods. In addition, no measurement hysteresis was observed in our halide perovskite thin films when a dynamic voltage was applied at both dark and illuminated conditions.</p>
Successful Co-Parenting After Divorce Dr. Karen Oehme 17-049 Brent Edington <p>This novel evidence-based approach is a skills-based training which teaches divorcing parents how to lower conflict and increase cooperation. This toolkit consists of beloved videos including showing parents using effective communication and communication which is not helpful. The toolkit teaches families and professionals about the effects of divorce and helps them build and support healthy co-parenting relationships for the benefit of the children involved. The training and videos are applicable to parents, family members, social workers, licensed mental health counselors, and other professionals.</p>
Lightweight and Flexible Heat Sink from Carbon Nanotube Sheet Dr. Richard Liang 18-028 Michael Tentnowski <p>FSU researchers created a lightweight and flexible heat sink based on carbon nanotube (CNT) sheet which can also be expanded to other lightweight sheets such as graphene and boron nitride free-standing sheets. CNTs have good electrical and thermal conductivity with large surface to volume ratio due to its nanostructures and these properties are good for heat dissipation. Compared to the conventional aluminum heat sink or copper heat pipes, CNT sheets are more lightweight and have more flexibility; this reduces the manufacturing cost and makes it possible for versatile application with easier shape deformations.</p> <p>Different CNTs can be used for free-standing sheet fabrication either multi-walled CNT and/or double-walled CNT. Entangled CNT structures show voids and large surface area and this also increase the convective heat dissipation in addition to the thermal conduction. Also the novel heat sink design has increased surface area to enhance the convective heat dissipation and flexible CNT sheet can increase the design freedom of the heat sink with higher number of fins for larger surface area for convection. Furthermore, the overall thermal conductivity is low.</p>
A Method for Making Ultralow Platinum Loading and High Durability Membrane Electrode Assembly for PEMFCS Dr. Jim Zheng 18-032 Garrett Edmunds <p>FSU researchers have created a method of making membrane electrode assembly (MEA) which has following characteristics:</p> <p>(1) the unique microstructure and well-connected nanotubes network ensures a high electron conductivity</p> <p>(2) the platinum group metal (PGM) nanoparticles are de posited electrochemically in a liquid solution on the outermost surface area of an established porous CNT/CNF buckypaper network such that the locations of these nanoparticles are accessible by both electrons and gas</p> <p>(3) the surfaces of deposited PGM nanoparticles and buckypaper network are coated in a layer of Nafion electrolyte using electrophoretic deposition (EPD) in a Nafion monomer solution and combined with  the liquid dropping method, in order for the PGM nanoparticles to be accessible by protons.</p> <p>This method provides a novel approach to fabrication of the “ideal” membrane electrode assembly (MEA) in which most of the platinum group metal (PGM) catalytic particles are located at sites that satisfy the triple-phrase boundary (THB) condition and maximize the PGM usage.</p>
Electro-Coating Method for Uniform Layer Thickness of Perovskite Material on Carbon Wire-Shaped Substrates Dr. Okenwa Okoli 18-035 Michael Tentnowski <p>This novel method allows the individual to predictably and repeatably coat semi-conductive wire shaped materials (such as carbon nano-tube yarn (CNY)) with perovskite solution (CH3NH3Pb13). Perovskite is a rising star in the photo-voltaic community. With the research community rushing to bring 2D planar perovskite solar cells to market, coating/manufacturing methods for 3D structures have been left behind. Controllable and uniform heating of the substrate is necessary for a high-quality perovskite layer. Due to the complex 3D geometry of wires, the repeatable control and uniform heating of CNYs has not been possible until this method was created. Here we use Joule Heating to accurately and stably control the temperature of the wire in order achieve a uniform perovskite layer. Not only does this method add control and repeatability to the process, but it is also more energy efficient than any other published method. This makes this process ideal for scalable research applications and eventually industrial fabrication of wire-shaped perovskite LEDs, photo-detectors, and solar cells.</p> <p>Advantages:</p> <p>- Uses less energy than other methods, making it a strong candidate for scalable manufacturing as perovskite solar cells continue to rise in efficiency and performance.</p> <p>- Provides instant heating and cooling to the substrate using Joule heating.</p> <p>- Allows for the instantaneous control over heating of the substrate by merely adjusting the power source.</p>
Solid-state Upconversion for Photovalics and Infrared Sensing Dr. Lea Neinhaus 20-003 Garrett Edmunds <p>This is a novel bulk-semiconuctor material that provides a new approach to photon upconversion. Infrared light is neither visible to the eye nor to silicon-based optoelectronic devices such as solar cells or cameras. Upconversion describes the process of converting low-energy infrared light into high-energy visible light, which can then be detected or used by optoelectronic devices. Upconversion in organic molecules stores energy in long-lived spin-triplet states which cannot be excited by incident light. Current, state-of-the-art upconversion devices involve metal-organic complexes and/or nanocrystals as sensitizers to absorb and funnel energy for collection. These devices are limited by poor exciton diffusion or large exchange energies between the singlet and triplet states.</p> <p>To overcome these limitations, the current technology uses bulk-semiconductor thin films as sensitizers for the triplet state to achieve efficient upconversion based on triplet-triplet annihilation. The thickness of the film can be varies, which enables the shift of the threshold of efficient upconversion to subsolar incident powers. This approach foregoes the requirement of efficient singlet-to-triplet conversion in the sensitizer, enabling more efficient triplet sensitization.</p> <p>This technology bears potential to overcome the Shockley-Queisser limit efficiency limit of solar cells. It additionally can find use in infrared sensing and photocatalysis.</p>
Flexible, Stretchable, Electrically Conductive Adhesive And Coating Dr. Hoyong Chung 20-005 Garrett Edmunds <p>This FSU developed polymer is a broadly applicable, multifunctional electronic adhesive and coating. The design of the polymer enables solvent-free electric conductivity, interfacial adhesion, flexibility, stretchability, water-compatibility, thin thickness, thermoplasticity, and transparency, with low production costs.</p> <p>With flexible and wearable electronics becoming more commonplace, new compatible technologies will be needed to support and promote their use. The Electrically Conductive Adhesive (ECA) fills a need by providing a useful, multi-functional polymer for use in a variety of fields from battery binding to flexible displays.</p> <p>The current generation of heterogenous electronically conducting polymers suffers from poor adhesion resulting in high energy loss, signal error, and undesirable electrical resistance. Additionally, they experience phase separation, severe stiffness, and rapid aging. The ECA has a well-defined block polymer structure and controllable crosslinking behavior, resulting in a long-lasting material with strong adhesive properties, high electrical conductivity, and flexibility.</p> <p>Electrically conducting polymers must have both adequate adhesive and conductive properties to fulfill their purposes. Traditional conducting polymers will generally use fillers to achieve conductivity; however, this leads to many drawbacks including severe phase separation, deterioration of mechanical properties, and shortened lifetime of the material. Currently available materials that attempt to overcome these challenges are costly and relatively poor conductors per unit mass of material. The ECA is a homogenous polymer that intrinsically overcomes these barriers at a fraction of the cost.</p> <p>The ECA promises to improve performance and reduce costs of applications wherever electrically conducting polymers are found.</p> <p>For example, graphite anodes are begrudgingly used in lithium-ion batteries as the higher capacity Silicon anode has poor tolerance for existing PVDF binders during charge/discharge cycles. ECA could be a suitable replacement that improves battery performance ten-fold.</p> <p>Solar cells need excellent adhesion and conductivity between the Silicon substrate and photovalic device, which ECA provides.</p> <p>Existing mechanical strain sensors have problems due to short detection ranges and poor flexibility. ECA can accurately transfer electronic signals upon long-range movement on uneven surfaces, promoting its use in biomedical motion sensors and smart fabrics.</p> <p>ECA can work in OLED displays that are thin, flexible, stretchable, rollable, and lightweight.</p> <p>ECA can also be used as an anti-corrosive conductive coating material. It undergoes a redox process that controls the surrounding counter ions on metal surfaces, preventing localized corrosion</p>
Efficient and Stable Pigment-Coated Perovskite Solar Cells Dr. Biwu Ma 21-002 & 21-038 Garrett Edmunds <p>Low-cost, nontoxic, highly stable industrial organic pigments are utilized as surface passivation agents for perovskite solar cells (PSCs).</p> <p>Next-generation thin-film perovskite solar cells have been shown to have major advantages over their silicon-based counterparts. They are low-cost, highly efficient, and are simple to synthesize from earth-abundant materials. However, to become truly competitive with current on-the-market solar cells, PSCs need to overcome the challenge of long-term stability while maintaining their ability to be mass-produced.</p> <p>Dr. Biwu Ma of Florida State University has developed a method to apply a layer of organic pigments to PSCs as a passivation agent, increasing the useable lifespan of these solar cells. The pigments are well-known, low-cost, and have been shown to improve the efficiency PSCs; in one experiment, the efficiency of a solar cell was increased from 18.9% to 21.1% with the application of the pigment.</p> <p>The pigments are applied via solution processing of soluble pigment derivatives followed by thermal annealing to convert them into insoluble coating. This enables effective passivation through strong interactions organic pigments and the metal halides of the solar cell. Together with the hydrophobicity of the coating, this enables highly efficient PSCs with remarkable stability.</p> <p>News article: <a href=""></a></p>
Sustainable Bioplastic from Pine Trees Dr. Justin Kennemur 21-008 Garrett Edmunds <p>Researchers at Florida State University have developed a method of converting α-pinene, sourced from forestry biomass, into an isomeric form that renders it suitable for polymerization. The resulting material is predicted to have ballistic, barrier, and mechano-responsive properties. This presents a cheap and new plastic material based on a feedstock that is available on an industrial scale. The conversion method utilizes commercially available catalyst systems and can be performed at scale.</p> <p><strong>Applications</strong></p> <p>Replacement for commonly used petroleum-based plastics, including:</p> <ul> <li>Bottles</li> <li>Shopping bags</li> <li>Fishing nets</li> <li>Straws</li> <li>Multi-pack beverage rings</li> </ul> <p><strong>Advantages</strong></p> <ul> <li>Presents a significant advancement over α- and β-pinene polymers in terms of ease of manufacture</li> <li>Can be harvested sustainably through tapping or through forestry by-products</li> <li>Resistant to ill-effects brought on by contamination</li> <li>Has similar desirable properties when compared to commercially available petroleum-based plastics</li> </ul> <p>News article:</p> <p> </p> <p>Research Article:</p>
MORIARTY: A Rapid, Highly Sensitive, Nucleic Acid Detection Method Dr. Hong Li 21-044 Garrett Edmunds <p>The COVID-19 Pandemic demonstrated the need for rapid, affordable, and accurate virus testing methods. While the standard Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)-based methods remain effective and widely used, they require hours to complete and are unable to directly detect virus variants and other subtle changes to genetic material. Additionally, PCR lacks the possibility for testing under limited resources.</p> <p>MORIARTY (an acronym for <u>M</u>ultipronged, <u>O</u>ne-pot, <u>R</u>NA-<u>I</u>nduced, <u>A</u>ffordable, <u>R</u>apid, <u>T</u>est s<u>Y</u>stem) is an enzyme-based method that can detect nucleic acids from a variety of sources, including the SARS-CoV2 coronavirus, seasonal flu varieties, and circulating tumor DNA for early cancer detection. This detection method is consistent with the accuracy of PCR methods but is considerably faster does not require costly equipment, with results available in as little as 15 minutes.</p> <p>The technology utilizes CRISPR-Cas enzymes to detect genetic material and induce a fluorescent signal. The system can be easily repurposed and reprogramed for any genetic material detection, including viral RNA, viral DNA, and ctDNA, and can be used to detect variants with single-nucleotide resolution. This fidelity, for example, can detect the difference between the various coronavirus variants with the same point-of-care test. It can also be used for liquid biopsies to test for ctDNA for various cancers.</p>
Contactless Power Converter Age Detector Yanjun Shi 20-045 Michael Tentnowski <p>A measurement method/device that measures the acoustic noise near an operating power converter and predicts the remaining useful life of the converter. The acoustic noise is generated by the switching events of power semiconductors. Compared with the state-of-the-art aging detection or failure detection methods, this method does not require inserting a special-designed detection circuit near the power switches.</p>
Oxygen-substituted, Solid-state, Lithium-ion Batteries Yan-yan Hu 21-033 Garrett Edmunds <p>Lithium-ion batteries have quickly become an integral part of everyday life with their use in laptops, smartphones, electric vehicles, etc. However, a major safety concern of commercial Lithium Ion Batteries stems from the use of flammable organic electrolytes. To overcome this, solid electrolytes have been extensively studied, especially Li<sub>3</sub>PS<sub>4</sub> because of its stability against lithium and low cost. Li<sub>3</sub>PS<sub>4</sub> does have the draw back of having a staggering decrease in ionic conductivity due to a lack of stability in its highly conductive β-phase; stabilizing this phase promises to provide access to a range of next-generation batteries that are stable and highly efficient.</p> <p>Dr. Yan-yan Hu and her team at FSU have developed a range of oxygen-substituted materials with the structure Li<sub>3</sub>PS<sub>4-x</sub>O<sub>x</sub> (0 &lt; x &lt; 1) that are more stable and provides up to a seven-fold increase in ionic conductivity and a lower activation energy compared to experimental β-Li<sub>3</sub>PS<sub>4</sub>. Additionally, they have developed a method to synthesize the material through high-energy ball-milling.</p> <p>The result is a high-performance battery with fast Li-ion transport and decreased activation energy. Coupled with a facile synthetic method, the enhanced electrochemical performance of this material makes it a great candidate for next generation solid-sate batteries.</p> Battery,Lithium-ion,Solid-state
Single Transformer-Based Gate Driver Fang Peng 20-025 Michael Tentnowski <p><span>A gate driver for power switching devices using a GHz band input. There is only one isolation point, so gate signals and power can be transmitted at the same time through one isolation point. An edge detector and pulse generating circuit on the primary side can detect each rising and falling edge of the original gate signal and generate a certain pulse width for these edges separately. A rectifier circuit on the secondary side rectifies the voltage transmitted from the primary side. The rectified voltage is used for the secondary side logic circuit and drive circuit. At the same time, a signal recovery circuit can recover original gate signals' rising edge and falling edge separately. The new gate driver circuit has a much simpler design and exchanges more information than existing solutions.</span></p>
Hybrid Circuit Breaker Using Fast Mechanical and Semiconductor Switches Yuan Li 21-030 Michael Tentnowski <p>A new circuit and corresponding operating principle for direct current hybrid circuit breaker (DC HCB). The new circuit exclusively applies a capacitor directly in the path of main semiconductor switch, making the circuit more simplified with less components. This DC HCB can be used to clear faults in bidirectional DC or AC power systems and enables the mechanical switch to operate during no-load conditions.  A branch consisting of capacitor in series with semiconductor switch(es) is connected in parallel with a branch consisting of a mechanical switch. The principle consists of four stages: Standby, Commuting, Regulating and Tailing.</p>
Active Adaptive Low-Pass Filter Control for Power Electronic Converters Yanjun Shi 21-057 Michael Tentnowski <p><span>A digital control method that builds on the principle of active damping using a virtual memristor low pass filter which adjusts the cutoff frequency based on the output voltage in a way such that adaptive response to transient features is achieved.  Implementation is done by linearizing the equations governing the behavior of a memristor and directly programming the control algorithm onto a digital signal processor.  Greater stable operation area is covered by the controller, as opposed to conventional active damping control.</span></p>
Efficient, Earth-abundant Electrocatalytic Material for Water Oxidation Dr. Michael Shatruk 19-009 Garrett Edmunds <p>AlFe<sub>2</sub>B<sub>2</sub> exhibits excellent electrocatalytic performance in oxygen-evolution reactions, and is inexpensive, facilely synthesized, and comprised of earth-abundant elements.</p> <p>Key Benefits</p> <ul> <li>AlFe<sub>2</sub>B<sub>2 ­</sub>serves as an excellent oxygen-evolution reaction (OER) pre-catalyst and has long-term stability under alkaline conditions.</li> <li>This material outperforms well-known platinum group metal catalysts, including IrO<sub>2</sub> and RuO<sub>2</sub>, as well as Co- and Ni- containing noble-metal-free catalysts</li> <li>The material is made of readily available and inexpensive materials and is synthesized simply by arc-melting followed by ball-milling.</li> </ul> <p>Technical Summary</p> <p>Fast depletion of fossil fuels drives extensive research efforts aimed at the development of renewable energy sources, including water electrolysis to produce fuel cells. The state-of-the-art electrocatalysts are Pt, IrO<sub>2</sub>, and RuO<sub>2</sub>, which are expensive and limited in their reserves. AlFe<sub>2</sub>B<sub>2</sub> is a promising alternative due to its low-cost and lack of noble-metal elements. AlFe<sub>2</sub>B<sub>2</sub> acts as a scaffold for the <em>in situ</em> formation of catalytically active Fe<sub>3</sub>O<sub>4</sub> nanoclusters. The material is exceptionally efficient and exhibits substantially lower overpotentials at all current densities when compared to commonly used electrocatalysts. The material is also remarkably stable and an overpotential value of 240 mV was observed at a constant current density of 10 mA cm<sup>-2</sup> for more than ten days. These outcomes establish AlFe<sub>2</sub>B<sub>2</sub> as a highly active and inexpensive OER electrocatalyst with remarkable long-term stability.</p> <p>Development Stage</p> <p>AlFe<sub>2</sub>B<sub>2</sub> has been thoroughly tested and evaluated in a laboratory setting and is currently undergoing further testing and refinement in industry-scale environments. Further research into improved variations are also ongoing.</p> <p> </p>
Data-Driven Recirculating Aquaculture System Moses Anubi 21-055 Michael Tentnowski <p>A recirculating aquaculture system with a data-driven control strategy that improves the growth rate of cultured species (ex: shrimp, tilapia), minimizes required feed, reduces water consumption by improving waste removal from recirculating water, and provides robustness against uncertainty and disturbances. The system uses low-cost and readily available sensors to obtain estimates of concentrations of hard to measure target parameters such as ammonia, nitrate, nitrite, chemical oxygen demand, and phosphate).  It is controlled in real-time using data-driven (including machine learning) algorithms.</p> <p>In addition to the main culture tank, the system houses bioreactors for nitrification and denitrification in the waste removal process. The type of reactor varies but may include a mixed bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) and an anaerobic suspend growth reactor or sequencing batch reactor (SBR). These reactors are equipped with sensors and dosing pumps to cultivate a monitored biomass (biofloc). An intelligent control strategy is constructed from measurement data to optimize the waste removal ability of the biomass and to track reference setpoints which can be sized appropriately to feed plants in an aquaponics or hydroponics operation. The purpose of this design is to create a semi-automated method to continuously monitor and control aquaculture systems for maximum food production.</p>
Three-Pronged Approach to Optimize Electrical Insulation Systems Giancarlo Montanari 22-008 Michael Tentnowski <p>To maximize power density and dynamics, the supply of electrical and electronics components in electrical assets can go from sinusoidal AC to modulated AC and DC, including voltage and load transients.  Hybrid power supply can be a viable option that includes supplying the same component, such as cables by different types of voltage waveforms, and modulated AC and DC. This determines electrical, thermal and mechanical stress profiles that can change significantly with supply voltage and time. This can increase electrothermal and mechanical aging rates (intrinsic and extrinsic aging). As an example, the electric field in defects can incept partial discharges (PD) for one or the other stress conditions, with different PD amplitude and repetition rate. This impacts their harmfulness and the extrinsic aging rate. Life reduction can be dramatic, even if PD activity is discontinuous. The three-pronged approach allows a design that drives the optimized design of insulation systems to maximize their reliability, life, and dimensions/weight, while considering the risk of generating extrinsic aging phenomena.</p>
High Pressure Furnace for Reacting Bi-2212 Superconductor Lamar English 22-012 Michael Tentnowski <p>The stainless-steel furnace is a vertical pressure vessel that is cold wall designed and electrically powered.  The shell has a working pressure of 735 psi, with a 60” tall heater assembly that has six heating zones that are individually controlled.  It has enough power to maintain a temperature of 890C and controlled to within +/-1.5C.  The furnace operates in an environment of Argon and oxygen which is fed at a flow rate controlled through the bottom flange into the annulus space between the heaters and the outside of the Inconel tube. This causes a natural convective flow to occur. Also controlled are the temperature profile, ramp rate, gas mixture, flow rate, max. temperature needed for the exact duration, and cool down profile.  The furnace was designed to produce a homogeneous working zone of one meter or more. All electrical feedthroughs, control thermocouples, pressure transducer and gas inlet are in the base flange while the sample thermocouples and gas outlet are in the top flange which is lifted and lowered by a hydraulic ram.</p> <p><strong>Advantages:</strong></p> <ul> <li>No leakage</li> <li>No gaps in insulation</li> <li>Much larger work zone</li> <li>No penetrations in the body tube</li> <li>No “make or break” electrical connections</li> </ul>
Non-Intrusive, In-Situ Power Measurement Method Jinyeong Moon 21-031 Michael Tentnowski <p>Power measurements generally entail measuring voltage and current waveforms and creating a product of the two with a perfectly aligned time axis. Misaligned timing axes in voltage and current will distort the actual power value, severely undermining the credibility of it.  Voltage and current waveforms are sampled through different probes with different sampling circuits, different amplifiers, different cable lengths, and using different processing algorithms inside the oscilloscope. Their timing axes are independent and the effect of the timing misalignment (skew), generally overwhelms the real, physical power being</p> <p>measured.</p> <p>The In-Situ method non-intrusively performs the precise power measurement during when the target circuit (e.g., a power converter) is in operation and while completely free from the effects of the timing skew between the voltage and current. Aside from precisely extracted voltage and current waveforms, information about the timing alignment of the voltage and current is extracted with this method and is based on the circuit topology and expected operation waveforms. This method enables In-Situ power measurements in general power converters, which has been never practiced before, and can be applied to power converters with non-sinusoidal waveforms, DC-bias, and multiple, local, minor B-H loops. This direct power measurement method accurately accounts for all nonlinear loss mechanisms of a component.</p>
Multilevel Inverter with a Reduced Switch Count and DC-Link Capacitor Jinyeong Moon 21-036 Michael Tentnowski <p>A multilevel inverter topology providing multilevel operation without a neutral point connection. With no split dc-link capacitors, the neutral point balancing issue in conventional multilevel operation is eliminated. The neutral points of the phase-legs are interconnected through a single bidirectional switch. The topology reduces the required number of switches for dual inverter operations, while providing all the critical benefits of multilevel operation (low current total harmonic distortion, low switching loss, low common-mode electromagnetic interference noise, and low motor iron loss).  The topology also offers a reduction in the dc-link capacitance up to 90%. Compared to a dual 2-level inverter, this invention with the same capacitance produces 50% less stress in the capacitor current and 50% less ripple in the capacitor voltage. It also enables the same level of ripple performance with only 46% of the capacitance required in the dual 2-level topology, leading significant cost and volume reductions.</p>
Polyelectrolyte Drying Agents Dr. Joseph Schlenoff 21-026 Garrett Edmunds <p><span>This novel anhydrous polyelectrolyte complex can be used as an effective drying agent for removing water from solvents and gases. It can be reactivated at low temperatures, Drying agents, including calcium sulfate, molecular sieves, silica gel, and more, are often used in industrial applications to remove water from liquids and gases where moisture-control is important. Many industrial drying agents can reversibly absorb water, meaning they can be “reactivated” through heating under a vacuum. Often, the temperatures – and, therefore, energy – required to reactivate these drying agents are high, in excess of 200 °C or 300 °C. The present invention is a polyelectrolyte complex (PEC) and is an effective drying agent, performing as well as commonly available agents such as molecular sieves and Drierite in acetonitrile, tetrahydrofuran, and toluene. PEC can be regenerated at lower temperatures, with complete water loss at about 120 °C, and is stable up to 400 °C. PEC is made of positively- and negative-charged polymers and is easily synthesized from readily available, low-cost starting materials.</span></p> <p><span>Key Words :polymers, environmental remediation, drying agent, desiccant, polyelectrolyte</span></p>
Single-Ion Conductor for Li-ion Batteries Dr. Justin Kennemur and Dr. Daniel Hallinan 22-003 Garrett Edmunds <p><span>The present invention is a blend of a low molecular weight polymer with polyelectrolyte polymer having a precisely fixed anionic motif. This material can be used as to create efficient, highly conductive solid-state batteries with low internal resistance. Solid Polymer Electrolytes (SPEs) are materials that can be used to replace the reactive organic solvents used in lithium-ion batteries. SPEs have drawbacks which prevent its wide adoption, such as low comparative conductivities and propensity to develop shorts. Single Ion Conductors (SICs) can overcome these issues by anchoring the negatively charge ion and allowing only the positively charged ion – typically Lithium ions – the mobility to carry the charge. The present material precisely controls the spacing of the negative ions on the polymer background. This material shows excellent ionic conductivity and has transference near unity.</span></p> <p> </p> <p><span>Key Words : Polymers, Energy Storage, Li-ion battery, solid-state conductor, single-ion </span>conductor</p>
Nursing Bra with Integrated Shirt Clip Dr. Jessica Ridgway Clayton 22-014 Garrett Edmunds <p>A nursing bra featuring a clip system to hold a mother’s shirt up for her while breastfeeding.</p> <ul> <li><span>An integrated clip system to easily and comfortably hold a mother's shirt during nursing</span></li> <li><span>The system is a single unit, where the clip is incorporated into the strap of the nursing bra itself</span></li> <li><span>Can reduce body strain and promotes compliance with health agencies' recommendation on breastfeeding </span></li> </ul> <p><span>The clip system integrates into the strap of a nursing bra and allows a mother to quickly and easily clip their shirt up to allow for access to their breast. The system is made up of two clips, the first that unlatches the cup of the bra that folds down to expose the breast for feeding, and the second, the new patent-pending invention, which unclips to serve as a strap that loops through the hem and neckline of a mother’s shirt and then clips to hold the shirt up and in place. The clip system can work bilaterally for a mother who wants to double pump or who is feeding twins, or unilaterally for single breastfeeding or pumping. The use of this clip system will allow mothers to comfortably sit with a neutral spine position, alleviating back and neck pain associated with breastfeeding. Additionally, the clip system allows a mother to clearly view her breast helping her baby to achieve a correct latch. The combination of aiding with proper latching and reducing a mother’s discomfort should result in a better breastfeeding experience for mothers. It is the researcher’s hope that this invention will be accessible and available to mothers worldwide, helping to increase the rate at which mothers are able to exclusively offer breast milk to their children.</span></p> Wearable technology,Nursing Bra,Maternity
Photochemical Synthesis of Polyaromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) for Modern Next-gen Electronic Display Dr. Igor Alabugin 22-007 Garrett Edmunds <p><span>Pyrene and its derivatives are Polyaromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) that found uses in organic electronic devices such as OLEDs, OFETs, and OPVs due to their high fluorescence quantum yields and inherent deep-blue emission. New synthetic strategies are essential for selective functionalization of the pyrene core and modular control of its physical properties. In this work, we have developed a new strategy for the synthesis of unsymmetrical pyrenes and higher order PAHs via a one-pot double photocyclization sequence of simple and readily available starting materials. In the first part, we describe the development and optimization of this one-pot process to synthesize different unsymmetrical pyrenes containing functional groups of different donor and acceptor ability. The second part expands this new approach to the synthesis of higher order PAHs.</span></p> <p> </p> <p><span>Key Words : LEDs, Chemical Synthesis, Flexible Displays</span></p>
Site-Specific Alkene Hydromethylation via Protonolysis of Titanacyclobutanes Dr. James Frederich 22-002 Garrett Edmunds <p><span>Methyl groups are ubiquitous in biologically active molecules. Thus, new tactics to introduce this alkyl fragment into polyfunctional structures are of significant interest. With this goal in mind, a direct method for the Markovnikov hydromethylation of alkenes was developed by FSU researchers. This method exploits the degenerate metathesis reaction between the titanium methylidene unveiled from Cp2Ti(µ-Cl)(µ-CH2)AlMe2 (Tebbe’s reagent) and unactivated alkenes. Protonolysis of the resulting titanacyclobutanes in situ effects hydromethylation in a chemo-, regio-, and site-selective manner. The broad utility of this method is demonstrated across a series of mono and di-substituted alkenes containing pendant alcohols, ethers, amides, carbamates, and basic amines.</span></p> <p> </p> <p><span>Key Words : Chemical Synthesis</span></p>
LEDs from Metal Halide Perovskites Dr. Biwu Ma 18-034 Garrett Edmunds <p><span>Metal halide perovskites have emerged as a new class of low-cost solution processable semiconductor materials with applications in a variety of optoelectronic devices, from photovoltaics, to photodetectors, lasers, and light emitting diodes (LEDs). Efficient electrically driven LEDs with green light emission based on lead bromide perovskites, such as MAPbBr3 and CsPbBr3 have been achieved. While electrically driven perovskite LEDs have shown great promise with the device efficiency approaching to those of organic and quantum dot LEDs, a number of challenges, such as long-term stability and color tunability, remain to be addressed before the consideration of commercialization. For full-color display and solid-state lighting applications, highly efficient blue and red LEDs are required in addition to green ones, which however have yet achieved comparable device performance for perovskites-based devices. To implement red perovskite LEDs, two major strategies have been attempted to date, one relying on mixing halide, and the other involving the control of quantum well structures. Mixing halide has been shown to enable precise color tuning of photoluminescence and electroluminescence of perovskite LEDs. However, mixed halide perovskites show relatively low photoluminescence quantum efficiency. More critically, mixed-halide perovskites suffer from low spectral stability due to ion migration and phase separation under illumination and electric field. the change of electroluminescence color during the device operation has been observed in all LEDs based on mixed-halide perovskites. In this invention disclosure, we report bright and efficient red perovskites LEDs with great spectral stability by using quasi-2D halide perovskites/polymer (i.e. PEO, PVK, PIP, etc.) composite thin films as the light-emitting layer. By controlling the molar ratios of large organic salt (i.e. benzyl ammonium iodide, phenethylammonium iodide, butylammonium iodie, etc.) and inorganic salts (Csl and Pbl2), FSU researchers have been able to obtain luminescent quasi-2D perovskite thin films with tunable colors from red peaked at 615 nm to deep red peaked at 676 nm. The perovskites/polymer composite approach enables quasi-2D perovskite/PEO composite thin films to possess much higher photoluminescence quantum efficiencies and smoothness than their neat quasi-2D perovskite counterparts. Advantages include: 1. These quasi-2D halide perovskites/polymer composite thin films have high photoluminescence quantum efficiency and superior thin film morpology. 2. Electrically driven LEDs with tunable emissions based on quasi-2D halide perovskites/polymer composite thin films have been achieved with superior device performance. 3. These devices show exceptional EL spectra stability and device performance stability.</span></p> <p> </p> <p><span>Key Words : Chemical Synthesis, LEDs, Perovskites</span></p>
Extracellular Vesical-based Cytokine Storm Therapy Zucai Suo 21-039 Brent Edington <p>The invention relates to the use of extracellular vesicles (EVs) loaded with CD24, a biological immunomodulator, for treating hypercytokinemia (also named cytokine storm, cytokine storm syndrome, or cytokine release syndrome). Hypercytokinemia can be caused by a number of infectious and non-infectious etiologies, especially viral respiratory infections such as H5N1 influenza, SARS-CoV-1, and SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19 agent). Other causative agents include the Epstein-Barr virus, cytomegalovirus, and group A streptococcus, and non-infectious conditions such as graft-versus-host disease. The present disclosure relates to the application of EVs that are derived from any cells including human mesenchymal stem cells and are loaded with natural or engineered CD24 for therapeutic usages in human and animals.</p> <p>Our invention allows one to load natural or engineered human or animal CD24 molecules into extracellular vesicles including exosomes without being cleaved or modified by extracellular enzymes, bound by host proteins, or neutralized by host immune responses. Prior to our invention, the N-terminal 56 amino acid residues of human CD24 has to been fused with the Fc region of human IgG1 (CD24Fc) before being used as a protein drug to treat hypercytokinemia.</p> <p>The invention will allow a very high number of CD24 molecules to be loaded into extracellular vesicles, known as natural nanoparticles. The EVs loaded with CD24 can be directly used as therapeutic agents for treating hypercytokinemia or used in combination with other immuno modulators in order to achieve potential synergy.</p>
Hybrid Lithium-Ion Capacitors Jian-ping Zheng 15-080 Garrett Edmunds <p>Lithium-ion batteries and electrochemistry capacitors are the most widely used energy storage systems for electric vehicles used today. Traditionally they produce high energy density OR high power density, but not both. Based on the chemical properties of lithium-boron and lithium-carbon, a new hybrid electrochemical device combines the advantages of high energy and high power densities, while avoiding inherent defects. Voltage profiles for cells shows that at low current, the new device has a higher energy density than lithium-carbon alone, and at high current the device has a higher energy density than lithium-boron alone. A Ragone plot proves that this novel device has the advantages of the electrode of Li-ion battery and Li-ion capacitor, balances between energy density and power density, and can satisfy the demand of energy storage systems.</p>
Transcranial Stimulation to Treat DMN Dysfunction Wen Li 22-035 Michael Tentnowski <p>This technology is directly applied to people with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease to alleviate symptoms and improve life quality. It builds upon non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS), specifically transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) that applies a relatively low-intensity sinusoid current through the scalp to stimulate the brain. It targets a major neural network (the default mode network/DMN), which breaks down with normal aging, precipitously in mild cognitive impairment and severely in Alzheimer’s disease.  The application is non-invasive, safe, and user-friendly and has a strong potential to be applied as therapeutics and prophylactics for cognitive impairment and dementia.</p> Psychology,Alzheimer's,Aging,Dementia
Topical Oxytocin Treatment with Tactile Stimulation Elizabeth Hammock 22-058 Michael Tentnowski <p>Oxytocin is an FDA approved drug (and naturally produced hormone) that is used intravenously for labor induction. Currently, oxytocin is delivered by uncomfortable (intranasal) or invasive (injection) methods. This treatment combines oxytocin receptor modulation with somatosensory stimulation through topical substance delivery. Oxytocin or other oxytocin receptor modulators will be combined with drug delivery vehicles that require somatosensory stimulation as part of their application. Topical application of oxytocin may be delivered in shampoos, soaps, lotions, creams, ointments, massage oils, wipes, chewing gum, toothpastes, personal lubricants, condoms or other mechanisms of substance delivery that involve somatosensory stimulation (e.g., massage, ‘mouthfeel’ of foods/gums/candies, and sexual activity).</p>
Symmetric Active Quench initiation for Quench Force Reduction William Markiewicz 22-047 Michael Tentnowski <p style="margin: 4.4pt 5.2pt .0001pt 0in;" class="TableParagraph"><span style="font-size: 14.0pt; font-family: 'Times New Roman',serif;">A method of reducing the inter-coil forces that can result from a quench of a nickel coil in<span style="letter-spacing: -.05pt;"> a </span>toroidal<span style="letter-spacing: -.05pt;"> </span>field<span style="letter-spacing: -.05pt;"> </span>coil<span style="letter-spacing: -.05pt;"> </span>set.<span style="letter-spacing: -.05pt;"> </span>The<span style="letter-spacing: -.05pt;"> </span>superposition<span style="letter-spacing: -.05pt;"> </span>of<span style="letter-spacing: -.05pt;"> </span>a<span style="letter-spacing: -.05pt;"> </span>symmetric<span style="letter-spacing: -.05pt;"> </span>induced<span style="letter-spacing: -.05pt;"> </span>quench<span style="letter-spacing: -.05pt;"> </span>and<span style="letter-spacing: -.05pt;"> </span>the initial asymmetric spontaneous quench results in an overall degree of symmetry that results in a significant reduction in quench related force. A<span style="letter-spacing: -.1pt;"> </span>nuclear<span style="letter-spacing: -.1pt;"> </span>fusion<span style="letter-spacing: -.1pt;"> </span>reactor<span style="letter-spacing: -.1pt;"> </span>of<span style="letter-spacing: -.1pt;"> </span>tokamak<span style="letter-spacing: -.1pt;"> </span>variety<span style="letter-spacing: -.1pt;"> </span>contains<span style="letter-spacing: -.1pt;"> </span>sets<span style="letter-spacing: -.1pt;"> </span>of<span style="letter-spacing: -.1pt;"> </span>coils,<span style="letter-spacing: -.1pt;"> </span>including<span style="letter-spacing: -.1pt;"> </span>toroidal<span style="letter-spacing: -.1pt;"> </span>field<span style="letter-spacing: -.1pt;"> </span>coils.<span style="letter-spacing: -.1pt;"> T</span>oroidal field coils are in an array that depends on uniform current in all coils or else an imbalance forces results. This is a way to maintain symmetry in the currents and fields of the toroidal field coil set, by rapidly quenching all the coils in the set in the event there is a spontaneous quench in one of the coils.<o:p></o:p></span></p>
No-Gap Integrated Coil Form for Superconducting Solenoids Tom Painter 22-037 Michael Tentnowski <p>A magnet coil winding that produces compact, high current, and high current density coils with features beneficial to high magnetic field coils. The technology produces more compact coils, leading to less expensive high-field magnets that require less structural material due to reduced magnetic forces. And it protects from damage during quench due to lower stored energy.  In addition to reducing the cost of expensive conductor material, a more compact higher-current density, high-field magnets lower costs by moving the current-carrying turns closer to the coil axis where they are more effective in producing field on-axis inversely proportional to their radius from the axis.  This also reduces the radius that proportionally increases the internal magnetic force which in turn requires extra structural material at the expense of space for current-carrying turns. </p>
TnB LoRa: Peak Identification & Block-Based Error Correction Zhenghao Zhang 22-036 Michael Tentnowski <p>TnB is designed for LoRa networks to improve capacity and communication performance. LoRa is currently the strongest contender as the technology for Low Power Wide Area Networks (LPWAN), where many nodes connect to base stations over long distances. TnB improves the capacity of a LoRa network by more than 2-3-fold, due to a novel algorithm that can decode packets that are transmitted by multiple nodes simultaneously and do so more reliably. An intelligent algorithm decodes error correction codes used in LoRa and can quickly correct the number of errors. There is no need for modification in TnB so a network operator can simply replace its base station hardware and experience immediate performance improvements.</p>
Method for Controlling Turn-to-Turn Resistance in REBCO Pancake Coils Jun LI 22-031 Michael Tentnowski <p>REBCO pancake magnets with resistive insulation has advantages of self-quench-protection and high current density over its conventionally insulated counterpart. Controlling turn-to-turn contact resistance leads to magnets with long charging/ discharging delays, high energy losses during a field ramp, and high transient electrical currents during a magnet quench. This results in high electromagnetic stresses that could damage the magnet. Very high contact resistance compromises the coil’s self-quench-protection ability risking magnet burn-out during a quench. This is a method of resistance to charge transfer (Rct) control by coating REBCO tape in combination of oxidizing stainless-steel to achieve the targeted Rc, which produces resistively insulated REBCO coils with Rct in a desirable range. It also mitigates the issue of dramatic change in Rct against pressure cycling.</p>
Evaluation of Surface Sub-Component of Insulation Systems Gian Carlo Montanari 22-029 Michael Tentnowski <p>An insulation system with connectors/electrodes in a way that the surface partial discharge inception voltage is not exceeded under any operation condition and for any level of surface contamination. The new approach chooses the distances between electrodes and ground connection, and the shape of electrodes/connectors in a way that the operating voltage is lower than SPDIV. </p>
Magnetic Levitation Simulator with Large Functional Volume Wei Guo 22-023 Michael Tentnowski <p>Reduced gravity is known to have important effects on various biological and physical systems. Weightless may prohibit cell culture growth and cause cellular stressors and bone loss that can negatively impact astronauts’ health.  In fluid systems, reduced gravity can significantly affect the sloshing dynamics of cryogenic propellants in spacecrafts, surface oscillation of liquid drops, bubble cavitation, and boiling heat transfer in fluids.  The positive potential of reduced gravity in the growth of tissue and crystals has been recognized as well.</p>
Rapid and Cost-Effective Isolation and Genotyping of Genomic Regions Alan Lemmon 22-020 Michael Tentnowski <p>A method of using a combination of adapter design, hairpinning and exonuclease digestion to enrich samples for target regions of the genome using minimal laboratory effort and produces DNA libraries that can be sequenced. This process allows a rapid and inexpensive way to obtain genotype data in any organism, while avoiding the primary limiting factor of multiplex PCR: primer dimer. This is more flexible in terms of the type of genomic markers that can be evaluated, including SNP, STR (micro satellites), and longer DNA sequence variations.</p> <p>The technology can be used to obtain randomly distributed (unbiased) markers, or specific genomic regions. The number of regions targeted is also flexible and dramatically reduces upfront development time. Bioinformatic analyses of existing genomes or preliminary DNA sequence data can be conducted quickly to ascertain the most appropriate probes.</p>
Symmetric Quench Initiation for Axial Force Reduction William Markiewicz 22-019 Michael Tentnowski <p>Active quench protection of REBCO-HTS, no-insulation superconducting coils by placing emphasis on the creation of a symmetric quench to eliminate the axial force that results from the spontaneous quench of a no-insulation coil in a multiple coil magnet. This quench heater supersedes other fast inductive asymmetry quench heaters.</p> <p> </p>
Organic Photovoltaic Materials for Mechanoluminescence Sensing and Structural Health Monitoring Okenwa Okoli 22-052 Michael Tentnowski <p>Structural health monitoring (SHM) is an essential tool for ensuring safety and integrity while detecting the progression of damage within engineering structures to estimate expected failure.1-4 This is usually done over time through periodically sampled response measurements to monitor changes in material and geometrical properties of a given system. Take a commercial aircraft, for example, that usually travels at around 580 MPH. Any impact at this speed could cause damage to the material.  If it goes unnoticed, then it will progress and further risk ultimate failure or the lives of that on-board.5 Because of situations like this, there is a demand for a real-time SHM device within damage-prone systems.  A proposed idea to meet the demand is a flexible mechanoluminescent (ML)-organic photodiode. The device consists of a photodiode constructed on top of an ML layer which emits light when it experiences some mechanical action, such as pressure.</p> <p>Organic photovoltaic (OPV) materials can be used as a photo-absorbing layer for ML light. This OPV layer is made up of a blend of donor polymer, poly (3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl (P3HT), and non-fullerene acceptor (BTP-4F or Y6). The broad ultraviolet-visible to near-infrared light absorption and excellent charge transport efficiency make P3HT:Y6 active materials a promising alternative as the light absorbing layer to detect photon emission from the ML layer in flexible organic photodiodes for sensing and SHM. The pressure sensor is a vertical device structure of indium tin oxide (ITO)/tin oxide (SnO2)/P3HT:Y6/silver (Ag) electrode. The current-voltage measurements revealed that the P3HT:Y6 OPVs exhibited an excellent rectification ratio.  When this technology is coupled with a software and data acquisition system, sensor’s data can be received and interpreted</p> <ul> <li>Advantages:</li> <li>The response time measurement demonstrated that the device has an impressive response speed. The three-point bending test unveiled that the pressure sensor possesses excellent stability after several cycles.   </li> </ul>
Tensegrity Adaptive-Geometry Wave Energy Converter (TAGWEC) Kourosh Shoele 22-043 Garrett Edmunds <p>The proposed device is a novel wave energy harvesting system with shape-changing capabilities intended to increase system survivability during extreme weather, increase energy generation, and facilitate large-scale deployment. The device consists of a floating buoy connected to a submerged reaction plate by a spar. The relative motion of the buoy and reaction plate, caused by water waves, generates electric power through a power-take-off system. The novelty of the proposed design lies in the changing geometry capability through tensegrity. Devices designed using tensegrity principles are lightweight and deformable, having the ability to quickly toggle between shape configurations with low actuation cost. These characteristics allow for ease of stowage and deployment in addition to enhanced wave-energy converter (WEC) performance and lifetime. The efficiency of this floating-point absorber WEC concept can be significantly increased by incorporating an automatic control that optimizes the relative motion between device components, i.e., the buoy and reaction plate. This control scheme tunes the oscillation of the device to the incident wave elevation by changing the size and shape of the device components, maximizing the power transfer from the wave to the device. The invention constitutes the tensegrity design with accompanying control scheme.  The novelty of the proposed design lies in the changing geometry capability through tensegrity. The invention constitutes the tensegrity design with accompanying control scheme.</p> <p> </p> <p>Advantages:</p> <ul> <li>The efficiency of this floating-point absorber WEC concept can be significantly increased by incorporating an automatic control that optimizes the relative motion between device components.</li> <li>This control scheme tunes the oscillation of the device to the incident wave elevation by changing the size and shape of the device components, maximizing the power transfer from the wave to the device.</li> </ul>
Manufacturing of Polymer Derived Ceramic Composites with High Thermal Shock Resistance Zhibin Yu 22-040 Michael Tentnowski <p>Ceramics and their composites are demanded for high temperature and extreme environment applications. However, they are brittle and easy to crack especially upon mechanical shock and thermal shock. We discovered that by incorporating nanotube/nanowire fillers and following the manufacturing procedure in this invention, high performance ceramic composites can be obtained with greatly enhanced mechanical shock resistance and thermal shock resistance. The composite can also be rapidly fabricated with 10-50 times improvement of manufacturing throughput.</p> <p>Advantages:</p> <ul> <li>Improved speed in manufacturing without cracking and deformation</li> </ul>
The Tools Upon My Shelf Lara Klopp 22-039 Brent Edington <p>"The Tools Upon My Shelf" was written to reach younger children in the program with characters representing large and small emotions, as well as intentionally non-descript human characters, that do not exclude any readers by presenting specific demographics.  It is an effective resource in helping young children to understand, process, and cope with their emotions properly.  This book is currently being implemented in many schools throughout Florida, and its reach is expanding.  The manuscript would be useful to any early educator focused on social-emotional learning.</p> <p>Advantages</p> <ul> <li>Specific content relates to the Rebound &amp; Recovery Social-Emotional Learning Program developed by the FSU College of Social Work’s Center for the Study and Promotion of Communities, Families, &amp; Children. </li> <li>Plans are underway for creating additional materials from the book’s characters. Stickers, posters, calendars, notebooks, stuffed animals, and blankets may be available in the future.</li> </ul>
Rebound and Recovery Professional Certification / Curriculum Tai Cole 22-038 Brent Edington <p>Rebound &amp; Recovery is an evidence-based program that is the culmination of the efforts of several gifted clinical social workers, psychologists, and early childhood education researchers.  It enables prekindergarten through third grade children to identify their emotions, recognize the sources of their emotions, and develop techniques to calm down when their emotions grow too large for them to handle.Rebound and Recovery is a new way to work with children who are experiencing emotional and behavioral dysregulation by equipping classroom teachers and/or caregivers.  Professional certification uses 15 modules to teach educators about social emotional learning, cognitive behavioral techniques, and how to use the curriculum. This promotes kindergarten readiness and helps with classroom emotional and behavioral managements.</p> <p>Advantages</p> <p>Rebound and Recovery curriculum is ten lessons that provide direct instruction through scripted material, large- and small-group instruction, stories and activities. Lessons include:</p> <p>How my emotions, thoughts, and actions are connected,</p> <ul> <li>What are my thoughts and actions?</li> <li>What is sadness?</li> <li>What is anger?</li> <li>What is worry?</li> <li>What is calm?</li> <li>What is happiness?</li> <li>What are negative thoughts?</li> <li>What is self-care? and</li> <li>What are support systems?</li> </ul>
Bioreactor for Continuously Metabolizing 1,4-Dioaxane to Less Than a Half Microgram Per Liter Youneng Tang 22-034 Garrett Edmunds <p>1,4-Dioxane is a contaminant of emerging concern.  It is found above the health-based reference level (0.35 microgram/liter) in 6.9% of the U.S. public water systems. It is also found in many sites on the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) National Priorities List (NPL).  Bioreactors that are filled with adsorbent for biofilm attachment are widely utilized for water treatment.  They have been studied for 1,4-dioxane removal.  In such reactors, biofilms continuously metabolize 1,4-dioxane to harmless forms by respiring oxygen.  Existing bioreactors are not able to remove 1,4-dioxane to close to the health-based reference level.  The main reason is that the environmentally relevant 1,4-dioxane concentrations (&amp;lt; tens of microgram/liter) cannot sustain growth of microbes. </p> <p>This invention adds a screen above the adsorbent in the bioreactor, which is operated in the up-flow mode.  The screen retained the detached biofilm that would have been out of the reactor.  By accumulating biomass, the reactor was able to degrade 1,4-dioxane to &amp;lt;0.5 microgram/liter, which is the detection limit of the equipment in the researchers’ laboratory.  The combination of a medium empty bed retention time and a low influent 1,4-dioxane concentration also plays a critical role in the success of the bioreactor. </p> <p>Advantages</p> <ul> <li>The bioreactor can be directly used to treat contaminated water.</li> <li>It can also be used to enrich 1,4-dioxane-metabolizing microbes.</li> <li>These can then be injected into contaminated sites through bioaugmentation for in-situ remediation.</li> </ul>
Autonomously controlled Hybrid Parcel Water/Air Delivery Vehicle with Buoyancy-Assisted Cable-Dragged Payloads Christian Hubicki 22-033 Michael Tentnowski <p>The invention comprises a parcel delivery/transportation system that employs an aerial vehicle that drags, via a cable, a suspended parcel in the water, above water, and on the surface. The system exploits buoyant forces to reduce energy consumption, conceal, and transport heavier parcels. Thanks to the maneuverability of the system, the parcel can be manipulated to avoid collisions with natural and man-made structures, interconnect separated bodies of water, and perform individualized delivery.</p> <p>Advantages</p> <ul> <li>Greater stability</li> <li>Reduced Energy Consumption</li> </ul>
Method of Manufacturing Large-Area Boron nitride-Phosphor Composites with a Nanoscale Phase Separation for Efficient thermal Neutron Detection Zhibin Yu 22-017 Michael Tentnowski <p>Commercial neutron detectors have problems of heavy weight, high power consumption and low response speed. This new invention disclosed a new method of manufacturing compact boron nitride-phosphor composites for efficient, portable, and fast-responding thermal neutron detection. Since the composite can be manufactured like conventional commodity plastics using a solution or compress molding process, they can be made at a very-low cost and large area, enabling a high efficiency of stand-off detection and imaging of thermal neutrons in presence of special nuclear materials and nuclear events.</p> <p>Advantages</p> <ul> <li>Lower Cost</li> <li>Higher Efficiency</li> </ul>
Cellulose Nanocrystals for Starter Plugs Gang Chen 22-015 Garrett Edmunds <p>Plant starter plugs are popularly used in urban farming, especially for aeroponics, hydroponics, and aquaponics. They are small, compact mass of solid growing media for seed germination and their sponge-like consistency protects the delicate root structures of young plants to ensure safe transplanting into soil or soil-less growth media. Plant starter plugs provide a starter charge of nutrients to stimulate fast and healthy root growth and moisture control is crucial for their success. Water needs to be added appropriately so that the seed will germinate. Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) have the capacity to extract moisture from the atmosphere. If CNCs are used as components of plant starter plugs, moisture can be maintained with vapor water extracted from the atmosphere to meet the seed germination needs without watering the plugs. The use of CNCs for plant starter plugs depends largely on the source, composition, crystal and pore structure, and the preparation or fabrication method. CNCs can be designed for specific needs and moisture stability to meet the specific requirements.</p> <p>Advantages</p> <ul> <li>Fast and healthy root growth</li> <li>Useable in remote areas</li> </ul>
Interface Engineering for Flexible Radiation Shielding Composites with High Attenuation Zhibin Yu 22-009 Michael Tentnowski <p>Numerous materials have been used for radiation protection.  For example, radiation protection materials have been used in articles of clothing, such as gloves, but such materials typically include relatively low concentration of particles, such as concentrations of up to 80 %, by weight, of embedded particles.  Greater concentrations have not been used, because doing so makes it difficult, if not impossible, to maintain suitable flexibility of the materials.   There remains a need for flexible radiation shielding composite materials with high attenuation, including materials that can maintain a desired degree of flexibility at relatively high particle concentrations.  </p> <p> </p> <p>This invention embodies composite materials including bismuth oxide that may be flexible and include relatively high particle loadings.  These composite materials, therefore, may be flexible, and have very high attenuation properties per unit thickness and/or per unit weight.  The potential uses are improved flexible and stretchable radiation protection material which have potential uses in clothing, gloves, and more.</p> <p> </p> <p>Advantages</p> <ul> <li>Very high loading concentration of inorganic particles in an elastic polymer matrix.</li> <li>Demonstrated high radiation attenuation without damaging mechanical flexibility.</li> </ul>
Method for Algorithmic Optimization of Active Flow Control Actuator Placement and Parameters Farrukh Alvi 22-005 Michael Tentnowski <p>This invention is a system and a method for experimentally finding the best combinations and locations of active flow control actuators for optimization of a desired cost function (i.e., drag; lift; noise; or others). The system implements an automated test bench that enables a computing platform running an optimization algorithm to individually toggle and parameterize active flow control actuators on-the-fly, without requiring prior knowledge of the details of the flow to be optimized. This platform can be deployed to any engineering problem of external or internal aerodynamics (i.e., cars, trucks, trains, aircraft, ducts, etc.) where active flow control is a desirable technology but finding the best configuration of actuators is currently an intractable problem. The proposed system makes such a problem tractable, with many potential applications in the industry.</p> <p>Advantages</p> <ul> <li>Wide range of applicability</li> <li>Prior knowledge of flow details not necessary</li> </ul>
Thermoelectric Polymer Composites, Method of Improving the Thermodynamic Performance Mei Zhang 21-054 Michael Tentnowski <p>Thermoelectric technology has been treated as a candidate to convert heat into electricity to reuse the waste heat. By using body heat, thermoelectric generators are promising when applied to wearable devices as the power source. Organic thermoelectric materials have drawn more and more attention in such applications due to their good flexibility, low density, low toxicity, low cost, low thermal conductivity, and good processability. In contrast to conductive polymers, the thermoelectric performance of insulating polymers, with better processability and lower cost, is limited by the low electrical conductivity. In this patent, polymer pyrolysis, which was reported to improve the electrical conductivity of some insulting polymers, was used to improve the thermoelectric properties of insulting polymer composites. The studies show that the structure conjugation during pyrolysis is beneficial to both the Seebeck coefficient and electric conductivity of polymer composites. The partially conjugated polymer composite obtained a comparable power factor to that of the conductive polymer composites. With the contribution of this method, more options are provided for the studies of flexible thermoelectric materials with better processability and lower cost.</p> <p>Advantages</p> <ul> <li>Improved electrical conductivity of insulting polymer composites.</li> <li>Improved processability at a lower cost.</li> </ul>
Estimation of fugitive Landfill Methane Emissions using Drone-Based Surface emission Monitoring and GA Optimization Tarek Abichou and Nizar Bel Haj Ali 21-049 Garrett Edmunds <p>The algorithm identifies positions of leakage sources and to quantify the gas emission rate from the surface of a landfill. An optimization-based approach using Genetic Algorithms (GA) is employed to solve the inverse problem that consists of identifying source data (locations of hot-spots and corresponding emission rates) having only receptor location and surface measurements as input data. Single and multi-objective optimization schemes through GAs are used with surface methane concentration data along with wind speed and wind direction during the monitoring campaign.  This is the measurement data. The optimization methodology uses atmospheric dispersion calculations to predict major methane emissions sources in a landfill. The total emissions of the landfill are then estimated by summing all of the methane sources predicted by the algorithm.</p> <p>Advantages</p> <ul> <li>More accurate calculations</li> <li>Quicker calculations</li> </ul>
Self-Mated Ultralow Wear Perfluoropolymer Composites Brandon Krick 21-042 Michael Tentnowski <p>An ultralow wear material pairing for dry/unlubricated sliding and bearing.  Ultralow wear perfluoropolymer-based composites have been realized in the form of a perfluoropolymers filled with organic and inorganic fillers. These systems are typically reported for sliding against steel and other metal countersamples. The present invention considers a paired system in which a low wear perfluoropolymer composite is slid against another perfluoropolymer composite.  This  resulted in a lower wear rate than either system against the traditional steel countersample. This is the first time these systems have been proposed, tested and measured. </p> <p>Advantages</p> <ul> <li>Significantly improves the wear rate and/or friction coefficient of already ultralow wear perfluoropolymer composite systems.</li> <li>the steady state wear rate after 1 million sliding cycles in a standard experiment is significantly reduced</li> </ul>
Saving Jane Karen Oehme 21-041 Brent Edington <p>This professionally certified curriculum was designed to convey to the public a better understanding of human trafficking. It has been organized in a unique manner that presents a public health approach to human trafficking. There are currently seven chapters organized with original content, clear objectives, and a thought-provoking quiz.</p> <ul> <li>Education of the dangers and statistics related to human trafficking</li> </ul>
New Materials Associated with the A.R. Chronicles/Uncanny Chronicle Comic Book College of Social Work Yaacov Petcher 21-037 Brent Edington <p>This work entails the new chapters and content that were added to the graphic novel entitled “The Uncanny Chronicles.”</p> <p>The A.R Chronicles is a digital and print world of characters promoting research-informed and evidence-based practices in a bioecological and cognitive flexibility framework to support child and adolescent development. Current iterations of AR Chronicles include a web-based comic and graphic novel with expansions into gamfied learning.</p> <p>Advantages</p> <ul> <li>Build family relationships and show how families stick up for each other.</li> <li>Provides awareness of managing emotions and normalize negative inward feelings.</li> <li>Teaches overcoming one’s fears and knowing when to fight or run.</li> </ul>
National Prevention Toolkit on Officer-Involved Domestic Violence Karen Oehme 21-032 Brent Edington <p>The National Prevention Toolkit on Officer Involved Domestic Violence and Human Trafficking is a project of the Law Enforcement Families Partnership (LEFP) at the Institute for Family Violence Studies within Florida State University’s College of Social Work. The Toolkit is part of a broad-based effort to educate officers and support healthy families and communities. Please note that the domestic violence training is not a batterer intervention program and is not for use when violence has already occurred. </p> <p>Advantages</p> <ul> <li>To educate officers about the dynamics and impact of officer-involved domestic violence.</li> <li>To support a law enforcement culture that prioritizes prevention efforts and officer/family wellness.</li> <li>To encourage officers to ask for help when they need it before violence occurs.</li> </ul>
Battery-Based Authentication for Distributed Energy Resources Charalambos Konstantinou 21-028 Garrett Edmunds <p>A battery-based authentication methodology for distributed energy resources ("DERs&amp;rdquo;) such as rooftop solar panels and storage systems is described. The methodology leverages the inherent entropy of the DER battery energy storage system (BESS) as a root-of-trust. The DER authentication is achieved using a challenge-reply mechanism that relies on the corresponding DER’s BESS state-of-charge (SoC) and voltage measurements. A dynamically updating process ensures that the BESS state is up-to-date. The parties involved in the authentication are the DER plant communicating with operators or aggregators who manage the DER unit as source of energy and/or other ancillary services. Accordingly, the methodology can be applied to existing communication protocols employed for DER management and control to overcome their existing authentication-related security protocol issues.</p> <p>Advantages</p> <ul> <li>The methodology can be applied to existing communication protocols employed for DER management and control.</li> <li>Ability to overcome existing authentication-related security protocol issues.</li> </ul>
Microwave-Mediated Biochar-Hydrogel Composite Synthesis Gang Chen 21-025 Michael Tentnowski <p>Microwave-mediated biochar and biochar-hydrogel composite production can provide an energy-efficient, timesaving, and environmentally friendly way for the synthesis of biochar and biochar-hydrogel composite. Microwave-mediated pyrolysis and polymerization are creating an alternative to the current methods of biochar and biochar-hydrogel composite synthesis. This invention includes microwave-mediated pyrolysis, polymerization and polymer modification. The rapid dipole rotation prompted by microwave irradiation introduces energy to the involved chemical reactions more efficiently.  This significantly speeds up these chemical processes. Unlike conventional thermal heating, microwave irradiation can be performed at deliberately chosen temperatures in shifts.  The reaction equilibrium and kinetics of the absorption of radiation is temperature independent. This process can also achieve stable thermodynamic properties of polymers with no further influence on other reactions.  This helps to avoid the deformation of these polymers. </p> <p>Advantages</p> <ul> <li>Microwave-mediated biochar and biochar-hydrogel composite synthesis reactions are simple to operate with limited additives.</li> <li>It is also space efficient and can largely reduce processing costs.</li> <li>The produced biochar and biochar-hydrogel composite are popularly used in agricultural to conserve water and nutrients in response to climate change.</li> <li>The waste can be used as feedstocks for the biochar and biochar-hydrogel composite synthesis.</li> <li>This invention can be useful in various agricultural applications.</li> </ul>
A Rapid Laboratory Testing Protocol to Evaluate Pavement Interlayer System Qian Zhang 21-024 Garrett Edmunds <p>The invention is a small-scale lab testing protocol, including testing apparatus, testing procedures, and data analysis procedures, for rapid and accurate evaluation of the performance of interlayer products and other treatment methods on delaying or suppressing the reflective cracking. The testing protocol will utilize bench-scale specimens and consider various effects of temperature and traffic loadings and load transfer coefficient on the performance of the pavement repair system.</p> <p>Advantages</p> <ul> <li>Quicker testing time</li> <li>Small scale environment is all that is needed.</li> </ul>
CBM at Home Yaacov Petscher 21-007 Brent Edington <p>CBM at Home is a digital assessment tool for parents of children in K-3 to assess a child’s reading ability in order to empirically evaluate their risk for future reading difficulties.</p> <p>The tool presently exists at: <a href=""></a></p> <p><span>Advantages</span></p> <ul> <li><span>Assessment tool can be used at home</span></li> </ul>
A System for Removing Trichloroethane, Trichloroethene, and 1,4-Dioaxane from Contaminated Wastewater Bruce Rittman 20-056 Garrett Edmunds <p>This invention relates to a synergistic system featuring coupled precious-metal catalysis and biodegradation in series.  It contains methods for forming catalyst-film capable of removing TCA and TCE.  It contains methods for forming ethane-oxidizing biofilm capable of 1,4-dioxane biodegradation.  It contains methods for removing TCA, TCE, and 1,4-D using the synergistic system containing a reactor with catalysts followed by a reactor with microorganisms.  In a certain embodiment, the system comprises a membrane, a catalyst-precursor medium, a microorganism-enrichment medium, an inoculant comprising a biofilm-forming population of microorganisms, and a hydrogen-gas source along with an oxygen-gas source.</p> <p>Advantages</p> <ul> <li>State-of-the-art technology that removes TCA, TCE 1,4-dioxane which cannot be done solely by chemical or biological processes.</li> <li>Easy yet accurate method of chemical regulation to mitigate these chemical toxins.</li> </ul>
Software Code Fast Computing Gaussian Process Regression Chiwoo Park 20-048 Michael Tentnowski <p>Gaussian Process (GP) regression is a popular Bayesian nonparametric approach for non-liner regression analysis.  It has many useful applications in remote sensing, spatial data analysis, and simulation meta-modeling.  However, its computation is prohibitively expensive when the amount of data is very large.  This software code implements an inexpensive approximate computation algorithm to achieve a Gaussian Process regression solution quickly and accurately.  The name of the approximation algorithm is the Patchwork Kriging.  The inventor developed it in 2019. </p> <p>The Patchwork Kriging involves partitioning the regression input data into multiple local regions with a different local Gaussian Process models that are fitted in each specific region.  Unlike existing local Gaussian Process models, this application introduced a technique which can patch together the local Gaussian Process models nearly seamlessly to ensure that the local Gaussian Process models for two neighboring regions produce nearly the same response prediction and prediction error variance on the boundary between the two regions.  This largely mitigates well known discontinuity problems that tend to degrade the prediction accuracy of existing locally partitioned Gaussian Process methods over regional boundaries. </p> <p>Advantages</p> <ul> <li>Accuracy in estimations</li> <li>Differentiation between neighboring area and their calculations</li> </ul>
Calcium-Resistant Clay-Polymer Liner for Containment of Aggressive Leachates Tarek Abiochou 20-046 Garrett Edmunds <p>There is a need for soil-based liner systems in containment facilities as an alternative to compacted clay liners to control groundwater contamination from leaches.  Geosynthetic Clay Liners (GCL’s) made with bentonite have been widely used in these applications.  However, bentonite only GCL’s are not effective for calcium-rich leachates such as waste from energy power plants, leachates from coal-ash by-products, and leachates from mining operations.</p> <p>The industry has developed “Polymer-Modified” GCL’s containing bentonite and water-soluble polymers.  Some of these new products seem to work only when the ionic strength of the leachates is below a certain value.  These polymers also elute from the GCL (leave the GCL) when permeated with harsher leachates.  This can lead to even higher permeabilities.</p> <p>We have developed a mix of granular bentonite and a specific super-absorbent polymer that can be used to manufacture a new generation of Geosynthetic Clay Liners.  The polymer is resistant to aggressive leachates that are rich in divalent cations.  The polymer used in the new mix design does not elute from the GCL substrate.  Therefore, it maintains low permeability in the long-term.  There is no product currently on the market that can achieve the performance of our new design with this new polymer at its base.</p> <p>Advantages</p> <ul> <li>The polymer is resistant to aggressive leachates that are rich in divalent cations.</li> <li>The polymer used in the new mix design does not elute from the GCL substrate.</li> <li>Therefore, it maintains low permeability in the long-term.</li> </ul>
Nano and Micro-Fiber-Bundle/Matrix Interface Strength Test Method: Custom Batch Sample Manufacturing Mold and Testing Fixture Rebekah Sweat 20-041 Michael Tentnowski <p>Adhesive and surface treatment technologies are crucial for the structural integrity of the composite parts. The interfacial shear strength (IFSS) reflects the load transfer efficiency between reinforcement and matrix. However, no current test can be performed quickly with statistically significant replications. As a solution, this invention embodies a horizontal mold and geometry matched testing fixture for manufacturing samples for the pullout test in large quantity batches. The open-face mold design can accommodate matrices with a wide range of viscosity and solves the problem of testing nanomaterial and micromaterial bundle interfaces using the same pattern. The effectiveness of sample manufacturing made of carbon nanotube (CNT) yarns and IM7 carbon fiber (CF) with three different polymer matrices was demonstrated in this work. The IFSS of each sample were recorded using a conventional tensile machine, and their surface morphology was evaluated with SEM images. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's pairwise comparison tests demonstrated a significant difference in IFSS means when changing matrices on CNT yarn specimens but no statistically significant difference on IM7-CF specimens for the three matrices. This mold is expected to help researchers obtain faster results and study matrices that have not been thoroughly tested.</p> <p>Advantages</p> <p>The interface strength between matrix and reinforcement is challenging to quantify with meaningful statistic and data.  The invention is a horizontal mold and geometry matched fixture for manufacturing samples for the fiber-bundle pullout test in large quantity batches.  The fiber-bundle pullout test is a way to test the novel custom manufacturing mold and matching mechanical test frame fixture.  The invention will manufacture large batches of samples in a wide range of matrix viscosity.  The invention will also be able to test both nanomaterial and micromaterial bundle interfaces using the same mold.  The invention also includes a geometry matched mechanical testing fixture to precisely fit the geometry of the manufactured samples and can be used in virtually any existing mechanical testing load frame.</p>
Multi-Axially Force/Torque Controlled Rating Leg Assembly for Vehicle Drive and Suspension Christian Hubicki 20-009 Michael Tentnowski <p>This device is designed to drive ground vehicles at high speeds and safely over rough and uncertain terrain.  An actuated wheel rotates an arrangement of actuated leg-like contact linkages where both the wheel and each leg mechanism are force/torque controllable at high speeds.  This multi-axial force/torque controllability enables a smooth ride for a mounted vehicle chassis, even over unseen rough terrain and at high speeds.  In effect, a rider on a force-torque controlled vehicle can be made to feel as though they are floating on air, even as the vehicle clamors over rocky ground terrain underneath. </p> <p>Advantages</p> <ul> <li>Applications include better maneuverability for high-speed military vehicles, all-terrain emergency vehicles, medical patient transport, package delivery, and interplanetary exploration.</li> </ul>
Water Purification and Desalination Membrane Justin Kennemur, PhD 20-049 Garrett Edmunds <p><strong>Applications</strong></p> <p>An easily-synthesized and highly-efficient polymer membrane which can be used for water purification and desalination, membrane purification and separation, anti-bacterial coatings, and any industry interested in patterned nanostructures.</p> <p><strong>Key Benefits</strong></p> <ul> <li>A single, well-ordered nanoarray membrane allows simultaneous transport of both positive and negative ions</li> <li>Synthesis utilizes inexpensive and widely available precursors</li> <li>Process is milder than previously created materials</li> </ul> <p><strong>Technical Summary</strong></p> <p>Charged mosaics are polymers with coexisting yet separate domains of positive and negative charges. As a membrane, they have unique transport properties over typical ion exchange membranes composed of one type of single ion conductor used in many nanofiltration processes. This membrane with coexisting zones of polyanions and polycations can produce high salt flux with high rejection of neutral solutes. </p> <p>While these types of membranes have been long known to be technologically valuable, previous syntheses required harsh treatments and economically prohibitive techniques. FSU researchers have developed a new low-cost, mild system that utilizes block copolymer (BCP) self-assembly to synthesize these charge mosaic membranes. The two-step process ensures that reactions occur one domain at a time and maintains integrity of film morphology.</p> <p>An article detailing the innovation was published in <a rel="noopener" href="" target="_blank" title="Macromolecules">Macromolecules</a></p> <p><strong>Inventor Information</strong></p> <p>Dr. Justin G. Kennemur received his PhD in Analytical Polymer Chemistry from North Carolina State University in 2005. His current research <span>seeks to understand how chemical composition and architecture of macromolecules ultimately leads to advanced functionality, chemical recyclability, and self-assembly capabilities. This is done by leveraging physical organic chemistry concepts to develop synthetic techniques in modern polymer chemistry.</span></p> <p> </p> <p> </p> water purification,desalination,nanoparticle,nanofiltration,anti-bacterial,polymer
Therapeutics for Keloids and Other Fibrotic Disorders Akash Gunjan 23-013 Brent Edington <p>Keloids are disfiguring, painful, and itchy, but benign fibrotic skin tumors or lesions characterized by excessive dermal fibroblast proliferation and collagen deposition. They occur in susceptible individuals due to abnormal wound healing. Keloids are understudied, difficult to treat, and predominantly affect dark-skinned individuals. Their incidence is estimated to be as high as 1 in 6 among African Americans, compared to around 1 in 1000 among white Americans, suggesting that genetic and/or epigenetic factors contribute strongly to keloid disease. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in driving keloid formation in susceptible individuals are unclear.</p> <p>Currently there are no standardized treatments available for keloids and they have very high recurrence rates upon surgical resection alone. Intralesional steroids are commonly used, albeit with highly variable responses. Furthermore, although superficial radiation therapy is emerging as one of the most effective post-surgical adjuvant therapies to prevent keloid recurrence, it requires specialized equipment and its association with cancer therapy leads to reluctance among both providers and patients for its use in keloid therapy.</p> <p>Despite advances in medical research, there is still a scarcity of methods and compositions that are effective in the treatment of keloids that do not require specializedequipment and/or trips to a medical facility, as does radiation therapy. Hence, we have applied a multiplatform approach to identify multiple cellular pathways that can be targeted for keloid therapy using combinations of existing FDA approved or preclinical drugs applied topically. These drugs should greatly expand options for keloid therapy, especially through topical application, leading to a more personalized treatment options.</p>
Extending Nanostructured Charge Mosaic Polymeric Membranes to Multiblock Structures Justin Kennemur 23-018 Garrett Edmunds <p>An easily synthesized and highly efficient polymer membrane which can be used for water purification – especially desalination. The manufacturing method can also be used in industries interested in direct patterning of opposite charge polymers, such as nanoparticles, anti-bacterial coatings, and more.</p>
Generation of Extracellular Vesicles from Human Stem Cells in Dynamic Three-dimensional Cultures Yan Li 23-026 Garrett Edmunds <p>A novel stem cell culture method to produce three-dimensional spheroid structures that secrete extracellular vesicles (EVs) with increased yields and cargo capacity. This method unlocks the next-generation of EVs which holds great promise for novel drug delivery methods and cell-free therapeutics.</p>
Force Magnetometer for Reel-to-reel Assessment of Superconducting Tapes Jan Jaroszynski 23-001 Michael Tentnowski <p>An apparatus for critical current assessment in a superconducting tape which is driven by an electric motor.  The current in the motor is proportional to the torque produced by the motor, and the torque needed to move the tape through a magnetic field is proportional to superconducting current induced by a magnetic field.  Superconducting tapes can be used in various applications such as cables, transformers electric motors, and electromagnets.</p>
A Predictive-control based Low-voltage Ride-through Method for Grid-tied Inverter Hui Li 23-005 Michael Tentnowski <p>Two predictive-control based low-voltage ride-through methods for a grid-tied Inverter: a Finite-Control-Set Model-Predictive-Control or FCS-MPC based LVRT method, and a deadbeat control based LVRT method.  Both methods can predict the grid voltage, so no voltage sensor is required.  The control can operate with, or without, a phase-lock-loop.  A significant cost and design complexity reduction on the grid-tied inverter is realized.</p>
Charge Pump Gate Driver Circuit with an Adjustable Pump Voltage for Active DV/DT Control Hui Li 23-006 Michael Tentnowski <p>A charge pump gate driver circuit that provides an adjustable pump voltage level to achieve the active dv/dt control for wide bandgap devices.  The driver circuit has two power supplies, which provides positive and negative reference voltages, two separate charge pump circuits with two capacitors, and a typical totem-pole drive with two decoupling capacitors.  This achieves an online and active dv/dt regulation and eliminates extra power supplies to reduce cost and associated footprint.</p>
Universal Power Electronics Building Block (U-PEBB) Based Delta-Connected Cascade Multilevel Converter Fang Peng 23-030 Michael Tentnowski <p>A multilevel converter consisting of a bi-directional and isolated ac to dc converter module using commercial semiconductor devices.  With a very high-power density, the converter system is configured directly from a medium voltage grid by plug-and-play for solid state transformers to extreme fast charging stations to grid-tied converters that interface with renewable energy, storage elements, static synchronous compensators, and static var compensators. Manufacturing and installation costs are reduced significantly.</p>
A Software-Based Error Compensation Module to Improve 3D Printing Productivity Hui Wang 23-012 Michael Tentnowski <p>This technology is a software-based module that can automatically adjust printing parameters (printing speed, acceleration, and extrusion rate) in the G-codes for 3D printing (fused deposition modeling) eliminate errors when printing at high speed. The purpose of this software is to help increase printing speed without jeopardizing printing quality, thereby improving printing productivity, especially when printing a large structure. This invention can be used by individuals or small manufacturers.</p>
Dual Multilevel Inverter Topology with Reduced Switch Count and Small DC-link Capacitor Jinyeong Moon 21-036 Michael Tentnowski <p>A multilevel inverter topology that provides multilevel operation without a neutral point connection. With no split dc-link capacitors, the neutral point balancing issue is completely eliminated. Instead, the neutral points of the phase-legs are interconnected through a single bidirectional switch. This topology reduces the required number of switches for dual inverter operations. All critical benefits of multilevel operation (e.g., low current total harmonic distortion, low switching loss, low common-mode electromagnetic interference noise, and low motor iron loss) are intact. The topology also offers a reduction in the dc-link capacitance up to 90%. Compared to a dual 2-level inverter, the invention with the same capacitance produces 50% less stress in the capacitor current and 50% less ripple in the capacitor voltage due to the multilevel operation without neutral point connections. The invention enables the same level of ripple performance with only 46% of the capacitance required in the dual 2-level topology leading significant cost and volume reductions.</p>
Career Readiness Modules (ProfessioNole Ready) Kyle Roark 23-016 Michael Tentnowski <p>Career Center's Career Readiness Modules, ProfessioNole Ready, are a series of Canvas modules that students complete at their own pace. These modules can be embedded into an existing class or students can access the modules on their own through the Career Center’s website. At the completion of these modules students earn the Career Center’s ProfessioNole Ready badge. The modules include over 100 pages of content with over 200 embedded videos focusing on career readiness skills. The content of many of the videos in these modules contain interviews with professionals from a variety of fields and hiring managers. In addition, students complete interactive assignments throughout the process to gauge their learning on topics such as professional networking, writing a resume, interviewing, diversity, and inclusion in the workplace, gaining experience, searching for a job, applying to graduate school, and salary negotiations.  I program uses cognitive information processing theory, complements current resources, integrates into existing courses, and is designed to be completed over the course of an entire semester. ProfessioNole Ready is customizable for any university or school’s needs, including logos, colors, and other identifying marks.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Competencies:</strong></p> <p>1.) Critical Thinking &amp; Problem Solving</p> <p>2.) Communication</p> <p>3.) Teamwork &amp; Cross-cultural Collaboration</p> <p>4.) Leadership</p> <p>5.) Professionalism &amp; Ethical Responsibility</p> <p>6.) Career Management</p> <p>7.) Digital Fluency</p> <p>8.) Global Fluency &amp; Social Responsibility</p> <p>9.) Research</p>
Control of Multi-Metallic Ratios in Transition Metal Carbides, Phosphides and Nitrides for Electrocatalytic Reactions Robert Lazenby 23-029, 23-052, 23-053 Garrett Edmunds <p>A series of electrocatalysts which efficiently produce Green Hyrdrogen without using costly ruthenium or iridium catalysts. These earth-abundant based materials have carefully controlled syntheses to maximize catalytic efficiency.</p>
Ship Hull Coating to Prevent Marine Fouling Joseph Schlenoff, PhD 23-042 Garrett Edmunds <p class="lead">Marine fouling costs the shipping industry billions of dollars each year. This tough glass-like coating provides long-lasting protection, unlike potentially toxic gel-like alternatives.</p> <h2>Problem</h2> <p>On ships and in ports around the world, plants, algae, and marine animals such as barnacles find homes on whatever surfaces they can reach, a problem that costs the shipping industry billions of dollars each year. Known as “marine fouling,” these organisms are adapted to living on all manner of surfaces. Marine fouling accumulated on a ship’s hull can increase drag so much that a captain must use up to double the typical amount of fuel to move a ship through the water. Various antifouling coatings already exist, but many of these release toxic chemicals into water that can harm marine organisms. These materials are soft and gel-like, quickly degrading in harsh marine environments.</p> <h2>Solution</h2> <p>This tough coating, a blend of positively and negatively charged polymers called “zwiterglass”, is easily sprayed onto surfaces using water instead of volatile organic solvents. The surface is glassy and hard, with increased durability that provides long-lasting protection against the wear and tear of a marine environment. The high water content of the material prevents waterborne animals from latching onto it they way they would a rock or piece of metal.</p> <ul> <li>Easy spray-on application</li> <li>Long-lasting protection</li> <li>Environmentally friendly</li> <li>Reduce drag and fuel consumption</li> </ul> <h2>Applications</h2> <ul> <li>Shipping Industry</li> <li>Naval Ships</li> <li>Civilian Watercraft</li> <li>Docks and Buoys</li> </ul> antifouling,marine,coating,zwitterglass,polymer
Biaxial Loadcell Actuator for Vacuum Tribometer Joseph Lupton 23-036 Garrett Edmunds <p>Atribometer,an instrument which measuresvalues such ascoefficient of friction, friction force, andwearvolume, between two surfaces in contact makes use of a load head and the use of motors. This technology makes use of a custom biaxial load cell that provides a specific force resolution compatible with the sample selection. The primary advantage is that this system is compact and capable of operating in space environments, because it does not use fluids or rotating parts.</p>
COVIDKG - a Web-scale COVID-19 Interactive, Trustworthy Knowledge Graph Mikhail Gubanov 23-041 Michael Tentnowski <p>COVIDKG (KG) is a technology that can be used to automatically construct and refresh a Scientific Knowledge Graph having all the latest trustworthy, vetted medical information. It can also be used to process vetted data during future pandemics, such as Monkeypox, Polio, Zika, Ebola, or any new virus.</p>
Voltage/Current-sensing-less Short-circuit Protection and Localization Method for Power Devices/Modules Hui Li 23-043 Michael Tentnowski <p>A voltage/current-sensing-less short-circuit (SC) protection for power devices that can identify which device has a SC fault within power modules or converters. It does NOT require sensing voltage or current magnitude of power device to detect and localize the SC fault, therefore it is low cost and enhances the noise immunity and reliability. This method can be applied to all switching power devices including muti-phase converters, modular converters, multilevel converters, and modular multilevel converters.</p>
Blanking-time-less Desaturation Protection Method for Power Devices Hui Li 23-044 Michael Tentnowski <p>A blanking-time-less desaturation protection method for power devices, by which the fault response time is shorter than the blanking time required by the existing protection methods.</p>
Dosing Transcranial Magnetic Brain Stimulation Andrew Kozel & Kevin Johnson 22-046 Brent Edington <p>Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) is a non-invasive method to stimulate the brain, and TMS is FDA cleared for treating depression, OCD and smoking cessation (with many other clinical applications under investigation). Although Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) is a highly effective treatment for patients with difficult to treat depression, improvement in remission rates are critically needed. A fundamental problem is that TMS is dosed over the motor cortex which has an observable functional measure (e.g., finger twitch), however, the treatment is performed over the prefrontal cortex (i.e., no observable change). This nonivasive technology uses functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) integrated with TMS (TMS-fNIRS) to more accurately personalize treatment dosing of TMS over the prefrontal cortex by <u>more accurately calibrating the dose to the prefrontal cortex</u>. This technology adjusts for coil to cortex distance differences, gyrus orientation differences as well as cortical excitability differences between the motor cortex and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. The invention involves placement of fNIRS source/detectors under, around, and contralateral to the TMS coil. Thus, a treater can measure the brain effect of TMS and adjust power ("dose&amp;rdquo;) for individual patients to ensure adequate treatment.</p>
RNA Sensors for Detection and Screening of Antifibrotic Drugs Branko Stefanovic 22-042 Brent Edington <p>5’ stem-loop is unique regulatory element of type I collagen mRNAs which regulates their translation by binding protein LARP6. Drugs that can directly interact with the 5’ stem-loop RNA sequence and interfere with LARP6 recognition can be regarded as truly specific antifibrotic drugs. This invention is to enable screening for such drugs by designing two sensor 5’ stem-loop RNAs which can report drug or protein binding. The sensors are modified by incorporation of a fluorescent nucleotide analog at the critical position in the active site to report the change in fluorescence intensity upon protein or drug binding. Each sensor RNA has only one nucleotide replaced by a fluorescent analog, but they are at different positions in the two sensors so that the sensor RNAs can detect a change in molecular environment at the two positions within the LARP6 recognition site. By measuring the fluorescence intensity of sensors, protein or drug binding to the active site can be detected and quantified. The main application of the sensors is for high throughput screening of compounds that directly interact with 5’ stem-loop RNA, as hits for developing truly specific antifibrotic drugs.</p>
Classical Conditioning of Neuromodulation with Synchronized Musical Stimulation Kevin Johnson, Andrew Kozel, and Jayne Standley 22-027 Brent Edington <p>Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) is a non-invasive neuromodulation treatment method and an FDA-cleared approach to stimulate the brain for treating depression, OCD, and smoking cessation (with many other clinical applications under investigation). A TMS system includes an electric pulse generator or stimulator that is connected to a magnetic coil that is connected to the scalp to generate a varying magnetic field via electromagnetic induction to cause an electric current at a specific area of the brain. TMS over the motor cortex, at sufficient machine power, can cause a thumb/hand movement. TMS treatments are nevertheless cumbersome to perform and are performed by trained technicians in a doctor’s office or clinic. There is a benefit to improving TMS treatments.</p> <p> </p> <p>This innovation is a system to evoke or produce neurostimulation effects through music, using the principles of classical (or Pavlovian) conditioning. In classical conditioning the Unconditioned Stimulus (US) inherently produces an Unconditioned Response (UR); when the US is paired with a Conditioning Stimulus (CS), the CS alone subsequently produces a Conditioned Response (CR) that is similar to the UR. This invention involves a system to pair neurostimulation devices (US) with music (CS), for subsequent presentation of music alone. Neurostimulation may be achieved through invasive devices (e.g. peripheral nerve, spinal cord or brain stimulators) or non-invasive devices (e.g. transcutaneous nerve stimulators, transcranial brain stimulation such as electrical or Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation). Music elements may include speakers for audio output, instruments, somatic or tactile sensory outputs, or visual experiences. Music alone may be initiated "on demand”; or on a time or event-based schedule.</p>
Large Scale Purification of Castanospermine Gary Ostrander & Eric Holmes 20-042 Brent Edington <p>Castanospermine is an alkaloid produced by the <em>Castanospermum australe </em>tree and is enriched in its seeds. Castanospermine is an alpha-glucosidase inhibitor which inhibits glycoprotein processing in mammalian cells by preventing removal of 3-glucose residues linked to a high mannose core structure. This activity of castanospermine has an antiviral effect on many viruses given that many viruses have coat glycoproteins. It has been shown that in many instances misfolded proteins lacking activity occur with castanospermine treatment, thus, castanospermine is apotential anti-viral therapeutic.</p> <p>The method of the invention is a scalable, large-scale castanospermine preparation method from castanospermine-containing plant sources such as <em>Castanospermum austral</em> seed material. The preparation method differs in significant ways from methods for small-scale analytical isolation of castanospermine and is capable of yielding levels of purity greater than 98%.</p>
Two Phase Indicator Displacement Assay Steve Lenhert 22-048 Brent Edington <p>Biosensors are developed with the aim of detecting the presence of a target molecule within a certain solution or medium. Within the past few decades, many biosensors revolve around a design involving supramolecular-based molecular sensors, otherwise known as indicator displacement assays (IDAs). These IDAs generally consist of a supramolecular assembly which includes an optical indicator that is reversibly bound to a synthetic receptor. In the presence of an analyte, the optical indicator will be displaced from the synthetic receptor resulting in an optical signal. These IDAs have proven to have many effective applications in the fields of industrial, agriculture, environmental, and biological sciences. Additionally, Indicator displacement can be used to detect binding in biochemical assays. However, there are still many limitations that need to be surmounted if the full capability of this technique is to be recognized. Some of these limitations include low signal-to-noise ratio and sensitivity of IDAs<sup>6</sup>.</p> <p>Here we describe a new type of displacement assay where the indicator is displaced from one phase into another. We use an organic phase with the indicator dissolved in it and add analyte in a second aqueous phase. This new sensing mechanism is based on analyte partitioning in a two-phased system where the receptor is one of the phases. An indicator what is partitioned into the receptor phase is displaced by an analyte introduced into the aqueous phase leading to label free detection of small molecules. Smaller organic phase droplets allow faster detection, higher sensitivity and lower limits of detection.  </p> <p> The analyte displaces the indicator from the organic phase into the aqueous phase, allowing for analyte detection. We call this new type of displacement assay a partitioning indicator displacement assay (PIDA). The concept of displacement is particularly important in pharmacology, where drug binding proteins in the blood can sequester drugs making them less bioavailable. Understanding displacement is crucial to understanding drug interactions, as taking a second drug can displace the first drug from drug binding proteins leading to toxicity that would not be observed at the dosage of a single drug. This mechanism also has implications in biological systems, where small molecules may be displaced from nonpolar condensates such as lipid bilayers, lipid droplets, or other phase separated compartments.</p> <p>Example of displacement concept.  The blue dye is released as it replaces the red dye associated with a receptor.</p>
Molecular Biomarkers for Predicting Patient Response to Steroid Therapy Akash Gunjan 22-044 Brent Edington <p>Steroids are commonly prescribed medications in the US and around the world. Topical steroids are used extensively to treat a wide range of skin disorders such as psoriasis, eczema and dermatitis, while local steroid injections are a mainline therapy for benign fibrotic skin tumors know as keloids. Additionally, oral steroids are to treat systemic autoimmune conditions, while inhaled steroids serve as the mainline therapy for long-term control of asthma and nasal allergies. However, there is a wide variation in the response of patients to steroid therapy. For example, only about 34% of keloid patients benefit from steroid therapy, while 49% do not respond to it and the remaining 17% of patients actually see a worsening of their symptoms upon steroid therapy. This variability in patients' responses to steroids is likely due to individual differences in the patients’ genetic or epigenetic makeup, although the genes or epigenetic pathways involved have not yet been identified. The highly variable patient responses to steroid therapy highlight the dire need for a screening test to determine patients’ response to steroids prior to initiating therapy.</p> <p>Since all our cells reflect our genetic/epigenetic makeup, they are also potentially capable of accurately reporting our response to steroids. Hence, as long as we can obtain a biopsy sample from patients, we can test them for sensitivity to steroids.  We have identified six genes whose expression patters correlate well with response to steroids and have developed a simple method for screening patients to determine the effects of steroids. This qRT-PCR based molecular test can provide results in a few hours. In the future it may be possible to use an antibody based lateral flow rapid test that can provide results in minutes.</p>
Area Specific Tissue Analysis (ASTA) Sanjay Kumar 22-024 Brent Edington <p>ASTA is a methodology for precision harvesting and processing of tissue from acute brain slices for the purposes of cell and molecular biology/analysis. There are currently no known approaches to sampling tissue from hard-to-reach regions of the brain that has been cut acutely into 100 to 500 microns-thick sections for cell biological analysis.  Laser dissection is inapplicable/inadequate, laser dissection is more suited for a monolayer of cells. ASTA solves this problem by incorporating 1) visually guided core sampling component and 2) a tissue processing component. Together, this methodology enables precision analysis and tracking of cellular and molecular changes across juxtaposed brain regions (nuclei) and lamina allowing for detailed characterization of disease-related pathology.</p>
Tailored Motivational Interviewing Training Sylvie Naar 21-048 Brent Edington <p>An evidence-based training program for a front-line behavioral intervention targeting adolescents and young adults. Includes video examples. Can be used by organizations working with young people around health behaviors (managing medical conditions, substance use, smoking, sexual risk), especially members of ethnic, sexual and gender minorities.</p>
Assays for On-Site Identification of Seafood Prashant Singh 22-053 Brent Edington <p>The FDA's DNA barcoding method is the gold standard method for identifying seafood species. This method involves shipping samples to testing laboratories. The testing can take from 5 – 10 days and cost $100 - $200 per sample. This method is expensive, time-consuming, highly susceptible to tissue contamination during sample collection and provides detailed information regarding fish species. However, those in the wholesale/retail fish market don’t necessarily wants all the information generated by the DNA barcoding, they only care about whether or not the particular seafood species they’ve purchased or are interested in purchasing is the same species as mentioned on the label (a simple yes/ no answer). There is a need in the industry for a low-cost, rapid assay to discern whether a certain sample is the same seafood species as mentioned on the label or not. Furthermore, there is a need for a method that can be performed onsite, at an in-house food processing facility, in a resource limited setting, using a minimally trained labor.</p> <p>Our assay is a method that rapidly determines if a specific food product is present or not, the method comprising: providing a sample comprising at least one target sequence; placing the sample into at least one container; using reagents to amplify a sample; amplifying a sample using a small footprint nucleic acid amplification device, wherein the sample is amplified by exposing it to different sets and types of primers (conventional and rhPCR primers) in conditions suitable for nucleic acid amplification, where each set of primers comprises of a forward and reverse primers; exposing the amplified sequence to a means of detection, wherein the means of detection provides a present/not present result; and identifying whether the food or ingredient is present or not, based on the results.</p>